176 Works

Opportunities and challenges for rail transport of solid wood biofuel

Jonas Flodén
The use of solid biofuel for energy in heating plants has increased drastically during the last decades. This substantial and increasing demand has placed focus on delivering biofuel to the plants, as logistics issues are considered one of the key challenges for further increased use of biofuel. Problems in sourcing enough fuel locally due to the increasing size of power plants and environmental concerns has sparked an interest in using multimodal road-rail transport as a...

Advances in the Measurement of Transport Impedance in Accessibility Modelling

Karst T. Geurs & John Östh
Accessibility is a key concept in both transport and urban planning. The key aims of transport policies, not only at the urban level but also at the supra-national (for example, European Union), national and regional level, are to improve accessibility. Accessibility is also a key concept that has become central to physical planning and in spatial modelling for more than fifty years. As measure of the relative nearness or proximity of one place and persons...

Border effects on the travel mode choice of resident and crossborder workers in Luxembourg

Julien Schiebel, Hichem Omrani & Philippe Gerber
We investigate the travel mode choice behaviour of both resident and cross-border workers in Luxembourg. Two categories of mode choice are considered: sustainable (public transport) and unsustainable (single occupancy car use), which both depend on a large set of spatial and sociodemographic variables. In particular, we determine whether and how the borders of the four countries involved (Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Germany) affect this choice. The results of a classical binary logistic regression model show that...

The Impact of External Quality Assurance of Costs Estimates on Cost Overruns: Empirical Evidence from the Norwegian Road Sector

James Odeck, Morten Welde & Gro Holst Volden
Cost overruns in transport infrastructure projects are prevalent and have been well documented in the literature; see, for instance, Flyvbjerg et al. (2003), Odeck (2004 and 2014) and Cantarelli et al. (2010). Governments may therefore exert efforts to reduce overruns by implementing strategies such as quality assurance of cost estimates, whereby external consultants are engaged to assure the accuracy of estimates. However, the literature has to a lesser extent provided evidence on what governments do...

Vulnerability and Security Risk Assessment of a Thermal Power Plant Using SVA Technique

Abbas Sadeghi, Mousa Jabbari, Ali Alidoosti & Mohsen Rezaeian
The philosophy behind the creation of every organization is bound up with the objectives for each it has been created. There are always factors threatening the continuation of the organization’s activities or even its existence. Some of these factors involve common threats in the security area which should be identified, assessed and controlled through a systematic risk management pattern. In the present study, Security Vulnerability Assessment (SVA) technique and a local version of SVA-Pro software...

A duopoly of transportation network companies and traditional radio-taxi dispatch service agencies

Thorsten Heilker & Gernot Sieg
Transportation network companies commonly enter the market for taxi ride intermediation and alter the market outcome. Compared to cooperatively organized radio-taxi dispatch service agencies, transportation network companies run larger fleets and serve more customers with lower fares, when the fixed costs of the dispatch office are relatively small. The same holds for private dispatch firms, when the fixed costs of a taxicab are not too small. These results are shown in a two-stage duopoly of...

Predicting the competitive position of extended gates: the case of inland customs zones

Saeid Sherafatipour, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Lóránt Tavasszy & S. Farshad Fatemi Ardestani
The extended gate concept aims to reduce the pressure on international ports by postponing administrative processes from these border gates to inland terminals. At present, this approach is used mainly in the container transport industry in European and Asian ports. In this paper we study an extended gate concept, where inland customs services are made available from all entry points of a country. Our aim is to predict the portion of the current flow through...

Peak-load pricing for the European Air Traffic Management system using modulation of en-route charges

Tatjana Bolić, Lorenzo Castelli & Desirée Rigonat
This paper extends the use of peak-load pricing (PLP) to the context of the European Air Traffic Management system, as EU regulation No 391/2013 allows the modulation of en-route charges to avoid network capacity-demand imbalance in a specific area or on a specific route at specific times. In particular, we propose a centralised approach to PLP (CPLP) where a Central Planner (CP) is responsible for setting en-route charges on the network and Airspace Users (AUs)...

