178 Works

Beyond instrument: smartphone app and sustainable mobility

Tim Schwanen
The rise of smartphones and mobile applications (apps) is of major importance to multiple recent innovations in sustainable urban mobility, including car sharing schemes and real-time information provision in public transport, as well as the recent surge in urban cycling. Yet, exactly how apps feature in these innovations and trends remains largely unclear. This paper argues that this lack of understanding reflects not only the rapid pace of developments in apps and their technical functionalities...

Special issue: built environment and travel behaviour

Eva Heinen, Ruth L. Steiner & Karst T. Geurs
The current special issue has been inspired by a selection of papers presented at the World conference of transport research (WCTR), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in July 2013. Selected papers focus on relations between the built environment and travel behaviour. The contributions complement each other as they come from different geographical origins, apply different methodological approaches and address travel behaviour with a focus on a variety in transportation modes. Together they address various...

The influence of adverse weather conditions on probability of congestion on Dutch motorways

Wouter J.H. Van Stralen, Simeon C. Calvert & Eric J.E. Molin
Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the influence of adverse weather conditions on the probability of occurrence of congestion. Traffic demand is examined by conducting a stated adaptation experiment, in which changes in travel choices are observed under...

Applying game theory for improving security in the process industries

Laobing Zhang & Genserik Reniers
Why should game theory be introduced and used in the chemical security practitioners? Security risks are initiated by deliberate behaviours for certain goals. For instance, thieves intentionally intrude a plant for stealing valuable materials, or terrorists maliciously set a fire on a chemical facility to cause societal fear. Initiators of security events (henceforth, attackers) would intelligently observe the defender’s defence plan and then schedule their attack accordingly. Powell (2007) illustrated how resources can be mis-allocated...

Findings from measuring door-to-door travellers’ travel satisfaction with traditional and smartphone app survey methods in eight European cities

Yusak O. Susilo, Roberto Abenoza, Andree Woodcock, Fotis Liotopoulos, Andre Duarte, Jane Osmond, Apostolos Georgiadis, Gabriela Rodica Hrin, Patricia Bellver, Federico Fornari, Virginie Tolio, Eileen O’Connell, Ieva Markucevičiūtė & Marco Diana
This study investigates how different travel satisfaction survey methods influence the reported level of door-to-door travel satisfaction among travellers. The travel satisfaction measurement survey tools tested consisted of two types of smartphone applications (a satellite navigation app and a game app), an on-line survey, a paper-based semi-structured questionnaire and a focus group. Each of the measurement tools comprised of a similar set of questions, but in different formats, aimed at exploring the pros and cons...

Modelling sailing time and cost for inland waterway transport

Robert G. Hekkenberg, Cornelis Van Dorsser & Juha Schweighofer
Transport time and cost are decisive factors for shippers when they choose a mode for their transport. For inland waterway transport in particular, these aspects are more uncertain and less easy to generalize than for road and rail. This is due to the highly variable waterway conditions on free-flowing rivers and due to the large variety of inland ships. Today´s transport models, however, do not take these factors into account. This paper shows that dynamic...

An integrative conceptual framework for physical security culture in organisations

Karolien Van Nunen, Marlies Sas, Genserik Reniers, Geert Vierendeels, Koen Ponnet & Wim Hardyns
A conceptual framework for physical security culture in organisations is proposed, based on the integrative model of safety culture, as developed by Vierendeels et al. (2018). The proposed conceptual framework for physical security culture has the advantage that it brings security threats, technique, organisation and human aspects together in a coherent, integrative and related way. The framework includes five main domains of security culture, being (a) an observable technological domain, (b) an observable organisational domain,...

Editorial: Special Issue on Climate Adaptation of Infrastructure Networks

Lori Tavasszy, L. Andrew Bollinger & Gerard P.J. Dijkema
Climate change affects transportation infrastructures in different ways. Sea level rise and extreme weather may reduce the availability or the quality of parts of the network. Impacts may be felt by all modes of transport (e.g. roads, railroads, waterways, pipelines), by all transport motives (people, freight, utilities) and by different components of the system (the physical construction or user behaviour). Ultimately, failure of infrastructures can also occur at the system level, across modes, motives and...

