418 Works

Towards Sustainable Transport Planning in the United States

Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman & Marie Ridley Pryn
This paper provides an analysis of how sustainability concepts are currently addressed within the broad framework of surface transportation planning in the United States (US). We first discuss the overall transportation planning process in the US, and the role of key agencies and actors. This is followed by a brief assessment of how sustainability is addressed as part of national policies and programs. We then present a case study of the US Federal Highway Administration’s...

Ex post analysis of road projects: resilience to crisis

Jelena Ćirilović, Ana Nikolić, Miljan Mikić & Goran Mladenović
This investigation aimed to reveal a mechanism of how different road projects' settings respond to macro-economic crisis. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed over a sample of 31 European road projects, in various funding arrangements and life cycle phases, all extracted from the Horizon 2020 BENEFIT project cases database. The project setting is described through a specific combination of project features and/or values of developed indicators. The analysis was applied to identify factors that contributed...

Behaviour of cyclists and pedestrians near right angled, sloped and levelled kerb types: Do risks associated to height differences of kerbs weigh up against other factors?

Bas Janssen, Paul Schepers, Haneen Farah & Marjan Hagenzieker
To create a safer environment for bicyclists and pedestrians, the usefulness of different types of kerbs as a separation between these two modes has been questioned by both researchers and practitioners. Right angled kerbs pose risks to cyclists due to their height but are assumed to separate them well from pedestrians. Sloped and levelled kerb types are more forgiving but allow road traffic users to move onto each other’s infrastructure, creating a potential risk of...

The Effect of Crosswalks on Traffic Flow

Victor L. Knoop & Carlos F. Daganzo
In urban areas and especially in inner cities, pedestrians crossing the road considerably influence the road traffic flow. For political reasons, priority could be given to pedestrians. A larger number of crossings reduces the pedestrian load per crossing and facilitates both the pedestrian flow and the car flow; the ultimate case is a “cross anywhere” scenario. Earlier work shows that the road capacity decreases with the square of the pedestrian crossing time, hence a short...

Searching for the Rail Bonus

K. W. Axhausen, T. Haupt & U. Heidl
The inherent superiority of rail-based public transport options over bus-based alternatives, all other things being equal, has been stipulated in the literature and in the public policy discussion for some time. The exact strength of any such rail bonus is important to a public transport operator which has to consider the replacement of rail-based services by bus services. The public transport operator of the city of Dresden (DVB), while generally upgrading its services, has to...

Development and transport implications of automated vehicles in the Netherlands: scenarios for 2030 and 2050

Dimitris Milakis, Maaike Snelder, Bart Van Arem, Bert Van Wee & Gonçalo Homem De Almeida Correia
Automated driving technology is emerging. Yet, little is known in the literature about when automated vehicles will reach the market, how penetration rates will evolve and to what extent this new transport technology will affect transport demand and planning. This study uses scenario analysis to identify plausible future development paths of automated vehicles in the Netherlands and to estimate potential implications for traffic, travel behaviour and transport planning on a time horizon up to 2030...

Efficient Pricing in Transport

Hens Runhaar
The Gap between Theory and Practice Many transport economists agree on the need for ‘efficient pricing’ in transport, as this would improve allocative efficiency and raise social welfare. Although the principle of efficient pricing is gaining ground in many countries, up to now it has been applied only rarely because of strong social resistance. But how can so many people be opposed to a principle which aims to increase social welfare? In this paper, I...

The influence of adverse weather conditions on probability of congestion on Dutch motorways

Wouter J.H. Van Stralen, Simeon C. Calvert & Eric J.E. Molin
Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the influence of adverse weather conditions on the probability of occurrence of congestion. Traffic demand is examined by conducting a stated adaptation experiment, in which changes in travel choices are observed under...

