295 Works

Syntax highlighting as an influencing factor when reading and comprehending source code

Beelders, Tanya R.; University Of The Free State Bloemfontein, South Africa & Jean-Pierre L. Du Plessis
Syntax highlighting or syntax colouring, plays a vital role in programming development environments by colour-coding various code elements differently. The supposition is that this syntax highlighting assists programmers when reading and analysing code. However, academic text books are largely only available in black-and-white which could influence the comprehension of novice and beginner programmers. This study investigated whether student programmers experience more difficulty in reading and comprehending source code when it is presented without syntax highlighting....

Systematic tendencies in scene viewing

Vincent, Benjamin T.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
While many current models of scene perception debate the relative roles of low- and highlevel factors in eye guidance, systematic tendencies in how the eyes move may be informative. We consider how each saccade and fixation is influenced by that which preceded or followed it, during free inspection of images of natural scenes. We find evidence to suggest periods of localized scanning separated by ‘global’ relocations to new regions of the scene. We also find...

Using coefficient K to distinguish ambient/focal visual attention during map viewing

Niedzielska, Anna; National Information Processing Institute, Poland, Krejtz, Krzysztof; SWPS University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Coltekin, Arzu; Department Of Geography, University Of Zurich & Duchowski, Andrew; Clemson University
We demonstrate the use of the ambient/focal coecient K for studying the dynamics of visual behavior when performing cartographic tasks. Participants viewed a cartographic map and satellite image of Barcelona while performing a number of map-related tasks. Cartographic maps can be viewed as summary representations of reality, while satellite images are typically more veridical, and contain considerably more information. Our analysis of traditional eye movement metrics suggests that the satellite representation facilitates longer fixation durations,...

A method to compensate head movements for mobile eye tracker using invisible markers

Osawa, Rie; The University Of Tokyo & Shirayama, Susumu; The University Of Tokyo
Although mobile eye-trackers have wide measurement range of gaze, and high flexibility, it is difficult to judge what a subject is actually looking at based only on obtained coordinates, due to the influence of head movement. In this paper, a method to compensate for head movements while seeing the large screen with mobile eye-tracker is proposed, through the use of NIR-LED markers embedded on the screen. The head movements are compensated by performing template matching...

Direction Estimation Model for Gaze Controlled Systems

Pawanesh Abrol & Sharma, Anjana; University Of Jammu
Detection of gaze requires estimation of the position and the relation between user’s pupil and glint. This position is mapped into the region of interest using different edge detectors by detecting the glint coordinates and further gaze direction. In this research paper, a Gaze Direction Estimation (GDE) model has been proposed for the comparative analysis of two standard edge detectors Canny and Sobel for estimating automatic detection of the glint, its coordinates and subsequently the...

Eye on Music Reading: A Methodological Review of Studies from 1994 to 2017

Puurtinen, Marjaana; University Of Turku
In this review, we focus on the methodological aspects of eye-tracking research in the domain of music, published and/or available between 1994 and 2017, and we identify potentially fruitful next steps to increase coherence and systematicity within this emerging field. We review and discuss choices of musical stimuli, the conditions under which these were performed (i.e. control of performance tempo and music-reading protocols), performer’s level of musical expertise, and handling of performance errors and eye-movement...

Scan path visualization and comparison using visual aggregation techniques

Hurter, Christophe; ENAC & Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; ISAE-Supaéro
We demonstrate the use of different visual aggregation techniques to obtain non-cluttered visual representations of scanpaths. First, fixation points are clustered using the mean-shift algorithm. Second, saccades are aggregated using the Attribute-Driven Edge Bundling (ADEB) algorithm that handles a saccades direction, onset timestamp, magnitude or their combination for the edge compatibility criterion. Flow direction maps, computed during bundling, can be visualized separately (vertical or horizontal components) or as a single image using the Oriented Line...

Does color influence eye movements while exploring videos?

Hamel, Shahrbanoo; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Guyader, Nathalie; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France, Pellerin, Denis; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France & Houzet, Dominique; Gipsa-Lab, CNRS Grenoble-Alpes University, France
Although visual attention studies consider color as one of the most important features in guiding visual attention, few studies have investigated how color influences eye movements while viewing natural scenes without any particular task. To better understand the visual features that drive attention, the aim of this paper was to quantify the influence of color on eye movements when viewing dynamic natural scenes. The influence of color was investigated by comparing the eye positions of...

