324 Works

A pragmatic approach to multi-modality and non-normality in fixation duration studies of cognitive processes

Leeuwen, Cees Van; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics & Nakatani, Chie; RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Laboratory For Perceptual Dynamics
Interpreting eye-fixation durations in terms of cognitive processing load is complicated by the multimodality of their distribution. An important source of multimodality is the distinction between single and multiple fixations to the same object. Based on the distinction, we separated a log-transformed distribution made to an object in non-reading task. We could reasonably conclude that the separated distributions belong to the same, general logistic distribution, which has a finite population mean and variance. This allowed...

Comparing the Difficulty of Tasks Using Eye Tracking Combined with Subjective and Behavioural Criteria

Stolińska, Anna; Pedagogical University Of Cracow & Andrzejewska, Magdalena; Pedagogical University Of Cracow
In this article, we attempted to examine the issue of the existence of differences in eye move-ment of school-age students as they solve tasks of different difficulty levels in the sciences and natural sciences (computer science, mathematics, physics, biology). Categories of the task’s difficulty level were established on the basis of two types of criteria: subjective (an evaluation made by the subjects) and behavioural (connected to the correctness of their solution). The relationships of these...

Implicit prosody and contextual bias in silent reading

Kentner, Gerrit; University Of Frankfurt, Germany, McCurdy, Kate; University Of Potsdam, Germany & Vasishth, Shravan; University Of Potsdam, Germany
Eye-movement research on implicit prosody has found effects of lexical stress on syntactic ambiguity resolution, suggesting that metrical well-formedness constraints interact with syntactic category assignment. Building on these findings, the present eyetracking study investigates whether contextual bias can modulate the effects of metrical structure on syntactic ambiguity resolution in silent reading. Contextual bias and potential stress-clash in the ambiguous region were crossed in a 2 2 design. Participants read biased context sentences followed by temporarily...

About the global effect and the critical role of retinal eccentricity: Implications for eye movements in reading

Vitu, Françoise; CNRS, Université De Provence
In the present paper, I review evidence for the universality of the global effect, i.e. the general tendency to move the eyes towards the centre of gravity of the peripheral configu-ration, and show that the effect is strongly constrained by the retinal location of the stimuli. First, stimuli that are displayed in a central foveal region of a 1-1.5° radius fail to deviate the eyes in a centre-of-gravity manner; this is referred to as the...

Comparing Experts and Novices on Scaffolded Data Visualizations using Eye-tracking

Stofer, Kathryn; University Of Florida & Che, Xuan; National Institutes Of Health
Spatially-based scientific data visualizations are becoming widely available, yet they are often not optimized for novice audiences. This study follows after an investigation of ex-pert and novice meaning-making from scaffolded data visualizations using clinical inter-views. Using eye-tracking and concurrent interviewing, we examined quantitative fixation and AOI data and qualitative scan path data for two expertise groups (N = 20) on five versions of scaffolded global ocean data visualizations. We found influences of expertise, scaffolding, and...

Tracking Visual Scanning Techniques in Training Simulation for Helicopter Landing

Robinski, Maxi; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine & Stein, Michael; German Air Force Institute Of Aviation Medicine
Research has shown no consistent findings about how scanning techniques differ between experienced and inexperienced helicopter pilots depending on mission demands. To explore this question, 33 military pilots performed two different landing maneuvers in a flight simulator. The data included scanning data (eye tracking) as well as performance, workload, and a self-assessment of scanning techniques (interviews). Fifty-four percent of scanning-related differences between pilots resulted from the factor combination of expertise and mission demands. A comparison...

The impact of music and stretched time on pupillary responses and eye movements in slow-motion film scenes

Clemens Wöllner & David Hammerschmidt
This study investigated the effects of music and playback speed on arousal and visual perception in slow-motion scenes taken from commercial films. Slow-motion scenes are a ubiquitous film technique and highly popular. Yet the psychological effects of mediated time-stretching compared to real-time motion have not been empirically investigated. We hypothesised that music affects arousal and attentional processes. Furthermore, we assumed that playback speed influences viewers’ visual perception, resulting in a higher number of eye movements...

Examining the validity of the total dwell time of eye fixations to identify landmarks in a building

Alain De Wulf, Viaene, Pepijn; Ghent University-Geography Department, Lenoir, Matthieu; Ghent University, Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Ghent University & Philippe De Maeyer
It is uncertain to what extent the duration of eye fixations reflects the use of landmarks during navigation. Therefore, a study was conducted in which eye tracking data and route descriptions were collected of 23 participants who were highly familiar with the indoor test environment. Based on the total fixation time on different landmark categories, two measures were calculated, namely the calculated landmark category use and the probable landmark category use. Based on the ratio...

Microsaccade-induced prolongation of saccade latencies depends on microsaccade amplitude

Laubrock, Jochen; University Of Potsdam, Kliegl, Reinhold; University Of Potsdam & Rolfs, Martin; University Of Potsdam
Fixations consist of small movements including microsaccades, i.e., rapid flicks in eye position that replace the retinal image by up to 1 degree of visual angle. Recently, we showed in a delayed-saccade task (1) that the rate of microsaccades decreased in the course of saccade preparation and (2) that microsaccades occurring around the time of a go signal were associated with prolonged saccade latencies (Rolfs et al., 2006). A re-analysis of the same data set...

