420 Works

Characteristics of benzo(a)pyrene in highway runoff pollution

Y. Wada, T. Ozaki & M. Muraoka
The influence on receiving water of highway runoff is considered to be serious in Japan. On the road surface, tire wear, automobile exhaust emissions, floating in the atmosphere and so on, accumulate on the road surface and in its lateral ditches. This polluted matter is discharged by stormwater into the receiving water. These accumulated pollution loads contain harmful materials to both the human body and the ecosystem. In this study, the amount of accumulated pollutants...

Using decision analysis to determine optimal experimental design for monitoring sewer exfiltration with tracers

J. Rieckermann, M. E. Borsuk & W. Gujer
The tracer methods developed to assess exfiltration from sewers in the European project APUSS (Assessment of the Performance of Sewer Systems) have a high degree of freedom with regard to the choice of tracer and the dosing strategy. These can lead to very different degrees of uncertainty in the measured exfiltration ratio. In this study, we demonstrate how to select an optimal experimental design using decision analysis, which accounts for this uncertainty and its associated...

Artificial intelligence techniques for short-term rainfall forecast

I.J. Pelczer & H.L. Cisneros Iturbe
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the appropriateness of the use of artificial intelligence techniques for short term rainfall forecast in a large urban basin. The work represents the first step of a year-term enterprise that has as final purposes the spatial-temporal characterization and forecast of rainfall events in Mexico City based on rain-gauge data only and modeling the rainfall-runoff relation for the same region. In a first approach we analyzed the...

Development of climate and urban drainage scenarios for impact assessment for Helsingborg, southern Sweden

A. Semadeni-Davies, C. Hernebring, G. Svensson & L. G. Gustafsson
Climate change due to human activities has the possibility of changing both the natural and built environment over the coming decades. As the global population grows and becomes more urbanised, stakeholders have an urgent need for tools to assess the impacts of global warming on urban water resources. However, to date, coping strategies and new technologies have not been addressed within most hydrological impact assessments. This paper presents a project to investigate the relative effects...

Comparison of numerical and experimental simulations of a flood in a dense urban area

E. Mignot, A. Paquier & T. Ishigaki
Although various numerical methods were used to simulate real floods occurring in cities, the validation of the models was never accurate because of the lack of data about location and event description and about observation for validation. In order to check the capacities of our 2-dimensional shallow water equations model to simulate an urban flood, we then decided to simulate numerically an experimental event with well known characteristics and accurate flow measurements. The physical model...

An assessment of the cost effectiveness of vegetation harvesting as a means of removing nutrient and metals from ponds

F. Napier, M. Barrett & C. Jefferies
ABSTRACT This paper reports on an investigation to quantify the mass of pollutants removed from a stormwater retention pond by routine vegetation harvesting. The amount of plants can increase the costs of ponds, and the increased costs of plant maintenance may not be justified by enhanced pollutant removal. This study provides some of the basic information, previously lacking, which is needed to come to such decisions. The study facility was La Costa pond, a retention...

Mitigation measures towards morphological alterations of rivers: The receiving water as part of the integrated wastewater system

C. Engelhard, S. Achleitner, I. Lek & W. Rauch
Measures in the rivers, their potential to mitigate morphological alterations caused by overflow events of urban drainage structures and their cost-effectiveness have been investigated. The receiving water is seen as part of the urban wastewater system since integrated management of the system has to consider measures in the receiving water as an option for improvement of the system. In this study the measures were evaluated using the software tool REBEKA. It has been found that...

Distributed hydrologic model with Bayesian Monte Carlo technique to estimate surface loading in urban area

D. Sutani, T. Kawaguchi & M. Shirahama
There are a lot of uncertain factors involved in runoff analysis for urban area. Among others, accumulated non-point loadings on urban surface and in ditch or drains are eminent parameters, which are generally introduced as definite values into runoff model. However, it is desirable that these parameters are treated as continuous probability variables so as to discuss and make decision for effective counter measures based on the degree-of-belief of the model parameters. In order to...