Audio-visual integration during overt visual attention

Quigley, Cliodhna; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Onat, Selim; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck, Cooke, Martin; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield, König, Peter; Neurobiopsychology Department, Institute Of Cognitive Science, University Of Osnabrueck & Harding, Sue; Speech And Hearing Group, Department Of Computer Science, University Of Sheffield
How do different sources of information arising from different modalities interact to control where we look? To answer this question with respect to real-world operational conditions we presented natural images and spatially localized sounds in (V)isual, Audio-visual (AV) and (A)uditory conditions and measured subjects' eye-movements. Our results demonstrate that eye-movements in AV conditions are spatially biased towards the part of the image corresponding to the sound source. Interestingly, this spatial bias is dependent on the...

Saccade Latency and Fixation Stability: Repeatability and Reliability

Langaas, Trine; University College Of Southeast Norway & Horgen, Gro; Vikesdal University College Of Southeast Norway, Norwegian University Of Life Sciences
This study aimed to investigate the repeatability and reliability of saccadic latency and fixation stability as a function of sighting-dominance and contact lens wear. Eye movements were recorded in 12 healthy adults who performed a pro- saccade and a fixation task in four conditions; baseline, retest, non-sighting eye viewing and plano contact lens wear. The re-sults showed that saccadic latency and fixation stability (indexed via logBCEA) have good internal consistency, reliability and repeatability, which are...

Visual search without central vision – no single pseudofovea location is best

Lingnau, Angelika; University Of Trento, Italy, Albrecht, Thorsten; Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany, Vorberg, Dirk; Westfälische Wilhems-Universität Münster, Germany & Schwarzbach, Jens; University Of Trento, Italy
We typically fixate targets such that they are projected onto the fovea for best spatial resolution. Macular degeneration patients often develop fixation strategies such that targets are projected to an intact eccentric part of the retina, called pseudofovea. A longstanding debate concerns which pseudofovea-location is optimal for non-foveal vision. We examined how pseudofovea position and eccentricity affect performance in visual search, when vision is restricted to an off-foveal retinal region by a gaze-contingent display that...

Eye-tracking multi-word units: some methodological questions

Carrol, Gareth; University Of Nottingham & Conklin, Kathy; University Of Nottingham
Eye-tracking in linguistics has focused mainly on reading at the level of the word or sentence. In this paper we discuss how the phenomenon of formulaic language might best be examined using this methodology. Formulaic language is fundamentally multi-word in nature, therefore an approach to eye-tracking that considers the “word” as the basic unit of analysis may require re-evaluation. We review the existing literature on single word and sentence processing, and also those studies that...

Aftereffects of Saccades Explored in a Dynamic Neural Field Model of the Superior Colliculus

Trappenberg, Thomas P.; Dalhousie University, Satel, Jason; Dalhousie University, Klein, Raymond M.; Dalhousie University & Wang, Zhiguo; Dalhousie University & Chinese Academy Of Sciences
When viewing a scene or searching for a target, an observer usually makes a series of saccades that quickly shift the orientation of the eyes. The present study explored how one saccade affects subsequent saccades within a dynamic neural field model of the superior colliculus (SC). The SC contains an oculocentric motor map that encodes the vector of saccades and remaps to the new fixation location after each saccade. Our simulations demonstrated that the observation...

Sampling rate influences saccade detection in mobile eye tracking of a reading task

Wahl, Siegfried; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Leube, Alexander; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen & Rifai, Katharina; Institute For Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen
The purpose of this study was to compare saccade detection characteristics in two mobile eye trackers with different sampling rates in a natural task. Gaze data of 11 participants were recorded in one 60 Hz and one 120 Hz mobile eye tracker and compared directly to the saccades detected by a 1000 HZ stationary tracker while a reading task was performed. Saccades and fixations were detected using a velocity based algorithm and their properties analyzed....

Eye Movement Patterns in Solving Science Ordering Problems

Kendhammer, Lisa; The University Of Georgia, Pienta, Norbert J; The University Of Georgia, Moore, James N; The University Of Georgia, Day, Elizabeth; The University Of Georgia, Tang, Hui; The University Of Georgia & Brown, Scott A; The University Of Georgia
Dynamic biological processes, such as intracellular signaling pathways, commonly are taught in science courses using static representations of individual steps in the pathway. As a result, students often memorize these steps for examination purposes, but fail to appreciate either the cascade nature of the pathway. In this study, we compared eye movement patterns for students who correctly ordered the components of an important pathway responsible for vasoconstriction against those who did not. Similarly, we compared...

Effects of conversation content on viewing dyadic conversations

Hautala, Jarkko; University Of Jyväskylä, Piia Astikainen, Otto Loberg, Jari K Hietanen & Lauri Nummenmaa
People typically follow conversations closely with their gaze. We asked whether this viewing is influenced by what is actually said in the conversation and by the viewer’s psychological condition. We recorded the eye movements of healthy (N = 16) and depressed (N = 25) participants while they were viewing video clips. Each video showed two people, each speaking one line of dialogue about socio-emotionally important (i.e., personal) or unimportant topics (matter-of-fact). Between the spoken lines,...

