419 Works

Best practices for autonomous measurement of seawater pH with the Honeywell Durafet.

Bresnahan Jr., Philip J., Todd R. Martz, Yuichiroa Takeshita & Kenneth S Johnson
Performance of autonomous pH sensors is evaluated by comparing in situ data to independent bench-top measurements of pH and to co-located pH, O2, and pCO2 sensors. While the best practice is always to deploy a properly calibrated sensor, the lengthy time period required for sensor conditioning and calibration often results in sensor deployment without comprehensive calibration. Quality control (QC) procedures are examined to determine the errors associated with different in situ calibration approaches and lay...

Protocols for Verifying the Performance of In Situ Chlorophyll Fluorometers.

M. Tamburri
Instrument performance verification is necessary to enable effective existing technologies to be recognized and so that promising new technologies can be made available to support coastal science, resource management and the long-term development of an Integrated Ocean Observing System. The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has therefore been established to provide an unbiased, third party testbed for evaluating new and developing coastal sensors and sensor platforms for use in coastal environments. The following protocols describe...

Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal. Testing manual.

(:Unkn) Unknown
This manual, commonly referred to as the "Green Book," is an update of Ecological Evaluation of Proposed Discharge of Dredged Material into Ocean Waters (EPA/USACE, 1977). The manual contains technical guidance for determining the suitability of dredged material for ocean disposal through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The technical guidance is intended for use by dredging applicants, laboratory scientists, and regulators in evaluating dredged-material compliance with the United States Ocean Dumping Regulations. Integral to the...

Guidelines for the Implementation of Articles 7 and 9 of Annex II to the OSPAR Convention. (Agreement 2012-01).

(:Unkn) Unknown
Procedures and criteria for determining and addressing Force Majeure situations as referred to in Article 7 of Annex II of OSPAR Convention / Procedures and criteria for determining and addressing emergency situations as referred to in Article 9 of Annex II OSPAR Convention. --- Under Article 7 of Annex II of the OSPAR Convention, Annex II does not apply in case of force majeure, due to stress of weather or any other cause, when the...

Protocols for Verifying the Performance of In Situ Salinity Sensors.

T. Johengen
his ACT Technology Evaluation will examine individual sensor performance both in the laboratory and across different field conditions in moored and vertically profiled applications. We will focus specifically on commonly used inductive, conductive, and electrode based conductivity sensors with measuring ranges from 0 - 100 mS/cm. For those instruments that do not internally derive salinity values, we will the use the practical salinity scale approach using the formulas supplied in UNESCO Technical Memo by Fofonoff...

Statistical Considerations for Monitoring and Sampling [Version 1].

S.D Foster, J Monk, E Lawrence, KR Hayes, GR Hosack & R Przeslawski
This chapter will not follow the usual presentation for statistical design in ecology. Rather, we will focus on what we believe to be most important aspects from a practical (and management) viewpoint. We do not intend it to be like a ‘text-book’ and explicitly do not include formulae or descriptions of tangential details. Readers will want to look elsewhere for such detail (Urquhart and Kincaid, 1999; Gitzen et al., 2012; Thompson, 2012, are a good...

Argo Quality Control Manual for CTD and Trajectory Data. Version 3.2. 01 February 2019.

Annie Wong, Robert Keeley & Thierry Carval
A CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) device measures temperature and salinity versus pressure. This document is the Argo quality control manual for CTD and trajectory data. It describes two levels of quality control: - The first level is the real-time system that performs a set of agreed automatic checks. - The second level of quality control is the delayed-mode system. These quality control procedures are applied to the parameters JULD, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, PRES, TEMP, PSAL, and...

Argo Quality Control Manual for CTD and Trajectory Data, Version 3.1,16 January 2018. [SUPERCEDED]

Annie Wong, Robert Keeley & Thierry Carval
A CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) device measures temperature and salinity versus pressure. This document is the Argo quality control manual for CTD and trajectory data. It describes two levels of quality control: - The first level is the real-time system that performs a set of agreed automatic checks. - The second level of quality control is the delayed-mode system. These quality control procedures are applied to the parameters JULD, LATITUDE, LONGITUDE, PRES, TEMP, PSAL, and...

Quality Assurance of Real-Time Oceanographic Data QARTOD IV – Final Report Fourth Workshop on the QC/QA of Real-Time Data.

