373 Works

Potentials of stored Rainwater as an alternative water resource to meet the increasing water demand: A case study

T. Tamama, T. Kawasaki & Y.Nakayama
Detention/storage of rainwater instead of its quick removal is an effective control measure for urban drainage. As well as its peak-cut effect, multi-purpose use of stored rainwater is expected as an on-site water resource. Though Japan is not an arid area (annual average precipitation is 1,718mm/year) serious water supply shortage arises at times in some urban areas, due to the heavily concentrated population or industrial activities and the relatively small catchment area. Utilization of stored...

Integrated Simulation of the Berlin Sewage System and Evaluation of a global Real-time Control Concept

K. Schroeder, R. Mannel, E. Pawlowsky-Reusing & J. Broll
The paper presents the build-up of a model for the integrated simulation of the sewage system of Berlin, Germany, focusing on the catchment of the wastewater treatment plant Ruhleben. The Ruhleben catchment, draining 185 km\302\262 and a population of 1.38 million inhabitants is characterised by its high portion of combined sewerage. The model comprises the collection system, pump stations, pressurised mains and the wastewater treatment plant. Hydraulic and quality processes are taken into account. A...

A field observatory in urban drainage: the OTHU project \342\200\223 a five year experience

B. Chocat, L. Bacot, S. Barraud, P. Breil, F. Malard, J.C. Varnier & T. Winiarski
OTHU is an on-site observatory that aims to study the different processes encountered all along the urban water cycle associated with urban drainage. The OTHU project is also a research organisation comprising fifteen research laboratories working in a wide range of complementary fields including geography, climatology, hydrology, soil mechanic, soil science, hydraulic, chemistry, biology, social sciences, and economy. The research project is based on data acquisition from 5 sites where continuous monitoring of climatic parameters,...

Determining the background concentration of contaminants in a stormwater wetland

T.M. Kasper & G. A. Jenkins
Urban stormwater wetlands have been widely embraced by the community as a beneficial part of the stormwater infrastructure. Although a reasonably large body of research has been undertaken into the treatment efficiency of wetlands during storm events, relatively little is known about inter-event processes. Environmental effects such as wind direction and speed, wildlife and other anthropogenic activities have a significant impact on these processes. The development of a suitable model of these processes is limited...

Urban Drainage in Cold Climate - Education and Training

S.T. Thorolfsson & B.V. Matheussen
The overall goal of this project is to contribute to education and training in urban drainage in cold climate. If engineers are to handle year round urban drainage in cold climate, they must have education and training within urban drainage in cold climate conditions. The project, Education and Training Laboratory on Urban Drainage in Cold Climate (ETL-UD-CC) was implemented at Department of Hydraulic & Environmental Engineering, (NTNU). ETL-UD-CC is based on internet connection between Risvollan...

Underground sedimentation systems for treatment of highway runoff in dense city areas

T.J.R. Pettersson, A.-M. Str\303\266mvall & S. Ahlman
The pollutant characterization, removal efficiency and function of a newly constructed underground sedimentation system for treatment of highway runoff have been investigated. Results from flow weighted sampling, during eight consecutive storm events, show a high inflow of heavy metals and carcinogenic PAHs. The concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in the inlet water exceeded the Swedish guideline values for polluted groundwater at petrol stations. The relatively high amounts of specific PAHs such as pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, and...

Integrated urban and rural water management using modern meteorological data

A. H. Lobbrecht & S. J. Van Andel
This paper describes applications of modern meteorological data for water management in urbanised areas. A case study for the city of Rotterdam (NL) is presented. It is stated that integrated water management in urbanised areas should include another dimension by integrating operational water management of urban and rural areas. The use of modern precipitation radar contributes to this goal. The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) delivers operational radar data to municipalities and waterboards these days....

Bottom shear stress in unsteady sewer flow

V. Bare\305\241, J. Jir\303\241k & J. Pollert
The properties of unsteady open-channel turbulent flow were theoretically and experimentally investigated in a circular cross section channel with fixed sediment deposits. Velocity and turbulence distribution data were obtained using an Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP). Different uniform flow conditions and triangular-shaped hydrographs were analysed. The hydrograph analysis revealed a dynamic wave behaviour, where the time lags of mean cross section velocity, friction velocity, discharge and flow depth were all evident. The bottom shear stress dynamic...