On the effect of the built environment and preferences on non-work travel: Evidence from Japan

Giancarlos Troncoso Parady, Makoto Chikaraishi, Kiyoshi Takami, Nobuaki Ohmori & Noboru Harata
This study uses data from the 4th Nationwide Person Trip Survey to analyse the relation between the built environment, modal access preference at residential location and travel behaviour in Japan. By estimating random parameter count models, significant statistical associations were found between the built environment and preferences with non-work trip frequency by mode. Furthermore the effect of population density, car ownership and some access preference traits were found to be heterogeneous for some modes. Since...

Estimating traffic delays and network speeds from lowfrequency GPS taxis traces for urban transport modelling

Bin Deng, Steve Denman, Vassilis Zachariadis & Ying Jin
The collection of actual traffic delays and road traffic speed data is essential in modelling urban transport resource efficiency, congestion and carbon and pollutant emissions, which is in turn part of core empirical basis for evidence-based policy making for improving urban sustainability. This data collection has also been one of the most expensive and time-consuming tasks, which restricts how well and how often the models can be built and validated, often to the extent that...

The Impact of External Quality Assurance of Costs Estimates on Cost Overruns: Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian Road Sector

James Odeck, Morten Welde & Gro Holst Volden
Cost overruns in transport infrastructure projects are prevalent and have been well documented in the literature; see, for instance, Flyvbjerg et al. (2003), Odeck (2004 and 2014) and Cantarelli et al. (2010). Governments may therefore exert efforts to reduce overruns by implementing strategies such as quality assurance of cost estimates, whereby external consultants are engaged to assure the accuracy of estimates. However, the literature has to a lesser extent provided evidence on what governments do...

A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of park-and-ride facilities

Toon Zijlstra, Thomas Vanoutrive & Ann Verhetsel
In this paper we present a meta-analysis of Park-and-Ride (P+R) facilities. Our goal is to identify the determinants of effective sites and to assess their contribution with respect to various transport policy objectives. An effective facility predominantly attracts target group users, i.e. users who without the P+R would use the car for the entire journey. Our meta-analysis is based on the results of 40 studies and a total of 180 evaluated P+R sites, mainly from...

Modelling bicycle route choice using data from a GPS-assisted household survey

Muhammad Ghanayim & Shlomo Bekhor
This paper considers bicycle route choice for commuter trips. Bicycle route preferences are analysed using a dataset from a GPS-assisted household travel survey conducted in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area. Different choice set generation methods were applied to generate alternative routes for each observation, and the matching with the actual route is discussed. Model estimation is performed for different route choice sets to test the sensitivity of the parameter estimates. The results obtained are quite...

Applying game theory for improving security in the process industries

Laobing Zhang & Genserik Reniers
Why should game theory be introduced and used in the chemical security practitioners? Security risks are initiated by deliberate behaviours for certain goals. For instance, thieves intentionally intrude a plant for stealing valuable materials, or terrorists maliciously set a fire on a chemical facility to cause societal fear. Initiators of security events (henceforth, attackers) would intelligently observe the defender’s defence plan and then schedule their attack accordingly. Powell (2007) illustrated how resources can be mis-allocated...

Optimizing performance-based mechanisms in road management: an agency theory approach

Antonio Sánchez Soliño
This paper develops a model based on the agency theory to analyse road management systems that employ a mechanism of performance indicators to establish the payment for the contractor. The base assumption is the asymmetric information between a principal (Public Authorities) and an agent (contractor) and the risk aversion of the latter. It is assumed that the principal may only measure the agent’s performance indirectly and by means of certain performance indicators that may be...

How the inclusion of life cycle impacts affects transport cost-benefit analysis

Stefano Manzo, Yan Dong, Simona Miraglia & Kim Bang Salling
Transport cost-benefit analysis frameworks do not consider the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of the transport system’s components. This leads to an inaccurate representation of the environmental impacts of transport projects, which can be instead more thoroughly represented by life cycle assessment methods. In the present study, we describe a transport cost-benefit analysis model combined with a life cycle assessment module developed based on life cycle ReCiPe 2016 methodology. The suggested approach makes...

