2,428 Works

Estimation of urban groundwater recharge from different sources by quantifying soil seepage processes

U. Mohrlok, L. Wolf & J. Klinger
The implementation of subsurface processes into the integrated urban water system is essential for an integrated urban water and mass balance as a base for predicting the evolution of water quality in order to establish sustainable integrated urban water systems. In particular, the processes of urban groundwater recharge and discharge provide an important transport path for nutrients and pollutants from the surface and subsurface, e.g. contaminated sites or sewer leaks, to surface waters in urban...

Canada''''s CSO technologies manual - Framework for community action

G. Zukovs & J. Marsalek
ABSTRACT Municipal wastewater authorities are increasingly exploring new and innovative treatment technologies, which are specifically designed for combined sewer overflows (CSOs). When applied as part of an overall wastewater management strategy, these technologies can produce efficient and cost-effective solutions for CSOs. However, like all technologies they require systematic design and proper operation. In many cases, the basic information needed by municipal decision makers and their engineers to evaluate, select and design CSO treatment technologies has...

Optimizing the operation of large interceptor systems

J. Lamarre, D. D. T. Duong, A. Charon & H. Colas
The operation of large interceptor systems is complex. In most systems, static regulators are used to limit inflows into interception system and ensure that treatment plant capacity is never exceeded. Full capacity is then hardly ever used and the system still overflows often. To capture more flow, especially in recurrent wet weather, interception may be regulated by dynamic regulators. Regulating these structures according to water levels in the interceptors may yield significant performance improvements but...

influence of rainfall runoff and sewer characteristics on soluble transport

I. M\303\274ller & P. Krebs
ABSTRACT When looking at acute receiving water impacts due to combined sewer overflows the characteristics of rainfall runoff and the sewer properties may influence the peak loads of dissolved matter significantly. In this paper, the influences on the dynamic soluble transport in the sewer are evaluated by means of hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are based on different scenarios for rainfall runoff characteristics and sewer properties.

On detecting gas pockets in pressurised wastewater mains

C. Lubbers & F. Clemens
In the Netherlands, wastewater is mostly collected in combined sewer system and transported to a WWTP through pressure mains. These pressure mains form an element of the system that did not receive much attention lately with respect to monitoring of performance and maintenance. Failure of operation is only noticed when during storm conditions the capacity of the system drops, resulting in undesirable discharge to the surface water. A recently made inventory showed that about half...

Phenomenological modeling of wastewater treatment plant influent disturbance scenarios

K. V. Gernaey, C. Rosen, L. Benedetti & U. Jeppsson
Deterministic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models are useful for simulation-based evaluation of design, upgrade and control alternatives on WWTP performance. However, due to high requirements of measurement campaigns in terms of time and economic resources, many simulation studies suffer from the limited availability of long influent flow rate and concentration time series representing realistic influent disturbance scenarios. In this paper, a phenomenological modeling approach for generation of WWTP influent disturbance scenarios is proposed, with focus...

Seasonal flood frequency analysis based on disaggregated urban runoff data

B. V. Matheussen, S. T. Thorolfsson & D. P. Lettenmaier
Current design procedures for urban drainage systems are based on the assumption that it is short duration summer rainfall that produces the highest annual runoff peaks. Despite this several researchers report that in cold climates urban flooding may also happen as a consequence of rain in combination with snowmelt. Because of this we chose to question the assumption of rainfall being the only factor controlling urban flooding in cold climates like in Trondheim, Norway. Through...

Water quality criteria guiding the selection and design of stormwater management measures

A. I. Lawrence & B. C. Phillips
Effective protection and management of aquatic ecosystems and other water resource values requires the establishment of clear links between catchment land use and management practice and receiving water quality. This paper demonstrates an approach to translate the receiving water protection objectives (water quality guidelines) to sustainable catchment loads of key pollutants or stressors. By comparing these values with assessments of current and projected future loads it is possible to identify the pollutant or stressor reduction...

Combination of e-learning tools and face to face for urban hydrology teaching

B. Tassin & J. C. Deutsch
The development of new information technologies gives the opportunity to move from classical face-to-face teaching to other learning techniques and media, including for instance Problem Based Learning, voice recording and video presentations. At the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chauss\303\251es, an Internet based course was developed 6 years ago, and on the basis of successful assessments by the students, it was decided to move to a CD-Rom course, based on recent technological tools. This CD-Rom...

