420 Works

The perception of flood risk and water nuisance

T. Terpstra, J. M. Gutteling, G.D. Geldof & B. Kappe
In this paper we applied the psychometric paradigm to validate a questionnaire that assesses the risk perception characteristics of flooding and water nuisance. The state-trait anxiety inventory was used as a bench mark to determine whether perceptions are related to anxiety characteristics. A focus group was used to further validate the questionnaire. Factor analyses of 49 questionnaires identified eight flooding factors (explained variance: 74%) and three water nuisance factors (explained variance: 62%). Internal consistencies of...

The stormwater ambassador program - A community education partnership between schools and local government

G. Mashiah & H. TyasTunggal
The Stormwater Ambassador program is an environmental education partnership between schools and local government which supports students selected by their schools as \342\200\234ambassadors\342\200\235 to promote stormwater and water cycle awareness within the community. Ambassadors learn about the catchment which they live in and related water issues during workshops held each school term, and then develop and implement ideas promoting community awareness. Ambassadors\342\200\231 activities have included regular newspaper columns and community newsletters, school assembly presentations, drain...

From point to areal rainfall: linking the different approaches for the frequency characterization of rainfalls in urban areas

M.H. Ramos, E. Leblois & J.-D. Creutin
In urban water design and management, many hydrologic problems involve the frequency characterization of rainfalls. Hydrologists are commonly asked to evaluate rainfall intensities for given recurrence frequencies or to indicate how rare an observed event is by estimating its return period. This study aims to improve the characterization of rainfall hazard over a city by linking point to areal rainfall frequency analysis. We use a stochastic rainfall field generator based on the turning-bands method to...

Feasibility of roof water harveseting in a cold climate

M. Brown, N. Lo, M. B. Liebman, L. J. D. Roach & R. B. Staples
Faced with mounting security of supply issues, the water supply authority in an Australian snowplay resort is trialling roof water harvesting to reduce mains water demand. A trial was established to harvest roof water from a building in Perisher Valley, New South Wales with both a roof and ground collection system. While the trial is ongoing, results from June 2004 to January 2005 show that the ground and roof collection systems collected approximately 100kL and...

Combination of e-learning tools and face to face for urban hydrology teaching

B. Tassin & J. C. Deutsch
The development of new information technologies gives the opportunity to move from classical face-to-face teaching to other learning techniques and media, including for instance Problem Based Learning, voice recording and video presentations. At the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chauss\303\251es, an Internet based course was developed 6 years ago, and on the basis of successful assessments by the students, it was decided to move to a CD-Rom course, based on recent technological tools. This CD-Rom...

Behavior of the activated storage-volume of flushing waves on cleaning performance

J. Dettmar & P. Staufer
Deposits build up in sewer networks during both dry-weather and storm-water events. Especially in combined sewers, the sediment materials cause various undesirable effects. Flushing devices are able to remove deposits in sewers by generating flushing waves. To optimize the flushing with so called Storage-Volume-Activated-Devices (SVAD) numerical studies were carried out. The objective was to investigate the behaviour of the activated storage-volume of flushing waves on cleaning performance.

Minute-Scale Wind Forecasting Using Lidar Inflow Measurements

Elliot Simon

Water quality criteria for total suspended solids (TSS) in urban wet-weather discharges

L. Rossi, R. Fankhauser & N. Ch\303\251vre
Total suspended solids (TSS) from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater discharges represent a crucial parameter for evaluating wet-weather pollution in urban areas. In fact, the increase of TSS in water during rain events can have ecotoxic effects on aquatic organisms. Furthermore, major potentially harmful substances such as heavy metals, PAHs and organic matter are adsorbed onto TSS and later settle on sediment. Water quality criteria for TSS consequently enable the risk of wet-weather pollution...

