131 Works

The Golden Stag Festival In Ceausescu’s Romania (1968-1971)

Alexandru Matei
After his appointment as leader of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965, Ceausescu was very interested in gathering popular support for his economic plans. It was in this context that Romanian television could contribute for a short while to a liberalization of Romanian mass culture by means of cultural and entertainment programmes. Between 1968 and 1972, Romanian television (TVR) organized the international pop music festival ‘Cerbul de Aur’ (the Golden Stag), which brought together some...

Convergent Cultures

Bas Agterberg
The article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the 1980s. Audiovisual companies created a broad range of products within the audiovisual industry. This also resulted in a democratisation of the use of media as well as new formats of programmes and distribution for commissioned productions....

What to do with audiovisual carriers after their digitization?

Brecht Declercq & Loes Nijsmans
Both traditional and more recent audiovisual carriers degrade. Even CD-ROMs have typically only a ten-year expected life span. In addition, playback equipment for both analogue and digital carriers will ultimately grow scarcer and more expensive to repair or replace. Archives and museums are inevitably faced with the decision of whether to preserve audiovisual carriers after their content has been digitized. This paper o ers a draft decision- making framework developed by the Flemish Institute of...

Bury my bones but keep my words

S. Mshaï Mwangola
The author’s experiences preparing and presenting at the 2013 (Nairobi, Kenya) and 2015 (Brussels, Belgium) SOIMA conferences form the basis for this reflection on the work of custodians safeguarding the sound and image heritage of the past. Drawing inspiration from the artistic reflections of acclaimed master poet Ko Awonoor and accomplished writer Yvonne Owuor on death and life viewed through the prism of the dirge singer, the paper explores what it means to be a...

Editorial

Jérôme Bourdon & Berber Hagedoorn
The medium television has been accused of being amnesiac or a producer of forgetfulness. However, researchers have discovered the many ways the mass media, including television, transform memories and affect not only the way societies remember, but also the way memories must be studied and conceptualized. Collective memories are often seen as institutionalized memories, which we can analyse through official manifestations such as ceremonies, monuments, or even major television programmes. While the texts presented in...

Poland’s Return To Europe

Sylwia Szostak
The changing political sphere in 1989 and the subsequent 2004 European Union accession had a profound impact on Poland’s economic, political and social spheres. Both events are considered to have marked Poland’s ‘return to Europe’ and strengthened the relations with its Western neighbours. This article examines the changing patterns of television fiction programming flow in Poland in the post-Soviet era, exploring the impact of those two events on Poland’s audiovisual sector. This article therefore assesses...

Digitising Context

Andy O’Dwyer
The BBC is placing online their complete TV and radio schedule information going back to the formation of the BBC in 1922. For the very first time, the public, students and academics will be available to browse through detailed information on the BBC's broadcasting history. This has been made possible by a large scanning project of the BBC's programme guide magazine, the Radio Times. Over eighty years of programme information has been scanned, digitised and...

Making The Most Of The Archive

Luca Barra & Massimo Scaglioni
In the last 20 years, Italian television has discovered the richness and profitability of its enormous archives. Many new programmes have been broadcast on public and commercial television, making extensive use of historical fragments taken from previously aired shows. This essay explores the rationale behind the commercial re-use of TV archives in four different programmes: the “variety show made of variety shows” Da Da Da, the militant pastiche Blob, the commercial programming remix Super Show,...

Intertwining spheres

Renee Winter
Public audiovisual archives like the Österreichische Mediathek (Austrian National Audiovisual Archive) have long been concerned with documenting the political as well as the cultural public sphere. National and international efforts have worked to collect and preserve historic film documents from the private sphere. An ongoing Österreichische Mediathek project addresses a source typically viewed as marginal: private video sources from the 1980s and 1990s. The challenges are not only to develop a collection and archiving strategy...

The Production of Czechoslovakia´s Most Popular Television Serial 'The Hospital On The Outskirts' and Its Post-1989 Repeats

Petr Bednařík
In 1970s and 1980s, the television serial "Hospital on the Outskirts" achieved success with a large audience in Czechoslovakia as well as abroad. In 1981, the West German television Norddeutscher Rundfunk even co-produced the shooting of another 7 episodes. After the change of regime in 1989, the series first made a comeback in the form of re-runs. And then at the beginning of the 21st century, Czech Television produced a sequel named “Hospital on the...

Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

Luca Barra
With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely...

Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture

Zrinjka Peruško & Antonija Čuvalo
This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic...

The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts

Patryk Wasiak
This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows...

Digitizing collections of musical instruments in Africa

Saskia Willeart
In 2013–2014 the Musical Instruments Museum (mim) in Brussels worked with Musée de la Musique (MMO) in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and the Musée Panafricain de la Musique (MPM) in Brazzaville, the Republic of the Congo to build digital inventories of their musical instrument collections. The purpose of this digitization campaign has been to provide a more complete view of musical world heritage by incorporating not only African instruments but also the African terminology that describes...

Exploring Transnational Media Exchange in the 1960s

Heather Gumbert
This paper uses the history of the East German television service (DFF) to examine the emergence and implications of the international exchange of television content in the 1960s.

In-Vision Continuity Announcers: Performing an Identity for Early Television in Europe

Sonja De Leeuw & Mustata Mustata
In-vision continuity announcers have played central – yet understudied – roles in early television history. Through their performances on and off the screen, they mediated the identity of the televisual medium in the 1950s and 1960s, popularizing it as a medium of sound and vision, a domestic and gendered medium as well as a national and transnational institution. Focusing primarily on Dutch and Romanian female in-vision continuity announcers in the 1950s and 60s and making...

Towards A New Digital Historicism?

Andreas Fickers
This article argues that the contemporary hype in digitization and dissemination of our cultural heritage – especially of audiovisual sources – is comparable to the boom of critical source editions in the late 19th century. But while the dramatic rise of accessibility to and availability of sources in the 19th century went hand in hand with the development of new scholarly skills of source interpretation and was paralleled by the institutionalization of history as an...

Looking for What You Are Looking for

Jasmijn Van Gorp
In this essay, the author reflects on her first search with the online search system of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision. It was part of a pilot study on how media researchers use the audiovisual archive. Consequently, her search was being logged, video taped and sound recorded, she had to 'think aloud', and all of this in presence of a fellow researcher from computer sciences who observed her search behaviour. By showing how...

Why Digitise Historical Television?

John Ellis
Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

Zen And The Art Of Adaptation

Jerem Strong
This article arises from a 2011 interview with producer Andy Harries. Earlier that year the BBC had aired three ninety-minute adaptations of the detective novels by Michael Dibdin featuring the character Aurelio Zen. The interview and subsequent article focus on the process by which the novels were chosen, the intended audience, casting, international co-financing, changes between page and screen, and the adaptations’ relationship to other texts - notably Wallander - also produced by Harries.

Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

Vanessa Jackson
In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine...

‘The growing practice of calling in continental film groups’

Alison Jane Payne
While the development of commercial television advertising in Britain is often framed in the context of the American model, this paper will argue that London advertising agencies looked across the Channel to French and Dutch production companies and personnel, particularly in the first five years of commercial television, from 1955-1960. Using case studies, this paper will illustrate the involvement of these Continental companies and personnel on the production of advertising films for British commercial television,...

Retelling the Past with Broadcast Archives

Matteo Treleani & Matteo Treleani
he publication of audiovisual archives asks many questions about the meaning of documents. Publishing a video archive on a Web site, for example, is a re-contextualisation. The loss of cultural references needed to understand a document implies the necessity to recontextualise documents. This means adding elements, such as titles, descriptions and other information. This paper analyzes the case of a video published by Ina on its Web platform Ina.fr and its Blog, the Blognote. The...

Newspaper Video Content

Samuel Negredo
Newspaper websites and online only news operations deliver an increasingly varied and comprehensive offer of original audiovisual content. In Spain, they cover current affairs and niche interests, complementing the video reports supplied by news agencies. The spoken word is a primary mode of expression, in the form of dialogues (interviews and debates) and speeches (comments and analyses), but more complex and visually appealing formats have been developed. There is a challenge to organise these packages...

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