Treatment of CSO water using floating plant beds

L. Buts, C. Thoeye & G. De Gueldre
A pilot installation treating a combined sewer overflow (CSO) at Bornem, Flanders is built. The construction comprises a presettler and a plug flow treatment zone with floating vegetation elements. The installation is aimed to treat efficiently a so-called two-year overflow event of 2,309 m\302\263 volume and 0.17 m\302\263/s peak flow. During the past three years a number of overflow events were registered. Initially the system performed well, with an observed COD-removal efficiency of 68% and...

Assessment of WWTP design and upgrade options: balancing costs and risks of standards' exceedance

L. Benedetti, D. Bixio & P. A. Vanrolleghem
Numerical models can be used to evaluate design and upgrade scenarios of urban wastewater systems on the basis of their ecological consequences. The objective of this paper is to illustrate a systematic procedure of system design/upgrade. This procedure consists of the following steps: 1) data collection and data reconstruction, 2) model building and calibration, 3) evaluation of scenarios, 4) uncertainty assessment. In contrast to conventional practice, this approach allows to choose the most appropriate trade-off...

Experimental results of a high rate pilot-scale retention treatment basin for the control of combined sewer owerflow in Windsor, Canada

A. S. El-Gendy, V. Roussinova, J.G. Li & N. Biswas
Pilot plant experiments were carried out to examine the performance of a retention treatment basin (RTB) with chemical coagulation in the treatment of combined sewer overflow (CSO) for the City of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The pilot plant was operated at surface overflow rates (SOR) up to 57 m/h. This study demonstrated that the use of polymer coagulation significantly improved settling characteristics of solids, and allowed the SOR in the RTB to be increased significantly. The...

An assessment of the cost effectiveness of vegetation harvesting as a means of removing nutrient and metals from ponds

F. Napier, M. Barrett & C. Jefferies
ABSTRACT This paper reports on an investigation to quantify the mass of pollutants removed from a stormwater retention pond by routine vegetation harvesting. The amount of plants can increase the costs of ponds, and the increased costs of plant maintenance may not be justified by enhanced pollutant removal. This study provides some of the basic information, previously lacking, which is needed to come to such decisions. The study facility was La Costa pond, a retention...

Advanced stormwater runoff characterization

M. Kayhanian
During the past seven years the California Department of Transportation has developed an extensive stormwater characterization program to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological quality of the runoff from their representative facilities. Initially the program has utilized many laboratories and environmental consultants who may not have necessarily used the same method of sample collection, quality assurance and quality control, data reporting and data validation standards. Faced with this deficiency, a set of standard protocols and...

Learning from experiences in applying integrated urban water management concepts in Australia

G. Mitchell
Integrated urban water management (IUWM) solutions take many forms, tailored to the specific characteristics and requirements of diverse locations that make up Australian cities and towns. This paper summaries a review of a selection of urban developments that incorporated integrated urban water management principles to gauge its progression with the Australian water industry. The development and ongoing provision of sustainable urban water services require both sustainable technologies and sustainable actions and behaviors of many actors...

Designing BMPs considering water quality criteria

T. Larm
We require to have a better understanding of whether the designed or constructed Best Management Practices (BMPs) are cost-effective and have the desired effects on the receiving waters or if complementary or alternative measures are needed. The operative Excel model StormTac integrates watershed, transport, recipient and BMP processes. The aim is to present the key equations and parameters. Complementary studies and uncertainties are briefly discussed. StormTac has been implemented in many case projects for planning-level...

Optimal control strategies for stormwater detention tanks

M. Zawilski & G. Sakson
The paper presents the results of optimisation of a combined sewerage system draining a real urban catchment in the city of Lodz. Application of 8 storage tanks distributed on the catchment area and a single tank at the lower part of the cachment was analysed. The calculations were performed using a set of historical rainfalls from the two-year period. Detention volume distribution across the catchment and outflow characteristics of the storage tanks have an essential...

Design and construction of plant-covered retention soil filters (RSF)

F. Frechen, W. Schier & J. Felmeden
Massive improvement of municipal wastewater treatment during the last 20 years has reduced the pollution load of our water bodies significantly. At the same time, pollution load resulting from combined sewer overflows (CSO) increased which made appropriate countermeasures necessary. Up to now, this is usually done by introducing combined wastewater basins including sedimentation as a first treatment process which does not affect the soluble substances at all. The only technology that is capable of reducing...