Climate change and urban Drainage: Strategies

H. Van Luijtelaar, W. Stapel, M. Moens & A. Dirzwager
The national study \342\200\230Climatic Change and Urban Drainage: Quick Scan\342\200\231, in the Netherlands has shown that climatic change can have a significant effect on the functioning of urban drainage systems, Van Luijtelaar and Dirkzwager (2002).It is important to anticipate on the effects of climatic change knowing the fact that urban drainage systems are realized for a period of 40 years or more. The follow-up project called \342\200\230strategies\342\200\231 is aimed at developing \342\200\230strategies\342\200\231 to anticipate on...

Planning for urban floods in Sweden: the situation in Kristianstad

D. Thorsteinsson, A. Semadeni-Davies & R. Larsson
The physical planning process with respect to urban flood risk in Sweden is currently at the forefront of public perception following several floods in urban areas over recent years. The Swedish planning process has a four-tiered hierarchy covering a range of spatial scales from larger scale comprehensive plans to individual building permits; generally, the smaller the area, the tighter the planning required to manage flooding. There is a judicial vacuum when it comes to who...

Introducing APSWM - The Analytical Probabilistic Stormwater Model

Y. Guo
The analytical expressions forming the basis of the analytical probabilistic stormwater model (APSWM) were derived and verified in a series of previous papers. Probabilistic description and representation of input storm events are the major difference between APSWM and conventional stormwater models that use design storms to represent local rainfall conditions. In this paper, the fundamentals of APSWM are summarized with an emphasis on comparing it with conventional stormwater models. This comparison reveals the many advantages...

Developing and expanding the research community for SUDS

J. Davies, R. Wade, C. Jefferies & C. J. Pratt
This paper covers the creation and experience to date of the UK-based Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) research network for sustainable urban drainage systems, \342\200\230SUDSnet\342\200\231. The paper traces the evolution of UK research in SUDS and the development of the community of researchers and practitioners that has supported it. The network provides a focus for a geographically dispersed and rapidly expanding research community within the UK. It encourages cooperation between researchers and practitioners...

The stormwater ambassador program - A community education partnership between schools and local government

G. Mashiah & H. TyasTunggal
The Stormwater Ambassador program is an environmental education partnership between schools and local government which supports students selected by their schools as \342\200\234ambassadors\342\200\235 to promote stormwater and water cycle awareness within the community. Ambassadors learn about the catchment which they live in and related water issues during workshops held each school term, and then develop and implement ideas promoting community awareness. Ambassadors\342\200\231 activities have included regular newspaper columns and community newsletters, school assembly presentations, drain...

Constituents'' annual load estimation from highways

M. Kayhanian, S. Ha & M. K. Stenstrom
Constituents\342\200\231 Annual Loads Estimation (CALE) is a program to estimate annual stormwater runoff constituent loads from highways and their shoulders. It uses Visual Basic for Applications, which is included with ArcGIS Desktop (ESRI, Redlands, CA). The program is based on the rational method and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs), which has become a popular method of estimating constituent loads. The program uses several data sources which are spatially referenced by incorporation into Geographical Information System (GIS)...

To prevent floods in Bangkok: An operational radar and RTC application - Rainfall forecasting

S. Chumchean, T. Einfalt, P. Vibulsirikul & O. Mark
Bangkok is known as one of the cities with a high flooding risk because of several reasons. These include: the city\342\200\231s rapid urbanization, the Chao Praya river inflow from the north of Thailand, an inadequate drainage capacity, backwater from the tidal effects of the Gulf of Thailand, and increase of groundwater consumption causing more land subsidence and sub-sequent reduced drainage capacity. Bangkok Municipal Administration has called for a flood forecasting system integrating information from rain...

Hydrologic and water quality performance of four bioretention cells in Central North Carolina, USA

III, W. F. Hunt, L. J. Sharkey, J.T. Smith, W.G. Lord & A.R. Jarrett
Two paired, field-scale bioretention studies (in Greensboro and Louisburg, NC, USA) have been conducted to study (1) hydrologic performance and (2) nutrient removal of phosphorus and nitrogen. In Greensboro, one cell was conventionally drained; the other contains a zone of internal water saturation (IWS) of 0.45m. They were continuously monitored from June, 2002, to December, 2004. During outflow events, TP concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01) in the cell with an IWS zone, but these results...

