233 Works

The Golden Stag Festival In Ceausescu’s Romania (1968-1971)

Alexandru Matei
After his appointment as leader of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965, Ceausescu was very interested in gathering popular support for his economic plans. It was in this context that Romanian television could contribute for a short while to a liberalization of Romanian mass culture by means of cultural and entertainment programmes. Between 1968 and 1972, Romanian television (TVR) organized the international pop music festival ‘Cerbul de Aur’ (the Golden Stag), which brought together some...

Convergent Cultures

Bas Agterberg
The article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the 1980s. Audiovisual companies created a broad range of products within the audiovisual industry. This also resulted in a democratisation of the use of media as well as new formats of programmes and distribution for commissioned productions....

What to do with audiovisual carriers after their digitization?

Brecht Declercq & Loes Nijsmans
Both traditional and more recent audiovisual carriers degrade. Even CD-ROMs have typically only a ten-year expected life span. In addition, playback equipment for both analogue and digital carriers will ultimately grow scarcer and more expensive to repair or replace. Archives and museums are inevitably faced with the decision of whether to preserve audiovisual carriers after their content has been digitized. This paper o ers a draft decision- making framework developed by the Flemish Institute of...

Bury my bones but keep my words

S. Mshaï Mwangola
The author’s experiences preparing and presenting at the 2013 (Nairobi, Kenya) and 2015 (Brussels, Belgium) SOIMA conferences form the basis for this reflection on the work of custodians safeguarding the sound and image heritage of the past. Drawing inspiration from the artistic reflections of acclaimed master poet Ko Awonoor and accomplished writer Yvonne Owuor on death and life viewed through the prism of the dirge singer, the paper explores what it means to be a...

Editorial

Jérôme Bourdon & Berber Hagedoorn
The medium television has been accused of being amnesiac or a producer of forgetfulness. However, researchers have discovered the many ways the mass media, including television, transform memories and affect not only the way societies remember, but also the way memories must be studied and conceptualized. Collective memories are often seen as institutionalized memories, which we can analyse through official manifestations such as ceremonies, monuments, or even major television programmes. While the texts presented in...

Poland’s Return To Europe

Sylwia Szostak
The changing political sphere in 1989 and the subsequent 2004 European Union accession had a profound impact on Poland’s economic, political and social spheres. Both events are considered to have marked Poland’s ‘return to Europe’ and strengthened the relations with its Western neighbours. This article examines the changing patterns of television fiction programming flow in Poland in the post-Soviet era, exploring the impact of those two events on Poland’s audiovisual sector. This article therefore assesses...

Digitising Context

Andy O’Dwyer
The BBC is placing online their complete TV and radio schedule information going back to the formation of the BBC in 1922. For the very first time, the public, students and academics will be available to browse through detailed information on the BBC's broadcasting history. This has been made possible by a large scanning project of the BBC's programme guide magazine, the Radio Times. Over eighty years of programme information has been scanned, digitised and...

Making The Most Of The Archive

Luca Barra & Massimo Scaglioni
In the last 20 years, Italian television has discovered the richness and profitability of its enormous archives. Many new programmes have been broadcast on public and commercial television, making extensive use of historical fragments taken from previously aired shows. This essay explores the rationale behind the commercial re-use of TV archives in four different programmes: the “variety show made of variety shows” Da Da Da, the militant pastiche Blob, the commercial programming remix Super Show,...

Intertwining spheres

Renee Winter
Public audiovisual archives like the Österreichische Mediathek (Austrian National Audiovisual Archive) have long been concerned with documenting the political as well as the cultural public sphere. National and international efforts have worked to collect and preserve historic film documents from the private sphere. An ongoing Österreichische Mediathek project addresses a source typically viewed as marginal: private video sources from the 1980s and 1990s. The challenges are not only to develop a collection and archiving strategy...

Editorial

Richard Misek, Arnau Gifreu-Castells & Erwin Verbruggen
Editorial to the issue on "Non-Fiction Transmedia". Over the last years, interactive digital media have greatly affected the logics of production, exhibition and reception of non-fiction audiovisual works, leading to the emergence of a new area called ‘interactive and transmedia non-fiction’. While the audiovisual non-fiction field has been partially studied, a few years ago emerged a new field focusing on interactive and transmedia non-fiction narratives, an unexplored territory that needs new theories and taxonomies to...

