494 Works

Evaluation of an acoustic remote sensing method for frontal-zone studies using double-diffusive instability microstructure data and density interface data from intrusions.

Timothy F. Duda, Andone C. Lavery & Cynthia J. Sellers
Understanding intrusive exchange at oceanic water mass fronts may depend on building data-constrained models of the processes, but obtaining the needed representative and comprehensive data is challenging. Acoustic imaging (remote sensing) is an attractive method for mapping the three-dimensional intrusion geometry to enable the required focused in situ sampling of the mixing processes in intrusions. The method depends on backscatter of sound from sharp interfaces and from microstructure resulting from double-diffusive instability (DDI), a probable...

OGC Sensor Observation Service Interface Standard, Version 2.0.

(:Unkn) Unknown
The SOS standard is applicable to use cases in which sensor data needs to be managed in an interoperable way. This standard defines a Web service interface which allows querying observations, sensor metadata, as well as representations of observed features. Further, this standard defines means to register new sensors and to remove existing ones. Also, it defines operations to insert new sensor observations. This standard defines this functionality in a binding independent way; two bindings...

Critical considerations for the application of environmental DNA methods to detect aquatic species.

Caren S. Goldberg, Cameron R. Turner, Kristy Deiner, Katy E. Klymus, Philip Francis Thomsen, Melanie A. Murphy, Stephen F. Spear, Anna McKee, Sara J. Oyler‐McCance, Robert Scott Cornman, Matthew B. Laramie, Andrew R. Mahon, Richard F. Lance, David S. Pilliod, Katherine M. Strickler, Lisette P. Waits, Alexander K. Fremier, Teruhiko Takahara, Jelger E. Herder & Pierre Taberlet
1. Species detection using environmental DNA (eDNA) has tremendous potential for contributing to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of aquatic species. Detecting species using eDNA methods, rather than directly sampling the organisms, can reduce impacts on sensitive species and increase the power of field surveys for rare and elusive species. The sensitivity of eDNA methods, however, requires a heightened awareness and attention to quality assurance and quality control protocols. Additionally, the interpretation of...

Good Practice Guide for Improving Accuracy of Dissolved Oxygen Measurements.

Teemu Näykki, Lauri Jalukse, Irja Helm & Ivo Leito
Dissolved oxygen concentration is a key parameter for characterizing natural and wastewaters and for assessing the global state of the environment in general. The decrease of dissolved oxygen levels in the world’s oceans, which is becoming increasingly obvious, is expected to have an impact on the whole ecosystem of the Earth, including the carbon cycle, the climate, etc. Dissolved oxygen measurements by sensors are often deemed easy measurements by routine laboratories. In reality, the physical...

Ocean Colour Remote Sensing in Polar Seas.

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Accelerating climate change calls for a vastly improved understanding of the polar ecosystems based on an intensive observation program. In situ observations from ships are, however, inherently sparse in space and time, especially in the harsh and inaccessible Arctic Ocean. Ocean colour remote sensing offers one of the most appropriate tools to extensively monitor marine ecosystems, as it can provide recurrent pan-Arctic and pan-Antarctic observations at relatively low cost. The use of ocean colour remote...

Evaluating the performance of methods for estimating the abundance of rapidly declining coastal shark populations.

Douglas J. Macauley, Kevin A. Mclean, John Bauer, Hillary S. Young & Fiorenza Micheli
Accurately surveying shark populations is critical to monitoring precipitous ongoing declines in shark abundance and interpreting the effects that these reductions are having on ecosystems. To evaluate the effectiveness of existing survey tools, we used field trials and computer simulations to critically examine the operation of four common methods for counting coastal sharks: stationary point counts, belt transects, video surveys, and mark and recapture abundance estimators. Empirical and theoretical results suggest that (1) survey method...

Technical Note: Animal-borne CTD-Satellite Relay Data Loggers for real-time oceanographic data collection.

L. Boehme, P. Lovell, M. Biuw, F. Roquet, J. Nicholson, S. E. Thorpe, M. P. Meredith & M. Fedak
The increasing need for continuous monitoring of the world oceans has stimulated the development of a range of autonomous sampling platforms. One novel addition to these approaches is a small, relatively inexpensive data- relaying device that can be deployed on marine mammals to provide vertical oceanographic profiles throughout the up- per 2000 m of the water column. When an animal dives, the CTD-Satellite Relay Data Logger (CTD-SRDL) records ver- tical profiles of temperature, conductivity and...

IOCCP-JAMSTEC 2015 Inter-Laboratory Calibration Exercise of a Certified Reference Material for Nutrients in Seawater. Version 1.2.