Methodology to study the surface runoff in urban streets and the design of drainage inlets systems. Application in a real case study

B. Russo, M. G\303\263mez, P. Mart\303\255nez & H. Sanchez
Barcelona is located in the Mediterranean area in the North of Spain and this increases its hydrological problems concerning urban environment. Recently a big effort has been done to increase the capacity of the city sewers but still there are flood problems although the sewer capacity shows to be enough. This is the case of the North Bus Station area. The aim of this study was to solve the problems concerning the frequent floods in...

Flow structure at the junction of four supercritical channel flows

E. Mignot, N. Riviere, R. Perkins & A. Paquier
Supercritical flow in a 4 branch channel intersection has been studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically. The flow configuration investigated here consists of one oblique jump in the junction and one normal jump in an upstream branch, along with a deflection line, one eddying zone and two recirculation zones. The water depths have been measured rather precisely at 580 points in the junction, to provide a data base for testing theoretical and numerical models. We develop...

Infiltration of a copper roof runoff through artificial barriers

K. Athanasiadis, B. Helmreich & P. A. Wilderer
On-site infiltration of a copper roof runoff may contribute to deterioration of the ground and ground water. To avoid such a negative effect the performance of two different technical systems, equipped with four different barrier materials, regarding copper elimination was examined in a field study. During the period March 2004 to January 2005, sixteen rain events were examined. Copper concentrations between 200 and 11,000 \302\265g/l in the roof runoff during a rain event were observed....

Study on effects for improvement of wet-weather overflow taking account of the behavior of pollutant load in pumping stations in combined sewer systems

T. Meguro & T. Yamazaki
In pumping stations in combined sewer systems, pollutants accumulate in stormwater grit chambers and wet wells. They can be stirred up and discharged when stormwater pumps are started, and consequently cause pollution in public water areas. An analysis of the behavior of pollutant load in pumping stations is required for accurate assessment of the pollution situation in receiving water areas and measures for improvement of such systems. The study team proposed a simulation (box) model...

Influence of advection, dispersion, transient storage and biochemical decay on the propagation of pollutants discharged by wet weather overflows or continuous spills into streams

A. Paoletti, U. Sanfilippo & I. Innocenti
The paper analyses, under the hypothesis of steady flow in the receiving stream, the relative importance of the physical processes of advection, dispersion, transient storage in dead zones and biochemical decay on the one-dimensional propagation of pollutants, for intermittent spill (like from a sewer overflow in wet weather) or continuous spill (like from a waste water treatment plant outflow), depending on river morphology and biochemical decay rate. Two different reaches, one straight and the other...

Daily patterns of micro-organisms in the foul sewer system of Doncaster, United Kingdom

J. Rueedi, A.A. Cronin & B.L. Morris
Much is known about short-term changes in sewage volumes because they are often measured in pipeline design studies. Usually, sewage volumes peak in the morning and again in the evening, and leakage rates are expected to change correspondingly. To assess the contaminant load leaking into the subsurface, however, it is important to know the daily evolution of contaminant concentrations. These data are scarce, particularly for pathogenic micro-organisms. This study describes results of raw sewage sampling...

Bacterial loading in the water of urban streams in Helsinki, Southern Finland

O. Ruth
Little research has been done into the hygienic quality of urban waters in Finland, and virtually none during the winter, when smaller streams are covered by ice. This paper presents data on three urban streams in Helsinki compiled at weekly intervals throughout the year in the periods 1995-96 and 1998-99. The results suggest that water quality varies greatly between winters according to weather conditions, with fairly large quantities of bacteria passing into the streams with...

Hydrological modelling in identifying the unintended rainfall-runoff contributions

M. Grum, B. N. Jacobsen, J. N\303\270rremark & J. B. Thyme
Continuous monitoring of performance is playing an increasingly significant role in both real time operation and in long term management of urban drainage systems. This is combined with an increased realisation of the information that potentially can be extracted from measured series of flow, water levels, substance concentrations, temperature, pump operation and others. Whilst on the one hand leading to vast amounts of information heavy data, this development raises a number of non-trivial questions concerning...

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