Implications of survey methods on travel and non-travel activities: A comparison of the Austrian national travel survey and an innovative mobility-activity-expenditure diary (MAED)

Florian Aschauer, Reinhard Hössinger, Kay W. Axhausen, Basil Schmid & Regine Gerike
This paper contributes to the research on non-reporting effects in mixed-method household travel surveys (HTS) in two ways: Firstly, we compare travel activities reported in the established Austrian National HTS (ANTS) with an innovative survey approach, the so-called “MobilityActivity-Expenditure Diary” (MAED), and secondly we extend the analysis to (i) additional travel estimates and to (ii) non-travel activities. The analysis addresses three main goals: (i) identification of non-reporting effects in the HTS for travel estimates, (ii)...

Detecting activity type from GPS traces using spatial and temporal information

Tao Feng & Harry J.P. Timmermans
Detecting activity types from GPS traces has been important topic in travel surveys. Compared to inferring transport mode, existing methods are still relatively inaccurate in detecting activity types due to the simplicity of their assumptions and/or lack of background information. To reduce this gap, this paper reports the results of an endeavour to infer activity type by incorporating both spatial information and aggregated temporal information. Three machine learning algorithms, Bayesian belief network, decision tree and...

Stability analysis of activity-based models: case study of the Tel Aviv transportation model

Shlomo Bekhor, Leonid Kheifits & Michael Sorani
The Tel Aviv activity based model structure is similar to other activity based models described in the literature. The model run is supposed to converge to the equilibrium between generated tours and corresponding level of service (LOS) data. However, individual tour generation uses random draws for various choices (activity, time of day, destination, and mode). This introduces simulation errors, which combined with population sampling and limited precision of static traffic assignments, prevents the convergence of...

On the generalized cost - demand elasticity of intermodal container transport

Bart Jourquin, Lóránt Tavasszy & Liwei Duan
Elasticities for freight transport in the context of mode choice are hardly available for markets in which intermodal container transport competes with truck only transport. These elasticities are expected to be different, however, from values found in the literature for traditional freight transport, as trucking is a complement to rail or inland waterway transport when used for pre- or post-haulage, but a substitute to these modes when used from the origin to the final destination....

Development of a household travel resource allocation model

Kevin Yeung & Jeffrey M. Casello
Households allocate their travel resources – vehicles, time, budget, and supervision – to accomplish activities while minimizing overall time and cost subject to a set of constraints – the duration and sequence of activities, and the need to provide transportation to dependent travellers. In this research, we develop and test a heuristic based approach to schedule activities using a cost (disutility) minimization objective. The model is evaluated by comparing predicted schedules generated by the heuristics...

Specialisation, diversification, size and technical efficiency in ports: an empirical analysis using frontier techniques

Beatriz Tovar & Alan Wall
This paper explores the relationship between output specialisation, diversification, size and technical efficiency in ports. Using a sample of Spanish port authorities observed over the period 1993-2012, we calculate a normalised Herfindahl-Hirschman index of overall specialisation and indices of relative specialisation in the individual cargoes. An output distance frontier is estimated using non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis techniques to calculate technical efficiency. These efficiency scores are then used to test that relationship with a bootstrapped truncated...

The Danish National Passenger Model – model specification and results

Jeppe Rich & Christian Overgaard Hansen
The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model...

The Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium with Threshold model: Large-scale application and parameter testing

Thomas Kjær Rasmussen, Otto Anker Nielsen, David P. Watling & Carlo Giacomo Prato
This paper presents the application and calibration of the recently proposed Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium with Threshold model (RSUET) to a large-scale case-study. The RSUET model avoids the limitations of the well-known Stochastic User Equilibrium model (SUE) and the Deterministic User Equilibrium model (DUE), by combining the strengths of the Boundedly Rational User Equilibrium model and the Restricted Stochastic User Equilibrium model (RSUE). Thereby, the RSUET model reaches an equilibrated solution in which the flow...

Joint Fact-Finding in Practice: Review of a Collaborative Approach to Climate-Ready Infrastructure in Rotterdam

Todd Schenk, Ruben A.L. Vogel, Nienke Maas & Lóránt A. Tavasszy
Joint fact-finding has been advanced as a method for helping stakeholders grappling with technically intensive policy and planning challenges to collaboratively engage in research and arrive at shared sets of facts to inform their decision-making. This paper introduces joint factfinding and considers its application in the context of infrastructure stakeholders aiming to assess and increase the resilience of their infrastructure systems to climate change. A set of evaluative criteria is introduced, which are proposed for...