M. Aoyama & Et Al
The objective of this inter-laboratory calibration exercise is to evaluate and improve comparability of global nutrients data in the world ocean. IOCCP and JAMSTEC co-organized an inter-laboratory calibration exercise of nutrients in seawater using four lots of recently certified RM produced by KANSO and three CRMs provided by National Metrology Institute of Japan which are certified in Marine 2014. 71 laboratories in 28 countries had replied to the call for participants. Results were returned from...

Performance Verification Statement for the Chelsea AQUAtracka III fluorometer.

M. Carroll, D. Chigounis, S. Gilbert, K. Gundersen, K. Hayashi, C. Janzen, T. Johengen, T. Koles, F. Laurier, T. McKissack, L. Meadows, C. Metcalfe, C. Robertson, D. Schar, J. Seiter, G.J. Smith, M. Tamburri & D. Wells
Instrument performance verification is necessary so that effective existing technologies can be recognized and so that promising new technologies can become available to support coastal science, resource management, and ocean observing systems. The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has therefore completed an evaluation of in situ fluorometers designed for measuring chlorophyll. Chlorophyll measurements are widely used by resource managers and researchers to estimate phytoplankton abundance and distribution. Chlorophyll is also the most important light-capturing molecule...

Performance Verification Statement for the Sunburst SAMI-pH Sensor.

T. Johengen, G.J. Smith, D. Schar, M. Atkinson, H. Purcell, D. Loewensteiner, Z. Epperson & M. Tamburri
The Alliance for Coastal Technology (ACT) conducted a sensor verification study of in situ pH sensors during 2013 and 2014 to characterize performance measures of accuracy and reliability in a series of controlled laboratory studies and field mooring tests in diverse coastal environments. A ten week long laboratory study was conducted at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology and involved week long exposures at a full range of temperature and salinity conditions. Tests were conducted...

Specifications for a European FerryBox data management system. WP5.3, D5.3. Version 1.1.

Johanna Linders
Today observational data from FerryBoxes in both near real time and delayed mode is collected and stored by different data providers. The stored data may differ in both format and in quality controls performed. Some of the observations are made public and shared with open access, others are not. It is time-consuming for the users to visit different sites/data bases from different data providers and also complicated if the data offered is in different formats....

Guidelines for Measuring Changes in Seawater pH and Associated Carbonate Chemistry in Coastal Environments of the Eastern United States.

Adam R. Pimenta & Jason S. Grear
These guidelines are written for a variety of audiences ranging from shellfish growers interested in monitoring pH with inexpensive equipment to citizen monitoring groups to advanced chemistry laboratories interested in expanding existing capabilities. The purpose is to give an overview of available sampling, analytical and data reporting approaches that will contribute to the usefulness of coastal acidification measurements for both the needs of those intending to monitor as well as those of other interested stakeholders...

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Good Practice Guidance for Oil and Gas Operations in Marine Environments.

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Our oceans produce more than half of the oxygen in our atmosphere, as well as absorbing carbon. Over three billion people depend on marine resources for food, and the coastal environment supports the livelihoods of more than 200 million people. Marine habitats make a vital contribution to biodiversity and ecosystem services, but are facing growing threats from pollution and infrastructure development. As energy demands rise, oil and gas companies are focusing increasingly on offshore reserves,...

Genomics in marine monitoring: New opportunities for assessing marine health status.

Sarah J. Bourlat, Angel Borja, Jack Gilbert, Martin I. Taylor, Neil Davies, Stephen B. Weisberg, John F. Griffith, Teresa Lettieri, Dawn Field, John Benzie, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Daniel P. Faith, Tim P. Bean & Matthias Obst
This viewpoint paper explores the potential of genomics technology to provide accurate, rapid, and cost efficient observations of the marine environment. The use of such approaches in next generation marine monitoring programs will help achieve the goals of marine legislation implemented world-wide. Genomic methods can yield faster results from monitoring, easier and more reliable taxonomic identification, as well as quicker and better assessment of the environmental status of marine waters. A summary of genomic methods...

Performance Verification Statement for the Chelsea UviLux Hydrocarbon and CDOM Fluorometers.

T. Johengen, G.J. Smith, H. Purcell, S. Loranger, S. Gilbert, T. Maurer, K. Gundersen, C. Robertson & M. Tamburri
Instrument performance verification is necessary so that effective existing technologies can be recognized, and so that promising new technologies can become available to support coastal science, resource management, and ocean observing systems. The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has therefore completed an evaluation of commercially available in situ hydrocarbon sensors. This verification included test applications for: (1) controlled laboratory tanks with additions of various organic, fluorescent compounds, (2) experimental wave tank with additions of two...

In situ quantification of ultra-low O2 concentrations in oxygen minimum zones: Application of novel optodes.

