295 Works

This is it ! : Indicating and looking in collaborative work at distance

Cherubini, Mauro; Telefonica Research, Barcelona, Nüssli, Marc-Antoine; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne & Dillenbourg, Pierre; Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, Lausanne
Little is known of the interplay between deixis and eye movements in remote collaboration. This paper presents quantitative results from an experiment where participant pairs had to collaborate at a distance using chat tools that differed in the way messages could be enriched with spatial information from the map in the shared workspace. We studied how the availability of what we defined as an Explicit Referencing mechanism (ER) affected the coordination of the eye movements...

Eye tracking scanpath analysis techniques on web pages: A survey, evaluation and comparison

Eraslan, Sukru; University Of Manchester, UK, & Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Turkey, Yesilada, Yeliz; Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, 99738 Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, Mersin 10, Turkey & Harper, Simon; School Of Computer Science, University Of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
Eye tracking has commonly been used to investigate how users interact with web pages, with the goal of improving their usability. This article comprehensively revisits the techniques that could be applicable to eye tracking data for analysing user scanpaths on web pages. It also uses a third-party eye tracking study to compare these techniques. This allows researchers to recognise existing techniques for their goals, understand how they work and know their strengths and limitations so...

Parsing eye movement analysis of scanpaths of naïve viewers of art: How do we differentiate art from non-art pictures?

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neuroophthalmology Unit, Department Of Neurology, University Hamburg, FRG & Privitera, Claudio; Dept. Of Physiological Optics And Optometry, UC Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Relating to G. Buswell’s early work we posed the questions: How do art-naïve people look at pairs of artful pictures and similarly looking snapshots? Does the analysis of their eye movement recordings reveal a difference in their perception? Parsing eye scanpaths using string editing, similarity coefficients can be sorted out and represented for the two measures ‘Sp’ (Similarities of position) and ‘Ss’ (Similarities of sequences). 25 picture pairs were shown 5 times to 7 subjects...

Eye movements in scene perception while listening to slow and fast music

Leon Van Noorden, Denis Šefara, Roman Mlejnek, Marek Franěk & Jan Petružálek
To date, there is insufficient knowledge of how visual exploration of outdoor scenes may be influenced by the simultaneous processing of music. Eye movements during viewing various outdoor scenes while listening to music at either a slow or fast tempo or in silence were measured. Significantly shorter fixations were found for viewing urban scenes compared with natural scenes, but there was no interaction between the type of scene and the acoustic conditions. The results revealed...

Topology for gaze analyses - Raw data segmentation

Zangemeister, Wolfgang H.; Neurological University Clinic Hamburg & Hein, Oliver; University Hamburg
Recent years have witnessed a remarkable growth in the way mathematics, informatics,and computer science can process data. In disciplines such as machine learning,pattern recognition, computer vision, computational neurology, molecular biology,information retrieval, etc., many new methods have been developed to cope with theever increasing amount and complexity of the data. These new methods offer interestingpossibilities for processing, classifying and interpreting eye-tracking data. Thepresent paper exemplifies the application of topological arguments to improve theevaluation of eye-tracking data....

Abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements 2011

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence, Castet, Eric; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée & Goffart, Laurent; CNRS, Université De La Méditerranée
This document contains all abstracts of the 16th European Conference on Eye Movements, August 21-25 2011 in Marseille, France. It was a real honour and a great pleasure to welcome more than 500 delegates to Marseille for the 16th edition of the European Conference on Eye Movements. The series of ECEM conferences started in 1981 under the auspices of Rudolf Groner in Bern. This year, we therefore celebrated the 30th Anniversary of ECEM. For this...

LCD vs. E-ink: An Analysis of the Reading Behavior

Siegenthaler, Eva; Swiss Distance University Of Applied Sciences, Wyss, Michael; University Of Bern, Wurtz, Pascal; GfK Switzerland AG, SirValUse, Biel & Schmid, Laura; University Of Bern
Electronic books (e-book) are an interesting option compared to classic paper books. Most e-reading devices of the first generation were based on e-ink technology. With the appearance of the Apple iPad on the market, TFT-LCDs became important in the field of e-reading. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages but the question remains whether one or the other technology is better for reading. In the present study we analyzed and compared reading behavior when reading on...

