238 Works

‘More than a Television Channel’

Hannah Andrews
Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a...

Will the Sun Rise? Japan’s Limited Role in the Global Format Business

Takeshi Murakoshi
This article illustrates the TV format business in Japan, which has a 60-year history of TV broadcasting and is the second biggest market in the world; however, it is still a small player in the business. The article examines the elements which prevent the international sale of more TV formats and suggests possible solutions. To meet the objectives, this study presents the following research: 1) a questionnaire to ask TV content buyers about the problems...

Writing Cinema Histories with Digital Databases: The Case of Cinema Context

Julia Noordegraaf, Kathleen Lotze & Jaap Boter
The increasing availability of films and cinema-related heritage in digital form, as well as the creation and use of structured datasets related to the contexts of film production, distribution and consumption, have invited the use of new, computational approaches for studying cinema and its history. In this article, we review the online database Cinema Context (www.cinemacontext.nl) and its impact on the study of historical film cultures. Cinema Context is a relational database and research instrument...

Towards A New Digital Historicism?

Andreas Fickers
This article argues that the contemporary hype in digitization and dissemination of our cultural heritage – especially of audiovisual sources – is comparable to the boom of critical source editions in the late 19th century. But while the dramatic rise of accessibility to and availability of sources in the 19th century went hand in hand with the development of new scholarly skills of source interpretation and was paralleled by the institutionalization of history as an...

Hybride beheer van een hybride medium: over de rol van het LIMA in het behoud van videokunst in een gesprek met Gaby Wijers

Susan Aasman & Tom Slootweg
Artikel over de rol van het LIMA in het behoud van videokunst in een gesprek met Gaby Wijers.

Whatever Happened to Vera?

Jo Henderson
The road to technological progress is littered with unsuccessful prototypes and their inventors, and in British television there is perhaps no better example than John Logie Baird, universally recognised as the inventor of the technology, but not the successful business model. Another casualty is the Vision Electronic Recording Apparatus (VERA), less well known than Baird’s invention but a technology developed by the BBC Design Unit that has the potential to change the production and working...

Archive Footage in New Programmes

Steve George Bryant
Archivists have traditionally been concerned about what they have seen as incorrect usage of archival footage in new documentaries, but changing technologies and programme-making conventions have made this inevitable. This paper considers aspects of these changes, focussing particularly on the issue of how the introduction of widescren television affected and continues to affect the aspect ratios in which archival materials are presented, using examples from recent and contemporary television documentaries from Britain and the USA.

Spain Was Not Living a Celebration

Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano
Franco’s Dictatorship (1939-1975) used Spanish Television (TVE) as a key element in the political propaganda of its apparent ‘openness’ during the 1960s. The propaganda co-existed with political interest in showing the technological development of the media and the international co-operation established with other European broadcasters, mainly in the EBU. In a country ruled by strong political censorship, the Eurovision Song Contest was used as a political tool to show the most amiable image of the...

Towards a New Audiovisual Think Tank for Audiovisual Archivists and Cultural Heritage Professionals

Peter B. Kaufman
The White Paper "Towards a New Audiovisual Think Tank for Audiovisual Archivists and Cultural Heritage Professionals" aims to facilitate stakeholders active in the preservation of audiovisual heritage to identify their strategic priorities over the coming decade. The paper also puts forward ten recommendations for collective action to address these priorities. From the paper: "Archiving, properly defined, is the establishment and then stewardship of the human record, and the remembering that it facilitates may be the...

Henri Grünkorn: een geschiedenis van spektakel op de kermis voor de ‘Electrische Kinematograaf’

Gert Jan Harkema
Henri Grünkorn: A History of Fairground Spectacle Prior to the ‘Electrische Kinematograaf’ This article historicises early film experiences by examining them within the context of the late nineteenth-century culture of spectacle. The work of fairground showman Henri Grünkorn in the period from 1888–1898 serves as a case study, illustrating how the emerging medium of film wove together a number of elements from the culture of spectacle: mechanical movement, vision and observation, and reality as spectacle....

Teletekst, een vergeten medium

Huub Wijfjes
Book review of Hallvard Moe and Hilde Van den Bulck, ed. Teletext in Europe. From the Analog to the Digital Era Nordicom, 2016, 259 pp. ISBN 9789187957208.

Mapping Europe

Mari Pajala
The Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst the European map was rarely used during the first decades of the ESC, it became a central visual element of the show in the...

The sonic heritage of ecosystems

David Monacchi
This paper discusses the importance of the ‘paleo- soundscapes’ of remote natural habitats as unique footprints of the systemic behaviour of healthy ecosystems and proposes considering them as intangible heritage to be urgently recorded and preserved. The interdisciplinary project Fragments of Extinction has worked toward preserving that ecological heritage through multidimensional sound recording eldwork in primary equatorial rainforests since 2002. The soundscapes of these unique, untouched and undisturbed places – increasingly threatened by human pressure...