M. Larsen, P. Lehner, S.M. Borisov, I. Klimant, J.P. Fischer, F.J. Stewart, D.E. Canfield & R.N. Glud
Conventional sensors for the quantification of O2 availability in aquatic environments typically have limits of detection (LOD) of  > 1 μmol L−1 and do not have sufficient resolution to reliably measure concentrations in strongly O2 depleted environments. We present a novel trace optical sensor based on the palladium(II)‐benzoporphyrin luminophore, immobilized in a perfluorinated matrix with high O2 permeability. The trace sensor has a detection limit of ∼5 nmol L−1 with a dynamic range extending up to...

Biological effects of contaminants: Assessing DNA damage in marine species through single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

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Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet) assay allows quantification of DNA damage in individual cells and is an ideal tool for use within biological monitoring programmes. Comet assay can be used on a range of cell types including somatic, re- productive (gametes) or circulatory cells in many different species including both marine bivalves and flatfish. The assay can be employed with simple equipment available in most laboratories, is sensitive to environmentally relevant levels of...

Oyster embryo-larval bioassay (revised).

Dean Leverett & John Thain
The description of the oyster (Crassostrea gigas) embryo bioassay was initially published in the ICES TIMES series in 1991 (No.11). At the time, the bioassay was used in the United Kingdom for measuring water quality in relation to coastal waters which received anthropogenic discharges. Subsequently it was applied to measure general water quality and was taken up by the OSPAR Joint Assessment Monitoring Plan (JAMP) as a technique for measuring general biological effects in water,...

Standard Operating Procedure: Salinities.

Matt Geldart
This Procedure document details all procedures regarding salinities within Marine Scotland – Science: Water samples received are analysed by operation of a Guildline Portasal Salinometer Model 8410A. The salinometer is designed to make precision conductivity comparisons between an unknown water sample and a reference sample. The results can be displayed as either Conductivity Ratio or Practical Salinity Units. Marine Scotland records PSU.

Trace metals in sea water: Sampling and storage methods.

P. A. Yeats
Sampling procedures for dissolved trace metals in sea water have progressed to the extent that it is now possible to describe reliable methods for the collection, preservation, and storage of seawater samples. A review of the sampling methods being used for trace metals in sea water has recently been produced (Berman and Yeats, 1985). The accumulated experience of a number of workers in the field as well as the results from several intercalibration exercises run...

Evaluation of Compliance Tools Using Variable Fluorescence Fluorometry to Detect Living Organisms in Ballast Water: A Test Protocol for Collecting Measurements

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In an effort to mitigate the risk of transporting aquatic nuisance species, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) has finalized a rule limiting the concentrations of organisms in ships’ ballast water discharged into US Ports (US Coast Guard 2012). The specified concentrations reflect those in the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) convention (IMO, 2004). Further, the limits are incorporated into the Vessel General Permit (VGP)—a set of guidelines on a suite of vessel operations (including the...

OceanScope: a Proposed Partnership between the Maritime Industries and the Ocean Observing Community to Monitor the Global Ocean Water Column. Report of SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 133.

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The ocean plays an absolutely central role in the Earth’s climate and ecosystems. Despite its widely acknowledged importance, the interior of the ocean continues to be seriously under-sampled due to its global scale, the lack of resources commensurate to the task, and the technical challenges presented by the marine environment. While satellites routinely scan the state of the sea surface (when cloud cover permits), high resolution in situ data are essential to extend the scientific...

Cross-border cooperation in Maritime Spatial Planning . Final Report.

Gonçalo Carneiro, Hannah Thomas, Stephen Olsen, Dominique Benzaken, Steve Fletcher, Sara Méndez Roldán & Damon Stanwell-Smith
The ‘Study on International Best Practices for Cross-Border MSP’ has been designed to assist the European Commission (EC) and Member States in the implementation of the MSP Directive through the identification of good practices of MSP, with a particular focus on cross-border cooperation; and to elaborate recommendations that can support the promotion and exchange of MSP at the international level, relevant to the implementation of the EC International Ocean Governance Agenda. Over the last few...

Argo User’s Manual Version 3.2, September 11th 2017.

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This document is the Argo data user’s manual. It contains the description of the formats and files produced by the Argo Data Assembly Centres (DACs).

Guide to Marine Meteorological Services. 2017 edition.

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The internationally agreed methods of providing services to the marine community around the world are described in the Manual on Marine Meteorological Services (WMO-No. 558). The purpose of this Guide is to complement the Manual by: (a) Describing the requirements for the various types of service; (b) Explaining the rationale for the agreed methods of providing services; and, (c) Giving guidance on how to go about setting up and maintaining marine meteorological services. It follows...

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