(:Unkn) Unknown
QARTOD is a continuing multi-agency effort formed to address the quality assurance and quality control issues of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) community. The first workshop was held at the NOAA NDBC office in Bay St. Louis, MS in the winter of 2003. Over 80 participants attended with the primary task of developing minimum standards for calibration, quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) methods, and metadata. The workshop resulted in a report that...

OceanSITES Data Format Reference Manual NetCDF Conventions and Reference Tables. Version 1.3. January 12, 2015.

(:Unkn) Unknown
The main purpose of this document is to specify the format of the files that are used to distribute OceanSITES data, and to document the standards used therein. This includes naming conventions, or taxonomy, as well as metadata content.Intended users are OceanSITES data providers and users of OceanSITES data. OceanSITES uses NetCDF (Network Common Data Form),a set of software libraries and machine-independent data formats. Our implementation of NetCDF isbased on the community-supported Climate and Forecast...

IOCCP-JAMSTEC 2015 Inter-Laboratory Calibration Exercise of a Certified Reference Material for Nutrients in Seawater. Version 1.2.

M. Aoyama & Et Al
The objective of this inter-laboratory calibration exercise is to evaluate and improve comparability of global nutrients data in the world ocean. IOCCP and JAMSTEC co-organized an inter-laboratory calibration exercise of nutrients in seawater using four lots of recently certified RM produced by KANSO and three CRMs provided by National Metrology Institute of Japan which are certified in Marine 2014. 71 laboratories in 28 countries had replied to the call for participants. Results were returned from...

Guidelines for Measuring Changes in Seawater pH and Associated Carbonate Chemistry in Coastal Environments of the Eastern United States.

Adam R. Pimenta & Jason S. Grear
These guidelines are written for a variety of audiences ranging from shellfish growers interested in monitoring pH with inexpensive equipment to citizen monitoring groups to advanced chemistry laboratories interested in expanding existing capabilities. The purpose is to give an overview of available sampling, analytical and data reporting approaches that will contribute to the usefulness of coastal acidification measurements for both the needs of those intending to monitor as well as those of other interested stakeholders...

Best Practices for the SeaFET™ V2: Optimizing pH Data Quality.

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The SeaFET™ V2 is an upgrade to the Satlantic SeaFET™ pH sensor. It incorporates the same housing and DuraFET as the original SeaFET™ with improved electronics and new operating characteristics for enhanced stability and reliability in long-term deployments. As with the original SeaFET™, an SBE 37-SMP-ODO CTD can be integrated with the SeaFET™ V2 to operate as a SeapHOx™ V2, adding a pumped anti-foul flow path and CTD data corrections to pH data. Accordingly, the...

An evaluation of the performance of Sea-Bird Scientific’s SeaFET™ autonomous pH sensor: considerations for the broader oceanographic community.

Cale A. Miller, Katie Pocock, Wiley Evans & Amanda L. Kelley
The commercially available Sea-Bird SeaFET™ provides an accessible way for a broad community of researchers to study ocean acidification and obtain robust measurements of seawater pH via the use of an in situ autonomous sensor. There are pitfalls, however, that have been detailed in previous best practices for sensor care, deployment, and data handling. Here, we took advantage of two distinctly different coastal settings to evaluate the Sea-Bird SeaFET™ and examine the multitude of scenarios...

Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement – Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments.

J. B. R. Matthews
Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods....

Use of, Satisfaction with, and Requirements for In-Situ Turbidity Sensors.

(:Unkn) Unknown
This study was conducted for the Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) to gather data about the use of in-situ turbidity sensors. The study entailed a telephone survey of professionals in the coastal resources field, such as biologists, researchers, and coastal managers, who are currently involved in measuring turbidity in coastal and near-coastal waters. The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by Responsive Management and the ACT. Responsive Management conducted a pre-test of the questionnaire, and...

Plankton Biomass Models Based on GIS and Remote Sensing Technique for Predicting Marine Megafauna Hotspots in the Solor Waters. [ Presented at 2nd International Conference of Indonesian Society for Remote Sensing (ICOIRS) 2016].

M.I.H Putra, S.A. Lewis, E.M. Kurniasih, D. Prabuning & E. Faiqoh
Geographic information system and remote sensing techniques can be used to assist with distribution modelling; a useful tool that helps with strategic design and management plans for MPAs. This study built a pilot model of plankton biomass and distribution in the waters off Solor and Lembata, and is the first study to identify marine megafauna foraging areas in the region. Forty-three samples of zooplankton were collected every 4 km according to the range time and...