Modelling urban stormwater impact mitigation by using BMPs and storage tanks

G. Freni, G. Mannina & G. Viviani
The continuous growth of urban areas and the increasing public awareness about environmental impact of stormwater raised high interest on quality impact on the receiving water bodies. Indeed, in the last decades, large efforts have been provided for improving urban drainage systems in order to mitigate environmental impacts. In the present paper, a simplified modelling approach has been developed in order to evaluate the mitigation efficiency of different BMP schemes including infiltration and storage facilities...

Wet-weather pollution from commonly-used building materials

S. Clark, M. M. Lalor, R. Pitt & R. Field
Development in sensitive watersheds continues to pose environmental problems for receiving waters. One contributor to the long-term pollution of sensitive waterways is building and construction materials. However, the long-term effect of many building materials on the environment has not been quantified. Prior testing of these materials in the laboratory has indicated that the potential for release (primarily nutrients, lighter hydrocarbons, pesticides, and metals) is significant. Additional testing for metals\342\200\231 release from aged roofing panels also...

Determination of CSO spill frequency based on rainfall data

M. Skotnicki & M. Sowinski
In the paper a simple method of CSO spill frequency determination, which uses historical rainfall records and linear reservoir model, was described. The method is based on evaluation of characteristic parameters, such as the time of duration and the intensity of the rainfall which initiates CSO, further referred to as the initiating rainfall. A constant rainfall intensity and a runoff formation only from impervious surfaces was assumed, neglecting runoff hydrograph transformation in sewers by derivation...

Evaluation of pollutant runoff loads from non-point sources under the wet weather condition

M. Noguchi, N. Morio, M. Nishikawa & M. Furue
There are lots of closed water bodies. At Nagasaki in Japan, for making vivid an activity of urban life, Mizube-no-Mori Koen, that is a park of river-front forestry, has been constructed, by installing an artificial open channel and its promenade. This channel has been dammed at the downstream and so it is a closed water body. In order to make clear the water, pollutants discharged into it should be reduced, especially from non-point sources. Attaining...

Relative comparison of different types of uncertainties in sewer water quality modelling

P. Willems
Quantifiable sources of uncertainty have been identified for a case-study of integrated modelling of a sewer system with a more downstream wastewater treatment plant and storage sedimentation tank. The different sources were classified in model input and model-structure uncertainties. They were quantified and propagated towards the uncertainty in the prediction of sewer emissions (flow, and physico-chemical water quality concentrations and loads). Based on variance decomposition, the total prediction uncertainty was splitted into the contributions of...

Development of the San Diego creek natural treatment system

E. Strecker, P. Mangarella, N. Brandt, T. Hesse, K. Rathfelder & M. Leisenring
A Natural Treatment System (NTS) Master Plan that includes a watershed-wide network of constructed wetlands was evaluated for treatment effectiveness of dry weather base flows and runoff from smaller more frequent storms in a 120 square mile (311 km2) urban watershed. The goal of the \342\200\230regional retrofit\342\200\231 wetland network is to serve as an integral component in watershed-wide Best management Practices (BMPs) for compliance with pollutant loading limits (TMDLs) requiring discharge limits of sediments, nutrients,...

Study on effects for improvement of wet-weather overflow taking account of the behavior of pollutant load in pumping stations in combined sewer systems

T. Meguro & T. Yamazaki
In pumping stations in combined sewer systems, pollutants accumulate in stormwater grit chambers and wet wells. They can be stirred up and discharged when stormwater pumps are started, and consequently cause pollution in public water areas. An analysis of the behavior of pollutant load in pumping stations is required for accurate assessment of the pollution situation in receiving water areas and measures for improvement of such systems. The study team proposed a simulation (box) model...

Application of case-based reasoning to support the management of experimental constructed wetlands treating gully pot liquor

M. Scholz & B. H. Lee
The aim was to predict the treatment efficiencies for gully pot liquor of experimental vertical-flow constructed wetland filters containing Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed) and filter media of different adsorption capacities. Six out of twelve filters received inflow water spiked with metals. For two years, hydrated nickel and copper nitrate were added to sieved gully pot liquor to simulate contaminated primary treated storm runoff. For those six constructed filters receiving heavy metals,...

Registration Year

  • 2011
    373

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  • Event
    373