2,370 Works

Application of Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Reservoir Operation

Mortazavi Naeini Seyed Mohammad & Mortazavi Naeini Seyed Mohammad
Genetic Algorithms (GAs) application in the field of water resources engineering is of recent origin. Genetic Algorithms is one of the tools, which handle nonlinear optimization problems in an efficient manner. Optimal reservoir operation of reservoir for hydropower production involves constrained nonlinear optimization. The constrained problem is converted into unconstrained problem by using penalty function method. Genetic algorithm was then used to optimize the reservoir operation for hydropower production. This approach was used to develop...

Supporting data - Effects of the cooperative interaction on the diffusion of hydrogen on MgO(100)

Ivano Eligio Castelli, Stefan Gabriel Soriga & Isabela Costinela Man
This dataset is the supporting data for the manuscript "Effects of the cooperative interaction on the diffusion of hydrogen on MgO(100)", I.E. Castelli, Stefan G. Soriga, Isabela C. Man, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 034704 (2018). In the manuscript, we have investigated the role of pre-adsorbed fragments on H diffusion on MgO(100).

The data set contains all the relaxed structures and Nudged Elastic Bands (NEB) calculations in xyz and traj (Atomic Simulation Environment - ASE) format. Each...

Performance systems and social capital

Grane Mikael Gregaard RASMUSSEN & Kasper EDWARDS
Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and...

Pervious pavement research in Spain: Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms

J. R. Bay\303\263n, D. Castro, X. Moreno-Ventas, S.J. Coupe & A.P. Newman
Pervious pavements have made an important contribution to stormwater quality improvements in sustainable urban drainage systems, particularly as part of a treatment train approach. In Spain however this approach has hardly been addressed. This paper outlines the emerging research in a collaboration between UK and Spanish Universities aimed at establishing a research infrastructure to allow the study of pervious pavements to be carried out taking into account local conditions in the northwest of Spain. Parallel...

An Integrated Media, Integrated Processes Watershed Model – WASH123D: Part 6 – Sediment and Reactive Chemical Transport in Stream/River Networks

Fan Zhang, Gour-Tsyh Yeh & Fan Zhang
A watershed system includes river/stream networks, overland regions, and subsurface media. This paper presents a numerical model of sediment and reactive chemical transport in river/stream networks of watershed systems. The distribution of mobile suspended sediments and immobile bed sediments is controlled by hydrological transport as well as erosion and deposition processes. The distribution and fate of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by a system of advective-dispersive-reactive species-...

Dynamic modeling of detention tanks for flood control in urban drainage systems in developing countries

P. Sreeja, K. Gupta & O. Mark
ABSTRACT Increasing urbanization and high population density have resulted in an increase in the impervious areas in the cities. This results in flooding and overloading of existing drainage systems. Implementing structural measures for controlling urban flooding are extremely difficult due to the space constraints in densely populated cities in developing countries. An alternative cost effective solution can be achieved by implementing a control strategy for the existing control structures at different locations in the drainage...

The FLOWatch-Project: Measuring water, carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at the field scale

L. Weihermüller, J. A. Huisman, M. Herbst, H. Vereecken, S. Lambot & L. Weihermüller
For water, energy and CO2 fluxes in agricultural landscapes, the field scale plays a crucial role since it corresponds to the scale at which humans directly influence fluxes by managing the system for crop cultivation. This leads to a human-induced spatio-temporal variability of these fluxes at the regional scale. Consequently, the field scale is considered as the elementary scale for modelling of water, CO2 and energy fluxes. Despite intensive research in the past, there is...

CDIO Projects in DTU’s Chemical and Biochemical B.Eng. Study Program

Karsten H. Clement, Pernille Harris, Yvonne Agersø & Timothy John Hobley
This paper describes how the CDIO standards have influenced the cross-disciplinary projects that are part of DTU's Chemical & Biochemical B.Eng program. Four projects are described: the 1st semester design-build project that has a power plant as the frame; the 2nd semester project in biochemistry where students investigate samples of meat from retail stores, the 3rd semester project where design of unit operations used in enzyme production is in focus, and the 4th semester design-build...