Visions of Reconstruction

Floris Jan Willem Paalman
After WWII, films accompanied the reconstruction of Europe’s destroyed cities. Many contained historical footage. How was this material used, to articulate visions of reconstruction, what happened to the material later on, and how do the films relate to municipal film archives? This question is approached in terms of collective cognitive functions, applied to a media archaeological case study of Rotterdam. In focus are two audiovisual landmarks, from 1950 and 1966, and their historical footage, all...

Meet the Predators

Sabine Baumann & Ulrike Rohn
The TV industry has traditionally relied on advertising and subscription fees for revenue. Recently, brand extensions and co-branding strategies have been rediscovered as income sources. A prominent example of such a strategy is the TV format Dragons’ Den, which has been locally produced in many different countries. We use this intriguing case to explore the extensive and intricate co-branding relationships and brand extensions in the business-to-consumer and the business-to-business settings of TV companies. Our paper...

'Goodwill Ambassador'

Gerda Jansen Hendriks
The article looks back at the films commissioned and produced by the Dutch governments about their colony in teh East-Indies between 1912 and 1962. The main focus is on the newsreels and documentaries about the colonial war between the Netherlands and Indonesia from 1945 to 1949. The article reviews these films and the re-use of their footage in later television programs. The programs often look back at the colonial war in ways that go beyond...

A Transmedia Topology of 'Making a Murderer'

Jolene Mairs Dyer, Danielle Barrios-O'Neill & Alan Hook
This article constructs a transmedia topology of the Making a Murderer text, demonstrating influences of various forms of documentary, interactive gaming culture, and post-digital writing on the series itself as well as on the paratextual cloud of works that grew up around it. Here we define transmedia topology as a tracing of what we could call the geography of the text, as defined by its features and boundaries (or lack thereof). We will discuss the...

The Production of Czechoslovakia´s Most Popular Television Serial 'The Hospital On The Outskirts' and Its Post-1989 Repeats

Petr Bednařík
In 1970s and 1980s, the television serial "Hospital on the Outskirts" achieved success with a large audience in Czechoslovakia as well as abroad. In 1981, the West German television Norddeutscher Rundfunk even co-produced the shooting of another 7 episodes. After the change of regime in 1989, the series first made a comeback in the form of re-runs. And then at the beginning of the 21st century, Czech Television produced a sequel named “Hospital on the...

Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

Luca Barra
With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely...

Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture

Zrinjka Peruško & Antonija Čuvalo
This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic...

Keeping Up the Live

Karin Van Es & Judith Keilbach
Increasingly new media platforms are making claims to liveness. Looking back in television history we also find programmes that were recorded, but kept up the claims of being live. This raises the question as to what accounts for the attraction of the live? Focusing on Ein Platz für Tiere and the Netflix Live spoof of 2017 this article discusses disparate articulations of the live and addresses the need to balance freedom, chaos and control on...

The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts

Patryk Wasiak
This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows...

Digitizing collections of musical instruments in Africa

Saskia Willeart
In 2013–2014 the Musical Instruments Museum (mim) in Brussels worked with Musée de la Musique (MMO) in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, and the Musée Panafricain de la Musique (MPM) in Brazzaville, the Republic of the Congo to build digital inventories of their musical instrument collections. The purpose of this digitization campaign has been to provide a more complete view of musical world heritage by incorporating not only African instruments but also the African terminology that describes...

Editorial

Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano, Andrea Esser & John Ellis
Editorial to the issue on "TV Formats and Format Research: Theory, methodology, history and new developments." During the last 15 years format research has grown into a notable, distinct field of academic investigation alongside the dramatic expansion of the trade in TV formats. This special issue of VIEW builds on existing format scholarship to deepen our understanding of the history and the continuing growth of the TV format business from a European perspective

Exploring Transnational Media Exchange in the 1960s

Heather Gumbert
This paper uses the history of the East German television service (DFF) to examine the emergence and implications of the international exchange of television content in the 1960s.

In-Vision Continuity Announcers: Performing an Identity for Early Television in Europe

Sonja De Leeuw & Mustata Mustata
In-vision continuity announcers have played central – yet understudied – roles in early television history. Through their performances on and off the screen, they mediated the identity of the televisual medium in the 1950s and 1960s, popularizing it as a medium of sound and vision, a domestic and gendered medium as well as a national and transnational institution. Focusing primarily on Dutch and Romanian female in-vision continuity announcers in the 1950s and 60s and making...

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