The behavioural and neurophysiological modulation of microsaccades in monkeys

Bell, Andrew H.; Queen’s University, Fecteau, Jillian H.; Queen’s University, Corneil, Brian D.; University Of Western Ontario, Munoz, Douglas P.; Queen’s University & Brien, Donald C.; Queen’s University
Systematic modulations of microsaccades have been observed in humans during covert orienting. We show here that monkeys are a suitable model for studying the neurophysiology governing these modulations of microsaccades. Using various cue-target saccade tasks, we observed the effects of visual and auditory cues on microsaccades in monkeys. As in human studies, following visual cues there was an early bias in cue-congruent microsaccades followed by a later bias in cue-incongruent microsaccades. Following auditory cues there...

Eye-movements in real curve driving: pursuit-like optokinesis in vehicle frame of reference, stability in an allocentric reference coordinate system

Lehtonen, Esko; University Of Helsinki & Lappi, Otto; University Of Helsinki
Looking at the future path and/or the tangent point (TP) have been identified as car drivers’ gaze targets in many studies on curve driving. Yet little is known in detail about these "fixations to the road". We quantitatively analyse gaze behavior at the level of individual fixations in real on-road data. We find that while gaze tracks the TP area, this pattern consists of fast optokinetic movements (smooth pursuit and fast resetting saccadic movements). Gaze...

A linear oscillator model predicts dynamic temporal attention and pupillary entrainment to rhythmic patterns

Brian K. Hurley, Petr Janata, Joy J. Geng & Lauren K. Fink
Rhythm is a ubiquitous feature of music that induces specific neural modes of processing. In this paper, we assess the potential of a stimulus-driven linear oscillator model (Tomic & Janata, 2008) to predict dynamic attention to complex musical rhythms on an instant-by-instant basis. We use perceptual thresholds and pupillometry as attentional indices against which to test our model pre- dictions. During a deviance detection task, participants listened to continuously looping, multi- instrument, rhythmic patterns, while...

Early attraction in temporally controlled sight reading of music

Anna-Kaisa Ylitalo, Erkki Huovinen & Marjaana Puurtinen
A music reader has to “look ahead” from the notes currently being played—this has usually been called the Eye-Hand Span. Given the restrictions on processing time due to tempo and meter, the Early Attraction Hypothesis suggests that sight readers are likely to locally increase the span of looking ahead in the face of complex upcoming symbols (or symbol relationships). We argue that such stimulus-driven effects on looking ahead are best studied using a measure of...

The Effect of Real-time Headbox Adjustments on Data Quality

Blignaut, Pieter; University Of The Free State, South Africa
Following a patent owned by Tobii, the framerate of a CMOS camera can be increased by reducing the size of the recording window so that it fits the eyes with minimum room to spare. The position of the recording window can be dynamically adjusted within the camera sensor area to follow the eyes as the participant moves the head. Since only a portion of the camera sensor data is communicated to the computer and processed,...

Error Correction in Vergence Eye Movements: Evidence Supporting Hering’s Law

Semmlow, John L.; Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology & Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International
In pure symmetrical vergence eye movements, a fusion initiating component quickly brings the eyes close to the desired position. A small error usually remains after this response which must be corrected to attain the small final vergence error (i.e., fixation disparity). Error correction will usually involve both version and version movements so possible mechanisms include: small saccades, smooth pursuit, symmetrical vergence, or some combination. Alternatively, an asymmetrical vergence or uniocular slow eye movement could be...

