175 Works

Non-implementation of road pricing policy in the Netherlands: An application of the ‘Advocacy Coalition Framework’

Özgül Ardıç, Jan Anne Annema & Bert Van Wee
The implementation of road pricing policies is dependent on political support for the policy. It is frequently argued that many pricing proposals fail to be implemented due to the opposition of one or a group of policy actors (e.g. political parties, interest groups). This study considers this issue and examines the reasons for non-implementation of proposals for Dutch road pricing policies by analysing the policy position changes of 26 major policy actors and the changes...

Modelling activity-travel behaviour dynamics with panel data: The state-of-the-art

Maarten Kroesen & Konstadinos G. Goulias
The field of travel behaviour dynamics represented a vibrant research area in the 1980s and the 1990s (Golob & Meurs, 1987; Golob, Kitamura, & Long, 1997; Kitamura, 1990), but has since, probably due to lack of mobility panel data, received relatively little attention by transportation researchers. Nevertheless, through the use of panel data (repeated measures of the same individuals) many new insights may be gained with respect to travel behaviour, insights that are fundamentally different...

Editorial

Peter Nijkamp & Aura Reggiani
Mobility behaviour (e.g. car driving) is a complex phenomenon, the future of which is fraught with uncertainties and unpredictabilities, as the transport system is influenced by a many different key variables such as type of spatial network, (non-)governmental organisations and institutions, or local regional or national regulatory system. As a consequence, we observe on the one hand rapid growth trends in mobility (in relation to e.g. globalisation factors), but on the other hand also many...

The Effect of Crosswalks on Traffic Flow

Victor L. Knoop & Carlos F. Daganzo
In urban areas and especially in inner cities, pedestrians crossing the road considerably influence the road traffic flow. For political reasons, priority could be given to pedestrians. A larger number of crossings reduces the pedestrian load per crossing and facilitates both the pedestrian flow and the car flow; the ultimate case is a “cross anywhere” scenario. Earlier work shows that the road capacity decreases with the square of the pedestrian crossing time, hence a short...

Climate change in asset management of infrastructure: A riskbased methodology applied to disruption of traffic on road networks due to the flooding of tunnels

Elja Huibregtse, Oswaldo Morales Napoles, Laura Hellebrandt, Dominik Paprotny & Sten De Wit
This paper presents a risk-based method to quantify climate change effects on road infrastructure, as a support for decision-making on interventions. This can be implemented in climate adaptation plans as an element of asset management. The method is illustrated by a specific case in which traffic on a road network is disrupted by the flooding of a tunnel due to extreme rainfall. Novel techniques to describe both probability of occurrence and consequences of an event...

Freeway truck travel time prediction for freight planning using truck probe GPS data

Zun Wang, Anne V. Goodchild & Edward McCormack
Predicting truck (heavy vehicle) travel time is a principal component of freight project prioritization and planning. However, most existing travel time prediction models are designed for passenger vehicles and fail to make truck specific forecasts or use truck specific data. Little is known about the impact of this limitation, or how truck travel time prediction could be improved in response to freight investments with an improved methodology. In light of this, this paper proposes a...

Improving Safety on Railways Using Systems Engineering and Forecasting

Andrei Loukianov, Coen Van Gulijk, Pieter Van Gelder, Sarah Deacon, Valentina Viduto & Markus Stumptner
Allocation of resources to improve security is crucial when we consider people’s safety on transport systems. We show how a system engineering methodology can be used to link business intelligence and railway specifics toward better value for money. A model is proposed to determine a probability of a success in service management. The forecasting model is a basic Markov Chain. A use case demonstrates a way to align statistical data (crime on stations) and probability...