Ocean acidification studies and the uncertainties relevance on measurements of marine carbonate system properties.

Adriana Rodrigues Perretti, Ana Cecília Rizzatti De Albergaria-Barbosa, Rodrigo Kerr & Leticia Cotrim Da Cunha
The global ocean has a key role on the Earth's climate system. It possesses a direct connection with the atmospheric gases, including the greenhouses, allowing exchanges between those compartments and oceanic storage of carbon. Through the years, this exchange of gases occurred based on gas equilibrium between ocean and atmosphere. After the Industrial Revolution, human activities have increased the emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), which changed the atmospheric concentration from ~280 ppm...

Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: Oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: Overview.

R. Feistel, R. Wielgosz, S.A. Bell, M. F. Camões, J. R. Cooper, P. Dexter, A. G. Dickson, P. Fisicaro, A. H. Harvey, M. Heinonen, O. Hellmuth, H. J. Kretzschmar, J. W. Lovell-Smith, T. J. McDougall, R. Pawlowicz, Ridout, P.,, S. Seitz, P. Spitzer, D. Stoica & H. Wolf
Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest “greenhouse” gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of...

National Reference Stations Biogeochemical Operations Manual Version 3.2.1.

(:Unkn) Unknown
This manual outlines best-practice techniques in biogeochemical and blue-water oceanography for ensuring the output of reliable, quality data to the end-user community. The aim is for sampling, analytical, and reporting standards to be at least equivalent to: the WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) and JGOFS (Joint Global Ocean Flux Study) studies.

Remote sensing of ocean colour in coastal, and other optically-complex, waters.

(:Unkn) Unknown
As we understand more about the optical properties of aquatic substances and their influences on ocean colour, it became possible to envisage the use of ocean-colour data to retrieve information on substances other than phytoplankton, or even to distinguish between some types of phytoplankton under favourable conditions. Ocean colour sensors are being developed with better spectral resolution, improved calibration, and higher signal-to-noise ratio. New algorithms have emerged in parallel, to address the new challenges. There...

Chemical measurements in the Baltic Sea: guidelines on quality assurance.

(:Unkn) Unknown
This document provides an introduction to quality issues, in general, and quality assurance in Baltic marine monitoring laboratories, in particular. The guidelines are intended to assist laboratories in starting up and operating their quality assurance systems. For laboratories with existing quality systems, the guidelines may give inspiration for issues that can be improved. The guidelines contain information for all levels of staff in the marine laboratory. Sections 1, 2, 3, and 6 together with Annexes...

Guidelines for reporting ocean acidification data in scientific journals. Version 1.1, 2015-03-06b.

Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Hernan Garcia, Clara J. M. Hoppe, James Orr, Hans-Otto Pörtner & Yan Yang
This document was prepared in the framework of the data management activity of the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre of the International Atomic Energy Agency (OAICC; www.iaea.org/ocean-acidification). Please contact the first author (gattuso@obs-vlfr.fr) in case of any error or omission. It is primarily based on Dickson et al. (2007), Dickson (2010), Nisumaa et al. (2010), Pesant et al. (2010), Pörtner et al. (2010) and Orr et al. (2015). To ensure reproducibility, it is critical to...

Sea surface salinity quality control processes for potential use on data buoy observations. Version 1.3.

(:Unkn) Unknown
This document will aim to provide processes and approaches to real-time and delayed mode quality control of Sea Surface Salinity data, for review by the DBCP community. This document aims to bring together the best practice and suggested approaches to quality controlling salinity data from various programmes and for several different types of observing platforms. Once the DBCP has ascertained which processes apply to drifting and moored buoys, the appropriate tests and procedures can be...

Sampling and Sample-handling Protocols for GEOTRACES Cruises. Version 3, August 2017.

Gregory Cutter, Karen Casciotti, Peter Croot, Walter Geibert, Lars-Eric Heimbürger, Maeve Lohan, Hélène Planquette & Tina Van De Flierdt
The GEOTRACES Standards and Intercalibration (S&I) Committee is charged with ensuring that the data generated during GEOTRACES are as precise and accurate as possible, which includes all the steps from sampling to analysis. Thus, sampling methods for dissolved and particulate constituents must take a representative (of the water depth/water mass) and uncontaminated sample, the samples must be stored (or immediately analyzed) in a fashion that preserves the concentrations (activities) and chemical speciation, and the analyses...

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