Evidence Supporting Open-Loop Control During Early Vergence

Semmlow, John; Rutgers University, Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Essilor International & Alvarez, Tara; New Jersey Institute Of Technology
Disparity vergence eye movements were analyzed to determine if the early component of this response operates under open-loop, or preprogrammed, control. The analysis compares ratios of peak velocity to response amplitude (i.e., main sequence ratios) for the isolated early component and for the entire disparity vergence response. The stimuli were limited a 4 deg step changes in vergence so that any differences in movement dynamics (i.e., peak velocities) were due only to internal noise. Nine...

Systematic tendencies in scene viewing

Vincent, Benjamin T.; University Of Dundee & Tatler, Benjamin W.; University Of Dundee
While many current models of scene perception debate the relative roles of low- and highlevel factors in eye guidance, systematic tendencies in how the eyes move may be informative. We consider how each saccade and fixation is influenced by that which preceded or followed it, during free inspection of images of natural scenes. We find evidence to suggest periods of localized scanning separated by ‘global’ relocations to new regions of the scene. We also find...

Effect of Dravidian vernacular, English and Hindi during onscreen reading text: A physiological, subjective and objective evaluation study

Majumdar, Deepti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Chowdhury, Bodhisattwa; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India, Majumdar, Dhurjati; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India & Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; DIPAS, DRDO, Delhi, India
Multilingualism has become an integral part of our present lifestyle. India has twenty two registered official languages with English and Hindi being most widely used for all official activities across the nation. As both these languages are introduced later in life, it was hypothesised that comprehensive reading will be better and faster if the native medium was used. Therefore present study aimed to evaluate the differences in performance while using one of the four Indian...

Effect of visual attention and horizontal vergence in three-dimensional space on occurrence of optokinetic nystagmus

Kei Kanari & Hirohiko Kaneko
OKN corresponding to the motion of the fixating area occurs when a stimulus has two areas separated in depth containing motion in different directions. However, when attention and vergence are separately directed to areas with different motions and depths, it remains unclear which property of attention and vergence is prioritized to initiate OKN. In this study, we investigated whether OKN corresponding to motion in the attending or fixating area occurred when two motions with different...

Joint Analysis of Static and Dynamic Importance in the Eye-Tracking Records of Web Page Readers

Takeuchi, Haruhiko; National Institute Of Advanced Industrial Science And Technology (AIST), Japan & Matsuda, Noriyuki; University Of Tsukuba, Japan
Heat maps highlight cumulative, static importance in eye-tracking records, while network analysis helps to elucidate dynamic importance from transitional relations. The present study was designed to perform both analyses in the same conceptual framework, i.e., network representation. For this purpose, heat maps comprising 5 × 5 segments were overlaid with networks, both of which were produced from the eye-tracking records of 20 subjects who read 10 top web pages that were classified into three layout...

Tracking eye movements when solving geometry problems with handwriting devices

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan & Lin, John J. H.; Institute Of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
The present study investigated the following issues: (1) whether differences are evident in the eye movement measures of successful and unsuccessful problem-solvers; (2) what is the relationship between perceived difficulty and eye movement measures; and (3) whether eye movements in various AOIs differ when solving problems. Sixty-three 11th grade students solved five geometry problems about the properties of similar triangles. A digital drawing tablet and sensitive pressure pen were used to record the responses. The...

Digital sketch maps and eye tracking statistics as instruments to obtain insights into spatial cognition

Ooms, Kristien; Ghent University (UGent), Dogru, Ahmet Ozgur; Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Keskin, Merve; Ghent University (UGent) & De Maeyer, Philippe; Ghent University (UGent)
This paper explores map users’ cognitive processes in learning, acquiring and remembering information presented via screen maps. In this context, we conducted a mixed-methods user experiment employing digital sketch maps and eye tracking. On the one hand, the performance of the participants was assessed based on the order with which the objects were drawn and the influence of visual variables (e.g. presence & location, size, shape, color). On the other hand, trial durations and eye...

Robust Head Mounted Wearable Eye Tracking System for Dynamical Calibration

Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Greco, Alberto; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa, Lanata, Antonio; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa & Valenza, Gaetano; Research Center “E.Piaggio”, University Of Pisa
In this work, a new head mounted eye tracking system is presented. Based on computer vision techniques, the system integrates eye images and head movement, in real time, performing a robust gaze point tracking. Nystagmus movements due to vestibulo-ocular reflex are monitored and integrated. The system proposed here is a strongly improved version of a previous platform called HATCAM, which was robust against changes of illumination conditions. The new version, called HAT-Move, is equipped with...

