238 Works

‘Remembering Our First TV Set’

Cecilia Penati
Personal memories represent a crucial source in outlining a history of television audience. However, they are undoubtedly special historical tools, and their interpretation requires particular cares and concerns. Relying on interviews leaded on direct witnesses, the paper describes the advent of television in the private space of the home in the mid fifties in Italy, comparing personal memories with the interpretative repertoires filtered down by the popular media system. The paper also tries to add...

Bury my bones but keep my words

S. Mshaï Mwangola
The author’s experiences preparing and presenting at the 2013 (Nairobi, Kenya) and 2015 (Brussels, Belgium) SOIMA conferences form the basis for this reflection on the work of custodians safeguarding the sound and image heritage of the past. Drawing inspiration from the artistic reflections of acclaimed master poet Ko Awonoor and accomplished writer Yvonne Owuor on death and life viewed through the prism of the dirge singer, the paper explores what it means to be a...

From PSB to Privatisation

Theodora Maniou
In Cyprus the historical evolution of television follows the country's turbulent political history, while clearly depicts the political system's vulnerabilities. This article presents a historical overview of the historical evolution of television in Cyprus, in accordance to the specific historical artefacts that generated a series of disadvantages still reflecting upon private broadcasting. The aim of the article is to present the interrelation between private broadcasting and politics and its current aftermath in Cyprus. Through a...

Mapping Europe

Mari Pajala
The Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst the European map was rarely used during the first decades of the ESC, it became a central visual element of the show in the...

What Is Not in the Archive

Jasmijn Van Gorp & Rosita Kiewik
This article discusses the pedagogy and outcome of a new assignment we introduced in the course ‘Television History Online’ at Utrecht University. We assigned the students the task to build a canon of a genre of Dutch television and create a video poster on the EUscreen portal consisting of clips that represent part of their canon. In our pedagogy, we argue that it is important to draw students’ attention to what is missing in the...

Tom Swift’s Three Inventions of Television: Media History and the Technological Imaginary

Doron Galili
This article draws on fictional depiction of television in three novels in the Tom Swift series of boys' books, published in 1914, 1928, and 1933, in attempt to come to terms with different aspects of what sociologist of technology call the “technological imaginary” of television. As the novels’ depictions of the various television inventions demonstrate, the period of the first decades of the twentieth century was typified by a great deal of permutations in the...

Editorial

Andy O'Dwyer & Tim O'Sulivan
We know little about the ‘behind the scenes’ of television. While the booming field of production studies has been shining a light on the work processes and the personnel in production spaces, there is still a lot to be learnt about the ‘hidden’ professions of television. This issue of VIEW provides a rich but fairly eclectic series of contributions based on the theme.

Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture

Zrinjka Peruško & Antonija Čuvalo
This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic...

Intertwining spheres

Renee Winter
Public audiovisual archives like the Österreichische Mediathek (Austrian National Audiovisual Archive) have long been concerned with documenting the political as well as the cultural public sphere. National and international efforts have worked to collect and preserve historic film documents from the private sphere. An ongoing Österreichische Mediathek project addresses a source typically viewed as marginal: private video sources from the 1980s and 1990s. The challenges are not only to develop a collection and archiving strategy...

Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

Vanessa Jackson
In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine...

Digitising Context

Andy O’Dwyer
The BBC is placing online their complete TV and radio schedule information going back to the formation of the BBC in 1922. For the very first time, the public, students and academics will be available to browse through detailed information on the BBC's broadcasting history. This has been made possible by a large scanning project of the BBC's programme guide magazine, the Radio Times. Over eighty years of programme information has been scanned, digitised and...

Great Escapes from the Past

Andreas Widholm
Over the last couple of decades, Europe has undergone fundamental political transformations that have challenged old stereotypes about the ‘essence’ of the European identity. This article analyses televisual narratives of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, turning the analytical spotlight on two of Europe’s largest news broadcasters: BBC World and Euronews. The article focuses on how Europe is remembered in the news, but also how references to the past are used to explain what...