Pupillary dilation response reflects surprising moments in music

Makio Kashino, Yoneya Makoto, Shigeto Furukawa & Hsin-I Liao
There are indications that the pupillary dilation response (PDR) reflects surprising moments in an auditory sequence such as the appearance of a deviant noise against repetitively presented pure tones (Liao, Yoneya, Kidani, Kashino, & Furukawa, 2016), and salient and loud sounds that are evaluated by human participants subjectively (Liao, Kidani, Yoneya, Kashino, & Furukawa, 2016). In the current study, we further examined whether the reflection of PDR in auditory surprise can be accumulated and revealed...

How a distractor influences fixations during the exploration of natural scenes

Nathalie Guyader, Devillez, Hélène; Université De Grenoble-Alpes, France & Anne Guérin-Dugué
The distractor effect is a well-established means of studying different aspects of fixation pro-gramming during the exploration of visual scenes. In this study, we present a task-irrelevant distractor to participants during the free exploration of natural scenes. We investigate the con-trol and programming of fixations by analyzing fixation durations and locations, and the link between the two. We also propose a simple mixture model evaluated using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to test the distractor effect on...

Eye tracking study of attention to print advertisements: Effects of typeface figuration

Možina, Klementina; University Of Ljubljana, Faculty Of Natural Sciences And Engineering, Department Of Textiles, Graphic Arts And Design, Nedeljković, Uroš; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design, Puškarević, Irma; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design & Dimovski, Vladimir; University Of Novi Sad, Faculty Of Technical Sciences, Department Of Graphic Engineering And Design
The use of rhetorical figures has become a widely–accepted method for capturing attention and positively increasing cognitive effort in print advertisements. So far research studies mostly analyzed the effect of rhetorical figures in the written as well as pictorial elements of an ad. However, there have been few studies addressing the effect of rhetorical figuration in the specific area of typeface design. This study analyzes the effects of typeface figuration (i.e., regular vs. irregular stylization...

Idiosyncratic Feature-Based Gaze Mapping

Blignaut, Pieter; Department Of Computer Science And Informatics, University Of The Free State, South Africa
It is argued that polynomial expressions that are normally used for remote, video-based, low cost eye tracking systems, are not always ideal to accommodate individual differences in eye cleft, position of the eye in the socket, corneal bulge, astigmatism, etc. A procedure to identify a set of polynomial expressions that will provide the best possible accuracy for a specific individual is proposed. It is also proposed that regression coefficients are recalculated in real-time, based on...

Cueing Visual Attention to Spatial Locations With Auditory Cues

Crawford, Trevor J.; Lancaster University & Kean, Matthew; University Of Manchester
We investigated exogenous and endogenous orienting of visual attention to the spatial loca-tion of an auditory cue. In Experiment 1, significantly faster saccades were observed to vis-ual targets appearing ipsilateral, compared to contralateral, to the peripherally-presented cue. This advantage was greatest in an 80% target-at-cue (TAC) condition but equivalent in 20% and 50% TAC conditions. In Experiment 2, participants maintained central fixation while making an elevation judgment of the peripheral visual target. Performance was significantly...

Using simultaneous scanpath visualization to investigate the influence of visual behaviour on medical image interpretation

Davies, Alan Richard; University Of Manchester, Harper, Simon; University Of Manchester, Jay, Caroline; University Of Manchester & Vigo, Markel; University Of Manchester
In this paper, we explore how a number of novel methods for visualizing and analyzing differences in eye-tracking data, including scanpath length, Levenshtein distance, and visual transition frequency, can help to elucidate the methods clinicians use for interpreting 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs). Visualizing the differences between multiple participants’ scanpaths simultaneously allowed us to answer questions including: do clinicians fixate randomly on the ECG, or do they apply a systematic approach?; is there a relationship between interpretation...

Microsaccade characterization using the continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis

Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam, Bettenbühl, Mario; University Of Potsdam, Paladini, Claudia; University Of Potsdam, Holschneider, Matthias; University Of Potsdam, Engbert, Ralf; University Of Potsdam & Mergenthaler, Konstantin; University Of Potsdam
During visual fixation on a target, humans perform miniature (or fixational) eye movements consisting of three components, i.e., tremor, drift, and microsaccades. Microsaccades are high velocity components with small amplitudes within fixational eye movements. However, microsaccade shapes and statistical properties vary between individual observers. Here we show that microsaccades can be formally represented with two significant shapes which we identfied using the mathematical definition of singularities for the detection of the former in real data...