International urban drainage research database

T. Beenen, G. Vaes, R. Bouteligier & R.G. Veldkamp
The RIONED Foundation (www.riool.net) is the national not-for-profit knowledge centre on sewer systems and urban drainage in The Netherlands. RIONED contracted the University of Leuven and the Delft University of Technology to develop a database on the published results of research projects in the field of urban drainage. The database must give insight in the state of the art of the research in this field, the centres of knowledge on specific themes and must open...

Framework for water and flood risk management in the City of Bradford

J. Blanksby, A. Saul, R. Ashley, A. Cashman, T. Poole & D. Melling
Fluvial and pluvial flooding in recent years within Bradford has resulted in the establishment of an independent enquiry into flood management by the District Council. The enquiry has identified a number of issues that must be addressed if the Council and the other key stakeholders are to act effectively to reduce the impact of flooding. The Council is working alongside researchers and other partners in research projects to improve flood risk management and to investigate...

Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Railway Steels for Switches and Crossings

Somrita Dhar

Integrated modeling and multi-objective evolution strategy as a method for water quality oriented optimization of urban drainage systems

D. Muschalla, M. Ostrowski, K. Schr\303\266ter & S. W\303\266rsching
This paper deals with the development of a new multi-objective evolution strategy in combination with an integrated pollution-load and water-quality model. The optimization algorithm combines the advantages of the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies. The identification of a good spread of solutions on the pareto-optimum front and the optimization of a large number of decision variables equally demands numerous simulation runs. In addition, statements with regard to the frequency of critical concentrations...

A dimensionless approach for determining the scouring performances of flushing waves in sewer channels

A. Campisano, E. Creaco & C. Modica
In the management of sewer systems great attention has recently been addressed to the problems determined by the accumulation of sediments on the bottom of the channels. The hydraulic flushing devices have proved to be a cost-effective solution for the channel cleansing and therefore they have been adopted in several sewer networks. This paper reports the results of a numerical investigation on the scouring performances of flushing waves. For the investigation, a numerical model based...

Experimental study of detention/infiltration trenches

A. Proton & B. Chocat
BMPs aim to reduce the flow of water and pollutants discharged by cities during rainy periods. Detention and/or infiltration trenches are one of the techniques that can be used. Lack of knowledge as to the hydraulic functioning of such facilities still hinders their use. The objective of the present research programme, carried out jointly by URGC, SOGEA Rhone-Alpes and Greater Lyon, is to optimise trench design. The project is mainly based on an experimental study...

Exfiltration from sewers - Is it a serious problem?

D. Blackwood, D. J. Gilmour, J. B. Ellis, D. M. Revitt & A. Stainess
This paper contends that estimates of exfiltration leakage from sewers, and the problems arising from it may be too high due to an underestimation of the \342\200\234self-repairing\342\200\235 action of sewage and sewage sediments in raw sewage. Two aspects of a continuing programme of research are reported; (i) the measurement of exfiltration rates from a range of defects in a sewer pipe with pipe bedding effects simulated by a dry gravel trench surround to the pipe,...

Flood control measures in Kuala Lumpur city centre

W. S. Wong, M. N. Zulkifli, K. W. Loke & N. M. K. Nik Hassan
ABSTRACT Due to rapid urbanisation in the Kuala Lumpur city, flooding has become very frequent and severe in the recent years that have caused great economical losses and disruption to social activities. Immediate flood control measures have to be implemented and because of the land constraint, the proposed measures have to be innovative to achieve the required protection level with minimum disturbance to the present conditions. The project work involved a detailed review of previous...

CSO detention tanks in Barcelona: Real time control design and operation

I. Escaler, A. Gil, R. Guasch & J. M. Verdejo
The environmental concern in the sewerage field has led Barcelona to build and operate its first CSO (combined sewer overflow) detention tank. It has been built in the zone of Forum de les Cultures 2004 and its main objective is the environmental protection of the new area seafront. This tank will be part of the Remote Control System of Barcelona\342\200\231s sewer network so its regulation strategy has been designed. This paper presents the design process...