Editorial

Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano, Andrea Esser & John Ellis
Editorial to the issue on "TV Formats and Format Research: Theory, methodology, history and new developments." During the last 15 years format research has grown into a notable, distinct field of academic investigation alongside the dramatic expansion of the trade in TV formats. This special issue of VIEW builds on existing format scholarship to deepen our understanding of the history and the continuing growth of the TV format business from a European perspective

Transforming 'Female' Programmes

Cecilia Penati
Contemporary Italian digital channels explicitly targeting women (such as Real Time, Lei, Fox Life, La5, and La7d) represent a privileged observatory for some general trends in the international circulation of content and incorporation of foreign formats into national television (TV). In fact, their schedules rely heavily on the genre of factual entertainment, which was first devised and used in international contexts, such as the UK and the US, and only in the second phase was...

Spain Was Not Living a Celebration

Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
Franco’s Dictatorship (1939-1975) used Spanish Television (TVE) as a key element in the political propaganda of its apparent ‘openness’ during the 1960s. The propaganda co-existed with political interest in showing the technological development of the media and the international co-operation established with other European broadcasters, mainly in the EBU. In a country ruled by strong political censorship, the Eurovision Song Contest was used as a political tool to show the most amiable image of the...

Crossroads. Life Changing Stories from the Second World War

Moniek Hover & Licia Calvi
Crossroads is the name of the concept that narratively connects several WWII-related cultural institutions in Brabant. We were initially looking for ways to connect 4 otherwise very diverse World War II-related institutions (in fact, 3 museums and a commemoration centre) and we found it in this overarching paradigm. Crossroads does not require museums to share their collection items. It offers them instead a tool to build and offer visitors a cohesive experience related to WWII...

Whatever Happened to Vera?

Jo Henderson
The road to technological progress is littered with unsuccessful prototypes and their inventors, and in British television there is perhaps no better example than John Logie Baird, universally recognised as the inventor of the technology, but not the successful business model. Another casualty is the Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus (VERA), less well known than Baird’s invention but a technology developed by the BBC Design Unit that has the potential to change the production and working...

Compiling European Immigration History

Andrea Meuzelaar
Today television's reliance on archival footage seems to be intensifying due to the increased accessibility of European broadcast archives and the increased amount of available digitized broadcast material. In this article, the author reflects on television's convention to compile stories from archival material by presenting a case-study of a recently broadcast Dutch television series Land of Promise (2014). This series narrates the history of European post-war immigration, and is constructed from archival material from various...

Intervision

Yulia Yurtaeva
The research on the “Intervision”, used as an empiric case study about the inter-cultural communication between its participants, consists of examining primary sources spread over several archives throughout Europe to collect structural and administrative data, making interviews with contemporary witnesses and evaluating statistics – with mainly the task to widen the perspective on a subject, that was formerly nation-focused or being described with a Western view only. As the preliminary steps of a basic study...

Memory, Television and the Making of the BBC’s 'The Story Of Wales'

Steve Blandford & Ruth McElroy
The production of television history programming is a rich site for examining the dynamic relationship between history and memory. This article approaches these dynamics through original, empirical research of a specific case study, BBC Wales’ The Story of Wales (Green Bay for BBC Wales 2012). It analyses the commissioning, production and presentation of a landmark national history programme within the specific context of a small nation (Wales) and provides insights into how television intervenes in...

The Golden Stag Festival In Ceausescu’s Romania (1968-1971)

Alexandru Matei
After his appointment as leader of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965, Ceausescu was very interested in gathering popular support for his economic plans. It was in this context that Romanian television could contribute for a short while to a liberalization of Romanian mass culture by means of cultural and entertainment programmes. Between 1968 and 1972, Romanian television (TVR) organized the international pop music festival ‘Cerbul de Aur’ (the Golden Stag), which brought together some...

East Meets West

Elza Ibroscheva & Maria Raicheva-Stover
This study provides a glimpse into the cultural history of this popular medium for the period 1944-2016. From the “golden age” of communist era television during which TV was hailed as a main cultural force for education and entertainment and simultaneously taunted as a tool of propaganda, censorship and political control, we will trace the unprecedented “boom” in commercial TV channels at the offset of the transition, with its often questionable quality, leading to the...

Televisual Satire in the Age of Glocalization

Ivo Nieuwenhuis
This article analyses the highly popular Dutch satirical TV-show Zondag met Lubach (ZML) from the perspective of ‘glocalization.’ This places the show both within the global tradition of late-night satire, originating in the United States, and in the local Dutch tradition of satirical TV. A general overview of these traditions is followed by a close reading of one ZML segment, which is then compared to the American show Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. This...

Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

Luca Barra
With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely...

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