Assessment of CSO loads \342\200\223 based on UV/VIS spectroscopy by means of different regression methods

M. Hochedlinger, H. Kainz & W. Rauch
The use of UV/VIS-spectroscopy for water quality measurements is based on the solution of the correlation between the surrogate parameter absorbance and the resulting equivalence parameters. The coherence of absorbance and equivalence parameters (CODtot, CODsol, TSS) will be solved in this paper with different regression methods. The correlation of absorbance and concentrations are analysed based on linear regression methods, model tree regressions, multivariate regression methods and support vector machines using sequential minimal optimisation algorithm. For...

Comparison of infiltration flows at three types of infiltration facilities in serial rainfall events with different characteristics

M. Murakami, H. Furumai, F. Nakajima, H.K.P.K. Jinadasa & R.K. Aryal
Infiltration facilities function for the groundwater recharge, retention of non-point pollutants as well as the reduction of stormwater peak flow in urban areas. Although there have been several simulation researches focusing on reduction of stormwater peak flow by introduced infiltration facilities, limited simulations have been done to estimate the water balance and discuss the characteristics of infiltration flows. In this study, runoff quantity simulation was carried out to compare the contribution of infiltration volume for...

Confined water sensitive urban design (WSUD) stormwater filtration/infiltration systems for Australian conditions

A. Dunphy, S. Beecham, C. Jones, A. Collins, M. Liebman, J. Wells & P. Michael
This paper describes a project that investigates confined stormwater infiltration/filtration systems and their ability to reduce and retain pollutants present within stormwater runoff. These highly innovative Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) systems are located in three locations to the north and south of Sydney, Australia. They are positioned at different geographic locations and face different subsoil conditions, pollutant loadings and other constraints. The systems contain specially designed porous concrete pipes. Stormwater exfiltrates through the permeable...

The social impacts of stormwater management techniques

S. Apostolaki, C. Jefferies & T. Wild
This paper presents the results of research into the social impacts of stormwater management techniques applied within urban environments. The main aim of the study was to compare public and professional attitudes of stormwater management practices such as Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) and river management techniques. Any new and innovative technology used in residential areas, besides being economically and environmentally acceptable, must also be accepted by the residents. There has been considerable interest in...

Characterisation of urban stormwater runoff from separated sewer overflows in Luxembourg

M. Salvia-Castellvi, J. F. Iffly, C. Guignard & L. Pfister
Separated sewer overflows (SSOs) are well known for their overflows of untreated water during storm events. In this study, a total of 22 storms was surveyed in two separated sewer systems in the town of Luxembourg during the period from August 2003 to February 2004. For each storm event, both runoff and quality parameters were analysed. Inter-storm and intra-storm variability were determined for both sewers, and the relationships between Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) and runoff...

Enhanced treatment of CSO with vertical flow sand filters

M. Uhl, M. Janiczek, S. Grobe & W. Merkel
Experimental studies of vertical flow sand filters for CSO treatment were conducted in lab and semi scale to investigate the dependency of processes and treatment efficiencies on filter material characteristics and operational boundary conditions. It was found out that sands with grain sizes of 0/2 mm and carbonate additives offer the best material conditions for high elimination rates. Artificial throttling of the outflow to constant 0.01 l s-1m-2 proved to be essential for high treatment...

Modelling sorption of 3 heavy metals by porous pavements

S. Fach & W. F. Geiger
Due to the implementation of sustainable water management (systems) in Germany more and more infiltration facilities have been built in the last few years. As the infiltration of rainwater reduces the hydraulic stress and pollution of rivers and lakes by combined sewer overflows when heavy rainfall occurs, the infiltration of rainwater has been excluded from compulsory sewage disposal by law in several Federal States. Particularly in the Emscher catchment area \342\200\223 a densely populated area...

From single-objective to multiple-objective multiple-rainfall events automatic calibration of urban storm water runoff models using genetic algorithms

F. Di Pierro, S.-T. Khu & D. Savic
The calibration of storm water runoff models is a complex task. Early attempts focused on the choice of a performance criterion function that could capture all the facets of the problem into a Single-Objective framework. Subsequently, the awareness that a good calibration must necessarily take into account conflicting objectives led to the adoption of more sophisticated Multi-Objective approaches. Only recently, the focus has shifted towards effective ways of exploiting the mounting information provided by the...