On the issue of trend and noise in the estimation of extreme rainfall properties

W. Rauch & S. De Toffol
Up until today extreme rainfall properties are frequently applied in sewer design guidelines. Uncertainty in the estimation of such properties will hence directly influence the dimensions of sewers, structures and pumps. In this paper the issue of potential trend and noise in the estimation is investigated for 6 rain series from ranging from 19 to 55 years in duration. Different to recent research that predicts a - climate induced \342\200\223 increase in heavy precipitation no...

Two-phase stratified flows in downwardly inclined pipes. Linear stability analysis.

M. Mutti, G. Becciu & A. Paoletti
In free surface flow modelling, interactions between air and water are often neglected. However, considering the shear stresses at the air-water interface leads, on the one hand, to water depths which may be different from those predicted from standard single-phase models and, on the other, to a better identification of unstable flow conditions. In both cases, the differences can be relevant in testing sewer networks, especially when high water depths and flow rates are involved...

Phenomenological modeling of wastewater treatment plant influent disturbance scenarios

K. V. Gernaey, C. Rosen, L. Benedetti & U. Jeppsson
Deterministic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models are useful for simulation-based evaluation of design, upgrade and control alternatives on WWTP performance. However, due to high requirements of measurement campaigns in terms of time and economic resources, many simulation studies suffer from the limited availability of long influent flow rate and concentration time series representing realistic influent disturbance scenarios. In this paper, a phenomenological modeling approach for generation of WWTP influent disturbance scenarios is proposed, with focus...

Historical overview of the Copenhagen sewerage system

S. S\303\270rensen, B. Petersen, N. Kofod & P. Jakobsen
The Copenhagen sewerage system was established in 1857. Thus, in 2007 we celebrate our 150th anniversary. Previous to the establishment there were some years of discussion of the principle \342\200\223 combined vs. separate sewer network. Most of the sewer network we know today was founded 1860-1910. Until 1892 the contents of latrines were still collected and driven to the country for fertilization. The rest of the sewage was lead to the harbour, causing extreme odours...

Field monitoring and evaluation of the stormwater management StormFilter\302\256 in the State of Washington

J. H. Lenhart & S. De Ridder
In 2003 the Washington State Department of Ecology adopted new criteria defining a design storm and expected BMP removal performance. Ecology also formed a Technical Review Committee (TRC) to establish a protocol for evaluating BMPs, which became known as the \342\200\234Technology Acceptance Protocol\342\200\224Ecology\342\200\235 (TAPE). To gain approval a manufacturer prepares an application including a technology description, maintenance and cost information, laboratory and field data. Based on this application the TRC gives a designation. Technologies receiving...

From point to areal rainfall: linking the different approaches for the frequency characterization of rainfalls in urban areas

M.H. Ramos, E. Leblois & J.-D. Creutin
In urban water design and management, many hydrologic problems involve the frequency characterization of rainfalls. Hydrologists are commonly asked to evaluate rainfall intensities for given recurrence frequencies or to indicate how rare an observed event is by estimating its return period. This study aims to improve the characterization of rainfall hazard over a city by linking point to areal rainfall frequency analysis. We use a stochastic rainfall field generator based on the turning-bands method to...

Feasibility of roof water harveseting in a cold climate

M. Brown, N. Lo, M. B. Liebman, L. J. D. Roach & R. B. Staples
Faced with mounting security of supply issues, the water supply authority in an Australian snowplay resort is trialling roof water harvesting to reduce mains water demand. A trial was established to harvest roof water from a building in Perisher Valley, New South Wales with both a roof and ground collection system. While the trial is ongoing, results from June 2004 to January 2005 show that the ground and roof collection systems collected approximately 100kL and...

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