Semantic Override of Low-level Features in Image Viewing – Both Initially and Overall

Nyström, Marcus; Lund University & Holmqvist, Kenneth; Lund University
Guidance of eye-movements in image viewing is believed to be controlled by stimulus driven factors as well as viewer dependent higher level factors such as task and memory. It is currently debated what proportions these factors contribute to gaze guidance, and also how they vary over time after image onset. Overall, the unanimity regarding these issues is surprisingly low and there are results supporting both types of factors as being dominant in eye-movement control under...

Estimation of overlapped Eye Fixation Related Potentials: The General Linear Model, a more flexible framework than the ADJAR algorithm

Kristensen, Emmanuelle; University Grenoble Alpes, Rivet, Bertrand; University Grenoble Alpes & Guérin-Dugué, Anne; University Grenoble Alpes
The Eye Fixation Related Potential (EFRP) estimation is the average of EEG signals across epochs at ocular fixation onset. Its main limitation is the overlapping issue. Inter Fixation Intervals (IFI) - typically around 300 ms in the case of unrestricted eye movement- depend on participants’ oculomotor patterns, and can be shorter than the latency of the components of the evoked potential. If the duration of an epoch is longer than the IFI value, more than...

Microsaccade-induced prolongation of saccade latencies depends on microsaccade amplitude

Laubrock, Jochen; University Of Potsdam, Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Rolfs, Martin; University Of Potsdam
Fixations consist of small movements including microsaccades, i.e., rapid flicks in eye position that replace the retinal image by up to 1 degree of visual angle. Recently, we showed in a delayed-saccade task (1) that the rate of microsaccades decreased in the course of saccade preparation and (2) that microsaccades occurring around the time of a go signal were associated with prolonged saccade latencies (Rolfs et al., 2006). A re-analysis of the same data set...

Eye-hand coordination patterns of intermediate and novice surgeons in a simulation-based endoscopic surgery training environment

Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil; Atilim University & Topalli, Damla; Atilim University
Endoscopic surgery procedures require specific skills, such as eye-hand coordination to be developed. Current education programs are facing with problems to provide appropriate skill improvement and assessment methods in this field. This study aims to propose objective metrics for hand-movement skills and assess eye-hand coordination. An experimental study is conducted with 15 surgical residents to test the newly proposed measures. Two computer-based both-handed endoscopic surgery practice scenarios are developed in a simulation environment to gather...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

Stofer, Kathryn; University Of Florida & Che, Xuan; National Institutes Of Health
Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

Humphrey, Katherine; University Of Nottingham & Underwood, Geoffrey; University Of Nottingham
Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition...

The influence of emotional picture thematic content on exploratory eye movements

Manfredi, Valentina; University Of Pavia, Caputi, Marcella; University Of Pavia, Carniglia, Elena; University Of Pavia, Pessa, Eliano; University Of Pavia & Zambarbieri, Daniela; University Of Pavia
In picture viewing, emotional vs. neutral stimuli could play a different role in eye movement parameters and in the spatial progression of the scanpath. The aim of this paper is to investigate exploratory behaviour of normal subjects during the vision of emotional vs. non-emotional stimuli, by considering to what extent the thematic content (animate vs. inanimate) is likely to influence the observer’s eye movements. Sixty-five subjects’ eye movement patterns were measured while looking to emotional...

The impact of text segmentation on subtitle reading

Gerber-Morón, Olivia; Universitat Autònoma De Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, Woll, Bencie; University College London, UK & Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw, Poland Currently Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellow At University College London, UK
Understanding the way people watch subtitled films has become a central concern for subtitling researchers in recent years. Both subtitling scholars and professionals generally believe that in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance readability, line breaks in two-line subtitles should follow syntactic units. However, previous research has been inconclusive as to whether syntactic-based segmentation facilitates comprehension and reduces cognitive load. In this study, we assessed the impact of text segmentation on subtitle processing among...

Gaze Self-Similarity Plot - A New Visualization Technique

Kasprowski, Pawel; Silesian University Of Technology & Katarzyna Harezlak
Eye tracking has become a valuable way for extending knowledge of human behavior based on visual patterns. One of the most important elements of such an analysis is the presentation of obtained results, which proves to be a challenging task. Traditional visualization techniques such as scan-paths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, nonetheless many useful features are still not visible, especially when temporal characteristics of eye movement is taken into account. This paper introduces...

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