Comparing written and photo-based indoor wayfinding instructions through eye fixation measures and user ratings as mental effort assessments

Ralph Michels, Nina Vanhaeren, Pepijn Viaene, Alain De Wulf, Philippe De Maeyer, Nico Van De Weghe, Laure De Cock & Kristien Ooms
The use of mobile pedestrian wayfinding applications is gaining importance indoors. However, compared to outdoors, much less research has been conducted with respect to the most adequate ways to convey indoor wayfinding information to a user. An explorative study was conducted to compare two pedestrian indoor wayfinding applications, one text-based (SoleWay) and one image-based (Eyedog), in terms of mental effort. To do this, eye tracking data and mental effort ratings were collected from 29 participants...

The Illusion of Being Located in Dynamic Virtual Environments. Can Eye Movement Parameters Predict Spatial Presence?

Weibel, David; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Mast, Fred W.; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Stricker, Daniel; University Of Bern, Switzerland, Siegenthaler, Eva; Distance Learning University Switzerland & Wissmath, Bartholomäus; University Of Bern, Switzerland
Attention allocation towards the mediated environment is assumed to be a necessary precondition to feel localized in a virtual world. In presence research, however, the potential of eye movement research has not been fully exploited so far. In this study, participants (N=44) rode on a virtual roller coaster simulation. We compare participants scoring high versus low on presence. During the ride, the eye movements and subjective ex post presence judgments were assessed. We found high...

Comparison of the precision of smooth pursuit in humans and head unrestrained monkeys

Bremmer, Frank; University Of Marburg Center For Mind, Brain And Behavior, Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Giessen University Center For Mind, Brain And Behavior, Churan, Jan; University Of Marburg Center For Mind, Brain And Behavior & Braun, Doris I.; Giessen University Center For Mind, Brain And Behavior
Direct comparison of results of humans and monkeys is often complicated by differences in experimental conditions. We replicated in head unrestrained macaques experiments of a recent study comparing human directional precision during smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) and saccades to moving targets (Braun & Gegenfurtner, 2016). Directional precision of human SPEM follows an exponential decay function reaching optimal values of 1.5°-3° within 300 ms after target motion onset, whereas precision of initial saccades to moving...

Functionally sequenced scanpath similarity method (FuncSim): Comparing and evaluating scanpath similarity based on a task’s inherent sequence of functional (action) units

Schneider, Werner X.; University Of Bielefeld & Foerster, Rebecca M.; University Of Bielefeld
Measures of scanpath similarity are essential in many domains of eye tracking research. Depending on the question, different calculations are adequate. We (Foerster, Carbone, Koesling, & Schneider, 2011) developed a method with a functional matching procedure suitable for sequential tasks. Here, we report two extensions. We introduced an alignment variant making the method more robust across tasks. We added the possibility to compare scanpaths according to multiple characteristics. The extended method, here called “functionally sequenced...

Saccadic Behavior during the Response to Pure Vergence Stimuli I: General Properties

Alvarez, Tara L.; New Jersey Institute Of Technology, Newark, New Jersey, USA, Pedrono, Claude; Essilor International, SA, Saint Maur, FRANCE, Chen, Yung-Fu; Department And Institute Of Health Services Administration, China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan. & Semmlow, John; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School UMDNJ New Brunswick, New Jersey USA / Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey USA
If two targets are carefully aligned so that they fall along the cyclopean axis, the required eye movement will be symmetrical with the two eyes turning equally inward or outward. When such “pure vergence stimuli” are used only a “pure vergence movement” is required, yet almost all responses include saccadic eye movements, a rapid tandem movement of the eyes. When saccades occur, they must either produce an error in the desired symmetrical response or correct...

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