238 Works

In-Vision Continuity Announcers: Performing an Identity for Early Television in Europe

Sonja De Leeuw & Mustata Mustata
In-vision continuity announcers have played central – yet understudied – roles in early television history. Through their performances on and off the screen, they mediated the identity of the televisual medium in the 1950s and 1960s, popularizing it as a medium of sound and vision, a domestic and gendered medium as well as a national and transnational institution. Focusing primarily on Dutch and Romanian female in-vision continuity announcers in the 1950s and 60s and making...

Towards A New Digital Historicism?

Andreas Fickers
This article argues that the contemporary hype in digitization and dissemination of our cultural heritage – especially of audiovisual sources – is comparable to the boom of critical source editions in the late 19th century. But while the dramatic rise of accessibility to and availability of sources in the 19th century went hand in hand with the development of new scholarly skills of source interpretation and was paralleled by the institutionalization of history as an...

Looking for What You Are Looking for

Jasmijn Van Gorp
In this essay, the author reflects on her first search with the online search system of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision. It was part of a pilot study on how media researchers use the audiovisual archive. Consequently, her search was being logged, video taped and sound recorded, she had to 'think aloud', and all of this in presence of a fellow researcher from computer sciences who observed her search behaviour. By showing how...

Crossing the Theory-Practice Divide

Willemien Sanders, Daniel Everts & Bonnie Van Vught
Scholars are increasingly expected to share their knowledge through different media besides the written publication but struggle to do so. How might they teach their students the skills to do so? This article argues that Practice as Research, developed by practitioners venturing into academia, provides a useful framework to shape research outcomes into, for instance, video essays or interactive narratives. It is especially valuable to undergraduate students aiming to increase their knowledge and understanding of...

Why Digitise Historical Television?

John Ellis
Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

Zen And The Art Of Adaptation

Jerem Strong
This article arises from a 2011 interview with producer Andy Harries. Earlier that year the BBC had aired three ninety-minute adaptations of the detective novels by Michael Dibdin featuring the character Aurelio Zen. The interview and subsequent article focus on the process by which the novels were chosen, the intended audience, casting, international co-financing, changes between page and screen, and the adaptations’ relationship to other texts - notably Wallander - also produced by Harries.

Authorship, Autobiography and the Archive

Paul Kerr
In 2004, documentary theorist Michael Renov described ‘the recent turn to filmic autobiography’ as ‘the defining trend of “post-verite” documentary practice...’ In 2008 Renov went further still, suggesting that ‘the very idea of autobiography challenges/reinvents the VERY IDEA of documentary.’ Archive based autobiographical filmmaking, meanwhile, is even more problematic for documentary theory. Indeed, a number of recent documentaries, because of their status somewhere in the spectrum between biography and autobiography, have prompted the construction of...

Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

Vanessa Jackson
In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine...

‘The growing practice of calling in continental film groups’

Alison Jane Payne
While the development of commercial television advertising in Britain is often framed in the context of the American model, this paper will argue that London advertising agencies looked across the Channel to French and Dutch production companies and personnel, particularly in the first five years of commercial television, from 1955-1960. Using case studies, this paper will illustrate the involvement of these Continental companies and personnel on the production of advertising films for British commercial television,...

‘Great Stuff!’

Eggo Müller
In 2014, British Pathé launched its YouTube channel with more than 85,000 items of audiovisualheritage from the 20th century. This article analyses the curational strategies of this channel as developed bythe German multi-channel network Mediakraft in consideration of YouTube’s algorithms and supposed userexpectations. This article argues that, in the context of YouTube’s commercial ecosystem, Mediakraft’scuration emphasizes celebrities, spectacular historical events, and curiosities to attract users online.

Did Grace Kelly Shed a Tear?

John Ellis
Early television reveals the radical nature of the new medium as well as many of its affordances thatwere later rejected. The coverage of the Monegasque Royal Wedding of Prince Rainier of Monaco and GraceKelly exposes the differences between cinema newsreels and live TV, and how, even at a public event, TVcould invade the personal space of its subjects. Like a detective, the author reconstructs how this historicalevent was covered by film and TV, and how...

Retelling the Past with Broadcast Archives

Matteo Treleani & Matteo Treleani
he publication of audiovisual archives asks many questions about the meaning of documents. Publishing a video archive on a Web site, for example, is a re-contextualisation. The loss of cultural references needed to understand a document implies the necessity to recontextualise documents. This means adding elements, such as titles, descriptions and other information. This paper analyzes the case of a video published by Ina on its Web platform Ina.fr and its Blog, the Blognote. The...

Newspaper Video Content

Samuel Negredo
Newspaper websites and online only news operations deliver an increasingly varied and comprehensive offer of original audiovisual content. In Spain, they cover current affairs and niche interests, complementing the video reports supplied by news agencies. The spoken word is a primary mode of expression, in the form of dialogues (interviews and debates) and speeches (comments and analyses), but more complex and visually appealing formats have been developed. There is a challenge to organise these packages...