Impact of unimportant attributes in stated choice surveys

Stephane Hess
Despite growing interest in the notion that respondents in stated choice surveys may make their decisions on the basis of only a subset of the presented attributes, the impact of any unimportant attributes on the estimates of other valuations is somewhat unclear. This paper presents evidence from a two stage survey where the second stage eliminates attributes deemed unimportant in the first stage. Our analysis shows no evidence of systematic differences between the results of...

Peak-load pricing for the European Air Traffic Management system using modulation of en-route charges

Tatjana Bolić, Lorenzo Castelli & Desirée Rigonat
This paper extends the use of peak-load pricing (PLP) to the context of the European Air Traffic Management system, as EU regulation No 391/2013 allows the modulation of en-route charges to avoid network capacity-demand imbalance in a specific area or on a specific route at specific times. In particular, we propose a centralised approach to PLP (CPLP) where a Central Planner (CP) is responsible for setting en-route charges on the network and Airspace Users (AUs)...

On the generalized cost - demand elasticity of intermodal container transport

Bart Jourquin, Lóránt Tavasszy & Liwei Duan
Elasticities for freight transport in the context of mode choice are hardly available for markets in which intermodal container transport competes with truck only transport. These elasticities are expected to be different, however, from values found in the literature for traditional freight transport, as trucking is a complement to rail or inland waterway transport when used for pre- or post-haulage, but a substitute to these modes when used from the origin to the final destination....

Catchment areas of high-speed rail stations: a model based on spatial analysis using ridership surveys

Héctor S. Martínez, Amparo Moyano, José M Coronado & Maddi Garmendia
This paper focuses on the spatial influence of High-Speed Rail stations, based on the notion of catchment area. Given the features of High-Speed Rail, its operations can and must serve a role beyond the station and the city in which it is located. Using a spatial systemic approach, this paper proposes a method to analyse the factors that may affect the size and shape of the catchment areas according to the relationship between distance and...

Optimizing performance-based mechanisms in road management: an agency theory approach

Antonio Sánchez Soliño
This paper develops a model based on the agency theory to analyse road management systems that employ a mechanism of performance indicators to establish the payment for the contractor. The base assumption is the asymmetric information between a principal (Public Authorities) and an agent (contractor) and the risk aversion of the latter. It is assumed that the principal may only measure the agent’s performance indirectly and by means of certain performance indicators that may be...

Alternative Ways of Funding Public Transport

Barry Ubbels, Peter Nijkamp, Erik Verhoef, Steve Potter & Marcus Enoch
Public transport traditionally has been, and still is, heavily subsidised by local or national governments, which have been motivated by declining average cost arguments, social considerations, and the desire to offer an alternative to private car use. Conventional sources for funding, including general taxes on labour, in many occasions have become harder to sustain for various reasons. This paper explores alternative, increasingly implemented, sources of funding, i.e., local charges or taxes that are hypothecated to...

Under which conditions is a PPP relevant for public spending?

Alain Bonnafous & Bruno Faivre D’Arcier
Public authorities increasingly involve the private sector in financing, building and operating new infrastructures. Many reasons are usually given to justify private sector involvement. One of them claims that private operators can manage project construction and operation more efficiently. Nevertheless, whether a public or a private operator, there is a target IRR, very close to the standard notion of Weighted Average Capital Cost (WACC), which is higher in the case of the private alternative because...

The importance of institutions and policy settings for car sharing – Evidence from the UK, Israel, Sweden and Finland

Nihan Akyelken, Moshe Givoni, Marja Salo, Andrius Plepys, Jáchym Judl, Karen Anderton & Sirkka Koskela
The rapid growth of cities requires effective management of transport demand and restructuring of transport systems to address the needs of growing urban populations in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way. In recent years, car sharing has emerged as an alternative to owning cars in cities, which has potential to bring environmental gains and address social considerations. There is a sizeable academic inquiry about the social and environmental benefits of car sharing and the...

Evaluating infrastructure resilience to extreme weather – the case of the Dutch electricity transmission network

L. Andrew Bollinger & Gerard P.J. Dijkema
This paper reports the development and results of a model exploring the resilience of the Dutch electricity transmission infrastructure to extreme weather events. Climate change is anticipated to result in an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events over the coming decades. Situated in a low-lying coastal delta, the Netherlands may be particularly exposed to certain types of extreme weather(-induced) events. The degree to which the country’s electricity network may prove resilient...