Measurements and simulations of moisture in naturally ventilated barns in cold climates

Thomas Thiis & Thomas Thiis
ABSTRACT: New demands in farming industry in Norwegian sub-arctic regions have caused a need for larger animal buildings. To minimize the cost of the buildings, they are built without insulation. Uninsulated animal buildings in cold climates raise many new engineering challenges. Because of the lack of insulation, the walls of the buildings are exposed to a high risk of condensation. This is met with a high ventilation rate to remove the excess moisture. To monitor...

A review of the self-potential method applied on groundwater resources

Véronique Naudet & Véronique Naudet
Standard geophysical methods detect the presence of water by changes of ground physical properties, but none of them are sensitive to actual groundwater flow, except the Self-Potential (SP) method. This method consists of measuring the natural electric field within the subsurface with non-polarisable electrodes. After correcting for telluric currents and cultural noise, the remaining electrical potentials are related to natural polarisation mechanisms occurring at depth. The main contributions of SP-signals are associated to groundwater flow...

ENERGY EFFICIENTY AND SAVING ON LIGHTING: the case study of a modern art museum

Antonio Frattari, Michela Chiogna & Antonio Frattari
Given new and emerging standards and requirements in Europe regarding energy performance of buildings (see, for example, EPBD 2002/91), it has become increasingly important to improve the energy effectiveness of building operation. Toward this end, efficient daylight-responsive systems for illumination of buildings (including installation of automatic lighting control systems) can provide a significant contribution (EN 15193). At the "CUnEdI: Centro Universitario Edifici Intelligenti" of the University of Trento, study and research activities have been curried...

Simulation of dynamic moisture response of autoclaved aerated concrete

Olga Koronthalyova, Peter Matiasovsky, Juraj Veselsky, Daniel Szabo, Anton Puskar & Olga Koronthalyova
Indoor air relative humidity is an important parameter influencing the hygro-thermal performance of building structures and the indoor climate as well. One possibility how to keep humidity variations in suitable range is to use moisture buffer effect of the indoor surface hygroscopic materials. The aim of the work was to simulate dynamic moisture response of a hysteretic material and to evaluate the influence of hysteretic behavior on moisture buffer effect at real conditions – when...

The Analysis of Seasonally Varying Flow in a Crystalline Rock Watershed Using an Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Model

Stefano D. Normani, Jeffrey E. Randall, Jon F. Sykes & Stefano D. Normani
Minimal scientific knowledge is available to describe the interaction of surface water and groundwater flow systems within watersheds in the crystalline rock setting of the Canadian Shield. The surface water and groundwater flow in a small watershed are investigated using the fully coupled groundwater / surface water model HydroGeoSphere. The watershed has an area of 6.92 square kilometers and contains multiple lakes, including Bass Lake (the largest lake) with a surface area of 0.94 square...

An optimal control based method for coupling 1D/2D models applied to river hydraulics

Igor Gejadze, Jerome Monnier & Igor Gejadze
Although computer power has been steadily growing in recent years, operational hydrological models describing river networks are still based on the 1D shallow water equations (SWE) or the Saint-Venant equations. Essentially two-dimensional situations ("storage areas", for example) are represented by source terms, which are computed using empirical expressions. Obviously, this approach suffers accuracy limitations and tells us nothing about 2D flow patterns in the area of interest. This justifies the use of limited area 2D...

Comparison of numerical and experimental simulations of a flood in a dense urban area

E. Mignot, A. Paquier & T. Ishigaki
Although various numerical methods were used to simulate real floods occurring in cities, the validation of the models was never accurate because of the lack of data about location and event description and about observation for validation. In order to check the capacities of our 2-dimensional shallow water equations model to simulate an urban flood, we then decided to simulate numerically an experimental event with well known characteristics and accurate flow measurements. The physical model...

The CDIO as an Enabler for Graduate Attributes Assessment in Canadian Engineering Schools

Bob Brennan & Ron Hugo
In this paper, we describe the process that is being followed at the Schulich School of Engineering to address the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board’s new graduate attributes criterion, and show how the CDIO syllabus can play an integral role in this process.

CCTV supervision or surveillance - what's in a name ?