Vulnerability assessment framework for interdependent critical infrastructures: case-study for Great Britain’s rail network

Raghav Pant, Jim W. Hall & Simon P. Blainey
Critical infrastructures vulnerability assessment involves understanding various sociotechnological aspects of modern day infrastructures. While vulnerabilities exist at different scales, failures of large-scale installations in infrastructures are significant because they lead towards widespread social and economic disruptions. There is growing awareness of the multiple potential causes of failure, including those due to dependence upon other infrastructures. This paper establishes a framework for national analysis of vulnerability of interdependent infrastructures. We present: (i) A mathematical formulation of...

The Danish National Passenger Model – model specification and results

Jeppe Rich & Christian Overgaard Hansen
The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model...

Commute mode choice dynamics: Accounting for day-to-day variability in longer term change

Kiron Chatterjee, Ben Clark & Caroline Bartle
It is of interest to transport policy makers to know whether interventions promoting sustainable transport modes can produce long-term changes in commute mode choices. Recent evidence has shown that a significant minority of commuters are variable in their day-to-day commute mode choices. This suggests that recognition should be given to day-to-day variability in investigating longer term commute behaviour changes. This paper introduces a panel survey that has been specifically designed to capture both day-to-day variability...

A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of park-and-ride facilities

Toon Zijlstra, Thomas Vanoutrive & Ann Verhetsel
In this paper we present a meta-analysis of Park-and-Ride (P+R) facilities. Our goal is to identify the determinants of effective sites and to assess their contribution with respect to various transport policy objectives. An effective facility predominantly attracts target group users, i.e. users who without the P+R would use the car for the entire journey. Our meta-analysis is based on the results of 40 studies and a total of 180 evaluated P+R sites, mainly from...

Specialisation, diversification, size and technical efficiency in ports: an empirical analysis using frontier techniques

Beatriz Tovar & Alan Wall
This paper explores the relationship between output specialisation, diversification, size and technical efficiency in ports. Using a sample of Spanish port authorities observed over the period 1993-2012, we calculate a normalised Herfindahl-Hirschman index of overall specialisation and indices of relative specialisation in the individual cargoes. An output distance frontier is estimated using non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis techniques to calculate technical efficiency. These efficiency scores are then used to test that relationship with a bootstrapped truncated...

Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

Gabriel Pons Rotger & Thomas Sick Nielsen
This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has...

Special issue: built environment and travel behaviour

Eva Heinen, Ruth L. Steiner & Karst T. Geurs
The current special issue has been inspired by a selection of papers presented at the World conference of transport research (WCTR), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in July 2013. Selected papers focus on relations between the built environment and travel behaviour. The contributions complement each other as they come from different geographical origins, apply different methodological approaches and address travel behaviour with a focus on a variety in transportation modes. Together they address various...

Development of a household travel resource allocation model

Kevin Yeung & Jeffrey M. Casello
Households allocate their travel resources – vehicles, time, budget, and supervision – to accomplish activities while minimizing overall time and cost subject to a set of constraints – the duration and sequence of activities, and the need to provide transportation to dependent travellers. In this research, we develop and test a heuristic based approach to schedule activities using a cost (disutility) minimization objective. The model is evaluated by comparing predicted schedules generated by the heuristics...

A critical assessment of discounting policies for transport Cost-Benefit Analysis in five European practices

Niek Mouter
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long tradition as a broadly-used instrument for assessing transport infrastructure investments. In a CBA, the discount rate often determines whether a project passes the benefit-cost test. One concern is that literature on the subject offers widely differing recommendations regarding which discount rate should be used. What has not yet been studied is the way practitioners translate these (inconclusive) recommendations into the discounting policies applied to transport CBA. This paper aims...

Editorial: Data-driven innovations in policy-oriented freight transport models and planning methods

Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu, Anne Goodchild & David Guerrero
Freight transport is a challenging economic sector, as it is essential for the functioning of production and distribution systems but and the same time is at the origin of many nuisances such as congestion, greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and noise. When responding to these issues, planners dispose nowadays of a growing body of freight data that can be used for the implementation of policies towards achieving smart mobility. Because contrary to current practice and dominant...