Flexible decision support for sustainable development: the SUSTAIN framework model

Kim Bang Salling, Michael Bruhn Barfod, Marie Ridley Pryn & Steen Leleur
Sustainable transport planning necessitates a rethinking of traditional decision making. This is conventionally supported by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) that systematically quantifies and compares the various benefits and costs generated by a transportation project or policy. Generally, CBA has been found less useful for the handling and assessment of multiple, often conflicting objectives or criteria like environmental or social issues intrinsically difficult to quantify. Therefore, it is necessary to broaden the decision making process beyond merely...

Assessing the effects of a growing electric vehicle fleet using a microscopic travel demand model

Christine Weiss, Michael Heilig, Nicolai Mallig, Bastian Chlond, Thomas Franke, Tina Schneidereit & Peter Vortisch
The German government seeks to increase the number of electric vehicles (EV) in the German car fleet to one million by 2020. Since some characteristics of EVs differ from conventional cars, there is an increasing need to assess the various impacts of a growing EV fleet. In this work, we have focused on possible effects related to the field of transport. We identified three important aspects and evaluated them over a period of one week...

Development and transport implications of automated vehicles in the Netherlands: scenarios for 2030 and 2050

Dimitris Milakis, Maaike Snelder, Bart Van Arem, Bert Van Wee & Gonçalo Homem De Almeida Correia
Automated driving technology is emerging. Yet, little is known in the literature about when automated vehicles will reach the market, how penetration rates will evolve and to what extent this new transport technology will affect transport demand and planning. This study uses scenario analysis to identify plausible future development paths of automated vehicles in the Netherlands and to estimate potential implications for traffic, travel behaviour and transport planning on a time horizon up to 2030...

Editorial: Triggers of behavioural change in an evolving world

Chiara Calastri, Stephane Hess & Aruna Sivakumar
This special issue collects six papers that were presented at the 2015 IATBR conference, which took place in Windsor, UK. It also includes a resource paper from one of the conference workshops. All regular papers were selected by the guest editors and subsequently peerreviewed in line with the European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research standards. Ultimately, 60% of submitted papers were accepted for publication.

Timetable-based simulation method for choice set generation in large-scale public transport networks

Thomas Kjær Rasmussen, Marie Karen Anderson, Otto Anker Nielsen & Carlo Giacomo Prato
The composition and size of the choice sets are a key for the correct estimation of and prediction by route choice models. While existing literature has posed a great deal of attention towards the generation of path choice sets for private transport problems, the same does not apply to public transport problems. This study proposes a timetable-based simulation method for generating path choice sets in a multimodal public transport network. Moreover, this study illustrates the...

Use and limits in project finance of the capital asset pricing model: overview of highway projects

Joaquim Miranda Sarmento & Miguel Oliveira
The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) has become the standard and most popular tool in corporate finance for assessing t he risk and return in a shareholder´s equity. It is widely used in project finance, particularly in transportation projects. Yet in highly leveraged projects, the CAPM can produce misleading results. In this paper, we show that the values that the CAPM provides for projects that use debt to finance more than 80% of their total...

Improving Safety on Railways Using Systems Engineering and Forecasting

Andrei Loukianov, Coen Van Gulijk, Pieter Van Gelder, Sarah Deacon, Valentina Viduto & Markus Stumptner
Allocation of resources to improve security is crucial when we consider people’s safety on transport systems. We show how a system engineering methodology can be used to link business intelligence and railway specifics toward better value for money. A model is proposed to determine a probability of a success in service management. The forecasting model is a basic Markov Chain. A use case demonstrates a way to align statistical data (crime on stations) and probability...

Using automatic number plate recognition data to investigate the regularity of vehicle arrivals

Fraser N. McLeod, Tom J. Cherrett, Simon Box, Ben J. Waterson & James A. Pritchard
This paper uses automatically-recorded vehicle number plate data from a network of 22 cameras in Dorset, UK, to investigate the extent to which regular trip making can be determined using the regularity of individual vehicle arrival times across the same sites and time intervals over extended periods of several months and illustrates how a cohort of recognised regular vehicles may provide indicative evidence of traffic delays. Regularity was defined based on minimum numbers of observations...

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