Editorial

Dana Mustata
Doing European television history is as much a theoretical and methodological challenge as it is a practical one. This novice field of study requires first and foremost answers to a few fundamental questions: How do we define European television? What tools do we employ to engage in television research that goes beyond or against national borders of television in Europe? How do we integrate Europe in a field of research that has been predominantly Western?

Digital Media Archaeology: Uncovering the Digital Tool AVResearcherXL

Justin Van Wees, Sonja De Leeuw, Jasmijn Van Gorp & Bouke Huurnink
In this article, we will contribute to a methodological discussion in the Digital Humanities by uncovering the digital tool AVResearcherXL as a form of Digital Media Archaeology. AVResearcherXL enables to search across, compare and visualise the metadata of Dutch television and radio programmes and a selection of newspaper articles of the Dutch Royal Library. Media archaeology provides a fruitful framework to reflect on the tool as method for Television History Research. First, the tool in...

Streaming: a Media Hydrography of Televisual Flows

Ghislain Thibault
This paper focuses on the continuities, rather than the ruptures, between digital television and past media forms. It situates the metaphor of “streaming” in contrast to and connection with previous fluid metaphors that have been used to describe different models of media transmission. From the early use of aqueous vocabulary that shaped popular and scientific understandings of electricity transmission to the seminal studies of mass communication concerning the flows of information, images of fluidity have...

Aligning Participation with Authorship

Joakim Karlsen
The main contribution of this article is to describe how the concept of non-fiction transmedia has challenged the independent documentary film community in Norway. How the new possibilities afforded by web- and mobile media, with the potential of reconfiguring the current relation between author and audience, has been perceived and performed. Based on an extensive interview study and reflections on contributing to a non-fiction transmedia project, I argue that the emerging practice of making non-fiction...

`This is what you want, this is what you get´

Mick Newnham
There are limited training options for audiovisual archivists, with most formal courses centred in Europe or the United States of America, but high costs can prevent people working in audiovisual archives from accessing these opportunities. However, there are significant collections of audiovisual heritage spread across the globe, not the least in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region, that are at risk of loss due to a number of factors, including sta competencies. In 1996 audiovisual...

Live From Moscow

Lars Lundgren
On April 14th, 1961, television viewers across Europe watched live images of Yuri Gagarin being celebrated on the Red Square in Moscow. The broadcast was made possible by the linking of the Intervision and Eurovision television networks, which was the result of cooperation between broadcasters on both sides of the Iron Curtain. By looking into how the co-operation between the OIRT and EBU was gradually developed between 1957 and 1961 this article engages with the...

Plundering' the Archive and the Recurring Joys of Television

Lisa Kerrigan
The seemingly unlimited digital landscape and the current proliferation of the use of archive footage on British television invite the notion that the appreciation of archive material as a historical object is a rather contemporary popular development. It seems unusual then, to find a series devoted to archive television in the mid 1960s. Largely showing excerpts from 1950s programmes, Plunder recalled what presenter Michell Raper called 'the vanished joys of television'. This article will detail...

Spain Was Not Living a Celebration

Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
Franco’s Dictatorship (1939-1975) used Spanish Television (TVE) as a key element in the political propaganda of its apparent ‘openness’ during the 1960s. The propaganda co-existed with political interest in showing the technological development of the media and the international co-operation established with other European broadcasters, mainly in the EBU. In a country ruled by strong political censorship, the Eurovision Song Contest was used as a political tool to show the most amiable image of the...

Extending the Aerial: Uncovering Histories of Teletext and Telesoftware in Britain

Alison Gazzard
Beyond their roles of broadcasting programmed content into the homes of people around the country, Britain’s British Broadcasting Corporation and Independent Television stations delivered additional content via the home television set. This article will explore the British histories of Teletext and telesoftware in a wider context of microprocessing developments during the late 1970s and early 1980s through a media archaeological framework of their terminology and traits. Situating these developments in the industrial and political climates...

Behind the Scenes: Costume Design for Television

Gamze Toylan
There are many things you don’t know about 'The League of Gentlemen': Focusing on the award winning costume designer Yves Barre’s work for The League of Gentlemen (BBC, 1999-2002), this article explores the role of the costume designer in television production. Using an anthropological method that combines original interviews with Barre, Steve Pemberton (one of the writer/performers) and Jon Plowman (the executive producer) as well as second hand material such as DVD extras, the article...

From analogue collection to multifunctional access

Filip Kwiatek
Polish audiovisual heritage is a very important part of the cultural legacy of the country. Unfortunately the use of and access to Polish audiovisual archives is still in its initial phases. The Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage has made great strides towards solving the problems of access and limitations of use. In 2009 the ministry established the National Audiovisual Institute (NInA), which prompted several digitization projects including collaborations between Polish Public TV, National...

Intervision

Yulia Yurtaeva
The research on the “Intervision”, used as an empiric case study about the inter-cultural communication between its participants, consists of examining primary sources spread over several archives throughout Europe to collect structural and administrative data, making interviews with contemporary witnesses and evaluating statistics – with mainly the task to widen the perspective on a subject, that was formerly nation-focused or being described with a Western view only. As the preliminary steps of a basic study...

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