Kirsten SCHREIBERS, Renske LANDMAN, Jorrit JANSEN, Richard Van Der WEIDE & David De BRUIJN
Extensive literature search revealed poorly evidenced Human Factors guidelines for CCTV systems. Case studies were done to get more insight in relevant Human Factors issues. A task taxonomy was found on surveillance. Do CCTV tasks in process control significantly differ from surveillance tasks? And is this so distinctive that it requires different Human Factors guidelines for CCTV system design? This study shows it is distinctive when looking at tasks. A task related concept of 'scene'...

Volume of Fluid Simulations of Multiphase Flow through Fractures: Analysis of Individual Fractures for Application in Reservoir Scale Models

Dustin Crandall, Kambiz Nazridoust, Goodarz Ahmadi, Grant Bromhal, Duane Smith & Duane Smith
Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration requires a fundamental understanding of modeling multiphase flows in fractured media. Subsurface flow is highly dependent upon the rock structure within the flow domain, with high permeability and fractured regions dominating the transport of the fluids. Discrete-fracture simulators often assume the cubic law relationship for single phase flow through a smooth set of parallel plates, and with good reason. The number of fractures that need to be modeled at the reservoir...

Penetration of impurities from crawl space to indoors

Miimu Airaksinen & Miimu Airaksinen
Field and laboratory measurements about the penetration of impurities (particles and microbes) from crawl space to indoors

Stakeholder involvement in wastewater treatment design

D.J. Gilmour, D.J. Blackwood & K. Picken
The design option appraisal stage of new water industry capital investment projects involve greater levels of complexity than those generally encountered in other stages of the design process. It is at this stage that the issues related to sustainable development will be introduced, as decisions are multi-stakeholder and therefore decision criteria that reflect the views of a wide range of stakeholders with a range of different viewpoints need to be incorporated. This paper describes a...

Interactive implementation

G. D. Geldof
In the last decades it has become clear that improving the quality of the urban environment asks for an integrated approach and stormwater source control. However, practice shows stubborn behaviour. Water managers did start to produce integrated water plans, but only a few measures in these plans are really implemented. This paper uses complexity science building bricks to handle above mentioned problem. Instead of the traditional serial approach a parallel approach is introduced. This is...

Constituents'' annual load estimation from highways

M. Kayhanian, S. Ha & M. K. Stenstrom
Constituents\342\200\231 Annual Loads Estimation (CALE) is a program to estimate annual stormwater runoff constituent loads from highways and their shoulders. It uses Visual Basic for Applications, which is included with ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI, Redlands, CA). The program is based on the rational method and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs), which has become a popular method of estimating constituent loads. The program uses several data sources which are spatially referenced by incorporation into Geographical Information System (GIS)...

INFLUENCE OF ACTIVE HEAT CAPACITY ON MICROCLIMATE AND ENERGY DEMAND OF A BUILDING

Kestutis Valancius, Vytautas Stankevicius, Kestutis Valancius & Vytautas Stankevicius
Heat transfer processes in buildings are always unsteady at real conditions. On the other hand practical calculations of heat exchange processes in buildings are based on steady-state process equations. In spite of modern microclimate system management, according to practical observations and theoretical investigations, undesirable changes of indoor heat behaviour occur. Such changes have negative influence on indoor heat comfort and misrepresent real energy demands of a building. The problem is influenced by factors, which have...

Building a bioretention area in a cold climate

T. M. Muthanna & S. T. Thorolfsson
This paper describes an experimental field work setup for testing the performance of bioretention areas in a cold climate setting at Risvollan urban hydrological station in Trondheim, Norway. Bioretention focuses on water retention, peak flow reduction, and water quality improvement with respect to heavy metals and sediments. However, in colder climates the performance of bioretention areas are to a large extent unknown. The most problematic with winter conditions are the many interchanged snow and rainfall...

Assessment of the exchanges between sewage network and surface water during flooding of the town of Oullins

E. Renouf & A. Paquier*+ Mignot
Oullins is a small city that suffers frequent flooding either from Yzeron River overflow or from the sewage network overflows during storm event. In December 2003, both causes join to provoke severe damages in the lower part of the city. Two models were built. One simulates the flows in the sewage network solving 1-D de Saint Venant equations. The second one, solving 2-D shallow water equation, represents Yzeron main channel and associated flood plain that...

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