The impact of measuring internal travel distances on selfpotentials and accessibility

Ana Margarida Condeço Melhorado, Hande Demirel, Mert Kompil, Elena Navajas & Panayotis Christidis
Internal travel distances are fundamental in accessibility measurement, as they affect the weight of the intra-regional interactions, especially when using a gravity formulation. The contribution of the internal accessibility of each zone to its overall accessibility is known as self-potential. Several studies demonstrate its importance in accessibility analyses, especially in the most urbanized regions. It is precisely in urban regions where internal travel distances are more difficult to estimate due to congestion, which in turn...

Elderly’s heterogeneous responses to topographical factors in travel mode choice within a hilly neighborhood: An analysis based on combined GPS and paper-based surveys

Thi Anh Hong Nguyen, Makoto Chikaraishi, Hajime Seya, Akimasa Fujiwara & Junyi Zhang
Because of the decline of physical abilities of the elderly, their mobility is more vulnerable to topographical factors than younger population groups. However, topographical factors have been neglected in studies on travel behavior, and elderly people’s heterogeneous responses to topographical factors remain unknown. To fill this research gap, this study focuses on a hilly neighborhood called Koyo Newtown in Hiroshima City, Japan, where a multi-period (two waves) and multi-day (two weeks) panel survey was conducted...

The macroeconomic impact of transportation investment on the Spanish economy

Carolina Cosculluela-Martínez & R. Flores De Frutos
This paper compares the responses of employment and GDP Spanish growth to a permanent unitary shock in different types of transport capital stock, with those estimated in the literature. The theoretical model used to estimate the step response functions is the multiple equations dynamic model proposed by Flores et al.. (1998) adapted to this particular problem. Results suggest that: (1) The standard single equation static methodology underestimates the elasticity of the capital stock with respect...

How the values of travel time change when a panel data around a new tram implementation is used

Rosa Marina González, Ángel S. Marrero & Gustavo A. Marrero
Using a dataset with transport choices of the same set of individuals (college students from University of La Laguna), we built a novel three waves panel data around a tramline implementation in the Santa Cruz-La Laguna corridor in Tenerife, Spain. The first two waves were conducted in 2007, just before the tram implementation. They collect information about Revealed Preferences (RP) of actual transport mode choices (car, bus and walk) and about Stated Preferences (SP) in...

Testing the stability of utility parameters in repeated best, repeated best-worst and one-off best-worst studies

Marek Giergiczny, Thijs Dekker, Stephane Hess & Phani Kumar Chintakayala
Stated choice (SC) surveys are a key tool for studying travel behaviour and are used to inform policy decisions in many countries. Recently, the best-worst (BW) variant of SC has rapidly increased in popularity in fields as diverse as transport, marketing and health research. A key argument for its implementation has been that it is perceived to be easier for respondents to identify the best and the worst alternative in a choice set compared to...

Prediction of late/early arrivals in container terminals – A qualitative approach

Claudia Pani, Thierry Vanelslander, Gianfranco Fancello & Massimo Cannas
Vessel arrival uncertainty in ports has become a very common problem worldwide. Although ship operators have to notify the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) at predetermined time intervals, they frequently have to update the latest ETA due to unforeseen circumstances. This causes a series of inconveniences that often impact on the efficiency of terminal operations, especially in the daily planning scenario. Thus, for our study we adopted a machine learning approach in order to provide...

On interurban road pricing schemes and the impacts of traffic diversion on road safety in Germany: Empirical findings and implications

Patrick Baumgarten & Jens Middelkamp
Recently, traffic diversion effects induced by tolling have increasingly been attracting attention, since interurban road charging schemes are becoming more widespread in Europe. However, less attention has been paid to unintended spillover effects concerning negative road safety outcomes, caused by traffic shifts to non-tolled adjacent secondary roads of inferior quality. This study introduces to the specifics of existing road pricing schemes in Europe, clarifies the characteristics of the German toll system and explores the relationship...

Pricing Mobility

Piet Rietveld
Externalities of transport do not only depend on the number of kilometres driven, but also on factors such as road type, time of day, car type and on driving behaviour such as speed and acceleration. The present pricing system of car use and ownership in the Netherlands is such that the degree of differentiation is small, except for the car type aspect. Thus there is a clear mismatch between the differentiation in external costs and...

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