Bringing the Multiplex to Antwerp: A Battle of Two Giants

Kathleen Lotze
This article investigates the introduction of the first multiplex in Antwerp, Belgium. Within Europe, Belgium has traditionally been a leader in multiplex developments. Despite Antwerp’s powerful position in terms of national film exhibition and distribution, the city’s first multiplex arrived relatively late. By investigating the struggles of two major exhibitors in the late 1980s and early 1990s, this case of Antwerp connects to findings for other countries (particularly the UK and the US) concerning the...

Poland’s Return To Europe

Sylwia Szostak
The changing political sphere in 1989 and the subsequent 2004 European Union accession had a profound impact on Poland’s economic, political and social spheres. Both events are considered to have marked Poland’s ‘return to Europe’ and strengthened the relations with its Western neighbours. This article examines the changing patterns of television fiction programming flow in Poland in the post-Soviet era, exploring the impact of those two events on Poland’s audiovisual sector. This article therefore assesses...

Editorial

Jérôme Bourdon & Berber Hagedoorn
The medium television has been accused of being amnesiac or a producer of forgetfulness. However, researchers have discovered the many ways the mass media, including television, transform memories and affect not only the way societies remember, but also the way memories must be studied and conceptualized. Collective memories are often seen as institutionalized memories, which we can analyse through official manifestations such as ceremonies, monuments, or even major television programmes. While the texts presented in...

Magie en wetenschap in de spektakelcultuur van de negentiende eeuw: Henri Robin in de Lage Landen

Kurt Vanhoutte & Nele Wynants
Magic and Science in the Nineteenth-century Culture of Spectacle: Henri Robin in the Low Countries The theatre of modernity served to illuminate scientific insight and discovery in a spectacular way. Astronomy, physics, and experiments with electricity were at the heart of a popular genre that became known as ‘physiques amusantes’ (amusing physics). These shows occupied a middle ground between entertainment and science, between showing and doing. They were often staged by magicians, who presented themselves...

Old Stories and New Developments

Alexander Badenoch, Jasmijn Van Gorp, Berber Hagedoorn, Judith Keilbach, Eggo Müller & Daniela Mustata
It is our great pleasure to present this special issue of VIEW Journal of European Television and Culture in honour of Sonja de Leeuw, one of the founding members of the journal. The issue brings together articles that honour Sonja’s inspiring contributions to television history and television historiography.

Intertwining spheres

Renee Winter
Public audiovisual archives like the Österreichische Mediathek (Austrian National Audiovisual Archive) have long been concerned with documenting the political as well as the cultural public sphere. National and international efforts have worked to collect and preserve historic film documents from the private sphere. An ongoing Österreichische Mediathek project addresses a source typically viewed as marginal: private video sources from the 1980s and 1990s. The challenges are not only to develop a collection and archiving strategy...

Live From Moscow

Lars Lundgren
On April 14th, 1961, television viewers across Europe watched live images of Yuri Gagarin being celebrated on the Red Square in Moscow. The broadcast was made possible by the linking of the Intervision and Eurovision television networks, which was the result of cooperation between broadcasters on both sides of the Iron Curtain. By looking into how the co-operation between the OIRT and EBU was gradually developed between 1957 and 1961 this article engages with the...

Novel Televisual Environments: Immersive Spectatorship and the Future of Stereoscopic 3DTV

Ilkin Mehrabov
This article focuses on one of the most ground-breaking technological attempts in creating novel immersive media environments for heightened televisual user experiences: 3DTV, a Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Information Society Technologies Programme. Based on the theoretical framework outlined by the works of Jonathan Crary and Brian Winston, and on empirical data obtained from author’s fieldwork and laboratory visit notes, as well as discussions with practitioners, the article explores the...

Open access

Irfan Zuberi
In the broadest sense, archives are an embodiment of cultural artefacts that endure as signifiers of who we are and why. They are both a place of representation of these signifiers and their institutional form, providing tangible evidence of memory as well as defining memory institutionally within prevailing political systems and cultural norms. The principle of offering equal and open access to archival resources remains a cornerstone in various guidelines and codes of ethics for...

Intervision

Yulia Yurtaeva
The research on the “Intervision”, used as an empiric case study about the inter-cultural communication between its participants, consists of examining primary sources spread over several archives throughout Europe to collect structural and administrative data, making interviews with contemporary witnesses and evaluating statistics – with mainly the task to widen the perspective on a subject, that was formerly nation-focused or being described with a Western view only. As the preliminary steps of a basic study...

ARTE: French-German Experiments in Crossing the Borders

Anna Wiehl
This contribution is aimed at discussing different current policies of convergence as well as questioning whether these exploit the opportunities of digital media to their full potential, especially with regard to transmedia storytelling, interactivity, participation and networking. Taking the portfolio of the ‘European Culture Channel’ ARTE as an example, I draw a sketch of existing and emerging industrial strategies as well as of new formats and user practices. In the second part of the article,...

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