Gaze transitions when learning with multimedia

Krejtz, Krzysztof; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities,And National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Kopacz, Agata; National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Chrząstowski-Wachtel, Piotr; Math, Informatics, And Mechanics, Institute Of Informatics, University Of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Duchowski, Andrew T.; Clemson University, Clemson, USA & Krejtz, Izabela; University Of Social Sciences And Humanities, Warsaw, Poland
Eye tracking methodology is used to examine the influence of interactive multimedia on the allocation of visual attention and its dynamics during learning. We hypothesized that an interactive simulation promotes more organized switching of attention between different elements of multimedia learning material, e.g., textual description and pictorial visualization. Participants studied a description of an algorithm accompanied either by an interactive simulation, self-paced animation, or static illustration. Using a novel framework for entropy-based comparison of gaze...

The impact of text segmentation on subtitle reading

Gerber-Morón, Olivia; Universitat Autònoma De Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain, Woll, Bencie; University College London, UK & Szarkowska, Agnieszka; University Of Warsaw, Poland Currently Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellow At University College London, UK
Understanding the way people watch subtitled films has become a central concern for subtitling researchers in recent years. Both subtitling scholars and professionals generally believe that in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance readability, line breaks in two-line subtitles should follow syntactic units. However, previous research has been inconclusive as to whether syntactic-based segmentation facilitates comprehension and reduces cognitive load. In this study, we assessed the impact of text segmentation on subtitle processing among...

Squeezing Uncertainty from Saccadic Compression

Hunt, A. R.; University Of British Columbia, Kingstone, A.; University Of British Columbia & Chapman, C. S.; University Of British Columbia
Brief visual stimuli presented before and during a saccade are often mislocalized due to spatial compression. This saccadic compression effect is thought to have a perceptual basis, and results in visual objects being squeezed together and their number underestimated. Here we show that observers are also uncertain about their visual experiences just before and during a saccade. It is known that responses tend to be biased away from extreme values under conditions of uncertainty. Thus,...

Autobiographical recall triggers visual exploration

Delerue, Céline; University Of Lille, Mohamad El Haj, Boucart, Muriel; University Of Lille, Omigie, Diana; University Of Lille, Antoine, Pascal; University Of Lille & Nandrino, Jean Louis; University Of Lille
Autobiographical recall is thought to rely on the ability to generate a visual image of the remembered event. Neuropsychological studies suggest a relationship between deterioration in visual mental imagery and autobiographical distortions, while neuroimaging data similarly implicate visual brain areas in autobiographical recall. However, neither whether autobiographical retrieval is associated with visual exploration, or not. Our paper aimed to provide such evidence one way or the other. Using an eye tracking system, we recorded eye...

Microsaccades under monocular viewing conditions

Kloke, Wilhelm Bernhard; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund, Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund & Jainta, Stephanie; Leibniz-Institut Für Arbeitsforschung An Der TU Dortmund
Among the eye movements during fixation, the function of small saccades occuring quite commonly at fixation is still unclear. It has been reported that a substantial number of these microsaccades seem to occur in only one of the eyes. The aim of the present study is to investigate microsaccades in monocular stimulation conditions. Although this is an artificial test condition which does not occur in natural vision, this monocular presentation paradigm allows for a critical...

Learning to search. The importance of eye movements in the decrease of response times during a visual choice reaction time task

Mak, Monika; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland, Kroll, Aleksandra; Independent Clinical Psychology Unit, Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland & Samochowiec, Jerzy; Department Of Psychiatry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Reaction times are often used as an indicator of the efficiency of the processes in thecentral nervous system. While extensive research has been conducted on the possibleresponse time correlates, the role of eye movements in visual tasks is yet unclear. Here wereport data to support the role of eye movements during visual choice reaction time training.Participant performance, reaction times, and total session duration improved. Eyemovementsshowed expected changes in saccade amplitude and resulted in improvementin visual...

Influence of number, location and size of faces on gaze in video

Houzet, Dominique; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France, Pellerin, Denis; GIPSA-Lab, UMR 5216, Grenoble, France & Rahman, Anis; National University Of Sciences And Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
Many studies have reported the preference for faces and influence of faces on gaze, most of them in static images and a few in videos. In this paper, we study the influence of faces in complex free-viewing videos, with respect to the effects of number, location and size of the faces. This knowledge could be used to enrich a face pathway in a visual saliency model. We used eye fixation data from an eye movement...

How prior experience, cognitive skills and practice are related with eye-hand span and performance in video gaming

Nivala, Markus; Department Of Education, Communication And Learning University Of Gothenburg, Sweden, Cichy, Agnes; Department Of Educational Science University Of Regensburg Regensburg, Germany & Gruber, Hans; Department Of Educational Science University Of Regensburg Regensburg, Germany And Department Of Teacher Education University Of Turku Turku, Finland
Research has shown that performance in visual domains depends on domain-specific cognitive and perceptual adaptations that result from extensive practice. However, less is known about processes and factors that underpin the acquisition of such adaptations. The present study investigated how prior experience, cognitive skills, task difficulty and practice effect eye-hand span (EHS) and performance in video gaming. Thirty-three participants played a platformer video game in a pre-test/practice/post-test experiment. Eye movements and keypresses were recorded. The...

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