New Act Legislated in Japan for Well-balanced Hydrological System and Urban Inundation Prevention

A. Okashita & K. Ogata
This paper presents the new act legislated in Japan for well-balanced hydrological system and urban inundation prevention. The comprehensive mitigation measures for flood control have been carried out by the government for nearly 30 years. Since it does not have a legal basis to stand on, there is a limitation to implement the measures on a mandatory basis. In order to supplement this disadvantage, the new act was constituted to bridge the existing laws such...

The effect of climate change on urban drainage: An evaluation based on regional climate model simulations

M.Grum, A. T. J\303\270rgensen, R. M. Johansen & J. J. Linde
That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In resent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent and consequences of climate change on urban drainage and urban runoff pollution issues. This study uses predictions from a regional climate model to look at the effects of climate...

Living Infrastructure - The Integration of Natural Drainage in the Urban Environment

P. Dedyo, P. Staeheli, T. Von Schrader & K. Gwylim
Cities across the United States are reversing the historical trend toward urban sprawl by encouraging more densely developed, mixed-use communities. These efforts provide protection for rural and natural areas, but strain existing urban infrastructure. As a result of denser developments and the resulting increase of impervious roofs and pavements under traditional construction practices, jurisdictions must increase their storm drainage capacities, which is a costly solution. Many are looking to sustainable approaches using natural systems to...

Using decision analysis to determine optimal experimental design for monitoring sewer exfiltration with tracers

J. Rieckermann, M. E. Borsuk & W. Gujer
The tracer methods developed to assess exfiltration from sewers in the European project APUSS (Assessment of the Performance of Sewer Systems) have a high degree of freedom with regard to the choice of tracer and the dosing strategy. These can lead to very different degrees of uncertainty in the measured exfiltration ratio. In this study, we demonstrate how to select an optimal experimental design using decision analysis, which accounts for this uncertainty and its associated...

10 years experience of integrated wastewater management & planning in the United Kingdom

I.T. Clifforde & R.W. Crabtree
Historically, there have been numerous environmental problems in the UK associated with combined sewer overflow (CSO) and other wet weather discharges from urban wastewater systems. There were estimated to be around 25,000 CSOs in England and Wales at the beginning of the 1990s and some 8,000 were believed to be causing pollution problems. A national research programme was undertaken by the water industry between 1980 and 1994 to address the planning needs for the wet...

Assessment of extraneous water inflow in separated sewer networks

C. Karpf & P. Krebs
Separate sewer systems provide due to the separate transport and treatment of waste water and rain water an efficient sewerage technology. But the advantage compared to combined system technology gets lost if the input of extraneous water exceeds the capacity of the system. Especially the input of rainwater into the waste water pipes depending on the drained area is responsible for an overload of the sewer system and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the...

Agil Stage-Gate®: Ny model for udviklingsprojekter i mellemstore virksomheder

Tomas Vedsmand, Kasper Edwards, Nicoline Hvidt, Michael Nielsen & Jens Kristian Jørgensen

Pollution based real time control of a combined sewer overflow structure

K. Klepiszewski
Real time control processes in combined sewer systems are normally based on measurements of the hydraulic load conditions in the system. Dependent on the conditions, the flow in the system is adjusted to optimise the utilisation of available storage volume, to reduce discharged volume and pollutant loads into receiving water courses, and to support the operation of waste water treatment plants. Moreover, if the focal point of interest is the reduction of emitted pollutant loads...

GREEN TECHNOLOGY, Delaware\342\200\231s urban runoff management approach

W.C. Lucas
It is well recognized that the best approach to mitigate watershed impacts of urbanization is to develop runoff management practices that focus on retaining rainfall where it lands. This is a fundamental benefit of Low Impact Design (LID). Recent studies have shown that reductions in runoff volumes, peak flows, and pollutant loads using LID techniques can be substantial. Delaware\342\200\231s Urban Runoff Management Approach to LID is a type of \342\200\234Green Technology\342\200\235 (Lucas, 2004a). It is...

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