Freight demand generation on commodity and loading unit level

Koen Mommens, Tom Van Lier & Cathy Macharis
Freight sustains our daily lives and economy. Information on its characteristics, its production and consumption locations and its modes of transport are consequently of a crucial importance for private and public decision makers. This paper presents a freight generation model for the Belgian territory. Based on data gathered on transport flows by commodity type and loading unit and data on population density and business establishments with their characteristics, generated and attracted freight volumes were obtained...

Peak-load pricing for the European Air Traffic Management system using modulation of en-route charges

Tatjana Bolić, Lorenzo Castelli & Desirée Rigonat
This paper extends the use of peak-load pricing (PLP) to the context of the European Air Traffic Management system, as EU regulation No 391/2013 allows the modulation of en-route charges to avoid network capacity-demand imbalance in a specific area or on a specific route at specific times. In particular, we propose a centralised approach to PLP (CPLP) where a Central Planner (CP) is responsible for setting en-route charges on the network and Airspace Users (AUs)...

How the values of travel time change when a panel data around a new tram implementation is used

Rosa Marina González, Ángel S. Marrero & Gustavo A. Marrero
Using a dataset with transport choices of the same set of individuals (college students from University of La Laguna), we built a novel three waves panel data around a tramline implementation in the Santa Cruz-La Laguna corridor in Tenerife, Spain. The first two waves were conducted in 2007, just before the tram implementation. They collect information about Revealed Preferences (RP) of actual transport mode choices (car, bus and walk) and about Stated Preferences (SP) in...

Policy on Sustainable Transport in England: The Case of High Speed 2

David Banister
The achievement of sustainable transport is often a clearly stated objective of government policy, but in England there is no National Sustainable Transport Strategy (NSTS). This paper outlines the nature of sustainable transport arguing for a strategic approach that takes account of the means to reduce travel through substitution and shorter trips, as well as making best use of all modes and reducing reliance on carbon-based energy sources. It reviews the recent austerity phase of...

Effect of land use and survey design on trip underreporting in Montreal and Toronto’s regional surveys

Chris Harding, Monika Nasterska, Leila Dianat & Eric J Miller
This paper contributes to the literature on travel survey methods by quantifying the relationship between land use, data collection protocol and trip under-reporting in regional travel surveys. While under-reporting more broadly is a recognized problem, the significant increase in underreporting in denser, more urban-type environments identified here has never before been demonstrated or measured. Consequences of this land use-related bias for transportation planning and modelling are explored. The work is carried out by comparing the...

Efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes

Katrín Halldórsdóttir, Nadine Rieser-Schüssler, Kay W. Axhausen, Otto A. Nielsen & Carlo G. Prato
The current study analyses the efficiency of choice set generation methods for bicycle routes and proposes the extension of cost functions to bicycle-oriented factors not limited to distance and time. Three choice set generation methods for route choice were examined in their ability to generate relevant and heterogeneous routes: doubly stochastic generation function, breadth first search on link elimination, and branch & bound algorithm. Efficiency of the methods was evaluated for a high-resolution network by...

Stability analysis of activity-based models: case study of the Tel Aviv transportation model

Shlomo Bekhor, Leonid Kheifits & Michael Sorani
The Tel Aviv activity based model structure is similar to other activity based models described in the literature. The model run is supposed to converge to the equilibrium between generated tours and corresponding level of service (LOS) data. However, individual tour generation uses random draws for various choices (activity, time of day, destination, and mode). This introduces simulation errors, which combined with population sampling and limited precision of static traffic assignments, prevents the convergence of...

European Perspectives

Dominic Stead
This new regular section looks at emerging issues with a definite pan-European focus and high significance for transport and/or infrastructure research. Three general inter-related themes will be examined in the new section – policy , practice and research . The connections between these themes will also be the focus of the section. Sometimes the section will primarily address one of these themes and at other times it will address two or all three of the...

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