A new way of determining distance decay parameters in spatial interaction models with application to job accessibility analysis in Sweden

John Östh, Johan Lyhagen & Aura Reggiani
In this paper we explore and compare various techniques for the calculation of distance decay parameters which are estimated using statistical methods with half-life decay parameters which are derived mathematically. Half-life models appear to be a valid alternative to traditional spatial interaction models, especially in the presence of spatially highly disaggregate data. Our results indicate that Half-life models are more accurate for the construction of decay parameters than are unconstrained spatial interaction models in ‘medium’...

Detecting activity type from GPS traces using spatial and temporal information

Tao Feng & Harry J.P. Timmermans
Detecting activity types from GPS traces has been important topic in travel surveys. Compared to inferring transport mode, existing methods are still relatively inaccurate in detecting activity types due to the simplicity of their assumptions and/or lack of background information. To reduce this gap, this paper reports the results of an endeavour to infer activity type by incorporating both spatial information and aggregated temporal information. Three machine learning algorithms, Bayesian belief network, decision tree and...

Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The Case of High Speed 2

David Banister
The achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of...

Editorial: Special Issue on Climate Adaptation of Infrastructure Networks

Lori Tavasszy, L. Andrew Bollinger & Gerard P.J. Dijkema
Climate change affects transportation infrastructures in different ways. Sea level rise and extreme weather may reduce the availability or the quality of parts of the network. Impacts may be felt by all modes of transport (e.g. roads, railroads, waterways, pipelines), by all transport motives (people, freight, utilities) and by different components of the system (the physical construction or user behaviour). Ultimately, failure of infrastructures can also occur at the system level, across modes, motives and...

Revealing transition patterns between mono- and multimodal travel patterns over time: A mover-stayer model

Maarten Kroesen & Sander Van Cranenburgh
Recent empirical evidence suggests that travellers are becoming increasingly multimodal. Coinciding with this trend, a growing interest can be observed in the transport literature to study the concept of multimodality. Most studies, in this regard, have focused on assessing the determinants of multimodal travel behaviour. While it is interesting to know which factors, at a certain moment in time, affect the membership of mono/multimodal travel patterns, one general omission in the current literature relates to...

Editorial: Driving, cycling and flying: trends in planning and operational transportation research in Europe

Gonçalo Homem De Almeida Correia, Bruno F. Santos & Maarten Kroesen
In this special issue we present three papers selected from the 18th meeting of the EURO Working Group on Transportation (EWGT) which was held in July 2015 in Delft, the Netherlands, organized by Delft University of Technology. The selected contributions reflect the diversity of topics that were addressed in this conference, which is dedicated to mathematical modeling of transportation problems. We are happy to have a small but representative sample in which three different modes...

Improving Safety on Railways Using Systems Engineering and Forecasting

Andrei Loukianov, Coen Van Gulijk, Pieter Van Gelder, Sarah Deacon, Valentina Viduto & Markus Stumptner
Allocation of resources to improve security is crucial when we consider people’s safety on transport systems. We show how a system engineering methodology can be used to link business intelligence and railway specifics toward better value for money. A model is proposed to determine a probability of a success in service management. The forecasting model is a basic Markov Chain. A use case demonstrates a way to align statistical data (crime on stations) and probability...

Development of a household travel resource allocation model

Kevin Yeung & Jeffrey M. Casello
Households allocate their travel resources – vehicles, time, budget, and supervision – to accomplish activities while minimizing overall time and cost subject to a set of constraints – the duration and sequence of activities, and the need to provide transportation to dependent travellers. In this research, we develop and test a heuristic based approach to schedule activities using a cost (disutility) minimization objective. The model is evaluated by comparing predicted schedules generated by the heuristics...

The practice of strategic journal self-citation: It exists, and should stop (A note from the editor-in-chief)

Caspar G. Chorus
This note highlights how journal self-citation practices substantially influence impact factorbased journal rankings in the field of Transportation. Furthermore, by means of analyzing Thomson Reuters’ most recent Journal Citation Report (JCR), I show that a substantial share of these self-citations is likely to be the result of strategic behavior by editors of journals. I conclude with a call to editors to stop requesting or nudging authors to add journal self-citations to their papers; and a...

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