8,389 Works

Brain metabolism during Chronic Hepatic Encephalopathy studied by in vivo 1H and 31P MRS

Veronika Rackayová
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a powerful tool increasingly used in biomedical research and also in clinical practice. This thesis focused on the improvements of in vivo 31P MRS and 31P magnetization transfer methods at high magnetic field (9.4T). Then, in vivo 31P MRS was combined with 1H MRS to longitudinally study neurometabolic changes during chronic hepatic encephalopathy (CHE) in adult and developing brain using a well-recognized animal model of cholestatic chronic liver disease and...

Design, analysis, testing and applications of two-body and three-body kinematic mounts

Johannes Richard Cornelis Geerit Kruis
Kinematic couplings are used when two rigid bodies need to be repeatedly and accurately positioned with respect to each other. They allow for sub-micron positioning repeatability by suppressing play and reducing strains in the bodies. Typical applications are lens mounts, work piece mounts and docking interfaces for astrophysics, semiconductor and metrology applications. This thesis generalizes the well-known concept of two-body kinematic couplings to three-body kinematic mounts. The goal of the thesis is: To pave the...

Essays in Financial Economics

Christopher Trevisan
This thesis is structured in three chapters, each pertaining to a specific problem in financial economics. The first chapter, titled 'High-Frequency Jump Analysis of the Bitcoin Market' and co-authored with Prof. Olivier Scaillet and Adrien Treccani of the University of Geneva, studies the market for bitcoin, a pioneer virtual currency, and its price dynamics. Using data for all the trades that took place on the exchange Mt. Gox during the period June 2011 to November...

Scleractinian coral morphogenesis:searching for stem cells and precursors of the skeletogenic calicodermis

Agathe Eliette Marie Lecointe
Metamorphosis is a crucial step in the life cycle of a scleractinian coral: The swimming coral larva, the planula, settles, and metamorphoses into a sessile calcifying primary polyp, which subsequently grows into an adult colony. Importantly, morphogenesis into a primary polyp involves the establishment of the skeletogenic cell layer, the so-called calicodermis, but the cellular mechanisms that support this process are not well understood. In the work presented here, calicodermis establishment was studied in two...

Contribution à l'étude du comportement thermo-hydraulique du stockage de chaleur en aquifère

Stéphane Dupasquier
In this work, a parametric study is done with computational methods for groundwater flow and heat transport in order to describe the dominant physical phenomena in an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Optimum operating conditions and geological parameters are deduced from it. The intended use of the ATES is the domestic water or space heating. The stock is seasonal and functions without heat pump. Parametric study is organized as a series of reference simulations relating...

Contribution to the Ultra-Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles:The Configurable Modular Multilevel Converter (CMMC)

Rosa Martel Danoary Tsirinomeny
It is generally agreed that one of the drawbacks of a conventional vehicle is the inability to always reach the best operating point of the engine and the inability to regenerate the kinetic energy. Meaning, even with the help of the gearbox or automatic transmission, there is no way to reach more efficient operating points without increasing the power and then there is nowhere to store the excess of the energy converted. Electric vehicles (EVs)...

Motor Control in the Mouse Whisker System

Varun Sreenivasan
The motor systems of the mammalian brain are a remarkable product of many millions of years of evolution. It is the motor systems that make us and other mammals mobile, that guide our actions in response to sensory information and conversely modulate the very nature of the sensory input that our brain receives. The mystacial vibrissae or whiskers present on the face of mice are important sensors that provide high resolution tactile information to the...

A Well-Defined Ni Pincer Catalyst for Cross Coupling of Non-Activated Alkyl Halides and Direct C-H Alkylation

Oleg Vechorkin
Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are among the most important and useful methods for organic synthesis. During the last years, significant progress has been made in this field. Whereas many catalysts were developed for the coupling of aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl halides, non-activated alkyl halides remain challenging substrates, mainly due to unproductive β-hydride elimination and difficulty in oxidative addition of alkyl halides. This dissertation is devoted to the development of a well-defined nickel catalyst for cross...

A New Look at Civic Design: Park Systems in America

Matthew Skjonsberg
A New Look at Civic Design reflects on the nature of the various crises facing the very idea of democracy today, explicitly in relation to climate change - namely mass extinctions, water scarcity and overabundance, and in general widespread and increasing ecological, social, and economic inequity - characteristics of our era, known now as the Anthropocene. The research proposes that these crises share anthropocentric materialism as a root cause, as instrumentalized by military industrialism and...

A Miniaturized Insect Eye Inspired Multi-camera Real-time Panoramic Imaging System

Ömer Çoğal
During the last 50 years miniaturization became a key element in human history, since it opens doors for manufacturing new devices that enhances the quality of human life. Camera and imaging systems are following this miniaturization trend as well. Meanwhile, in the imaging domain, usage of multiple aperture camera systems are gaining significance in every aspects of daily life such as entertainment, surveillance, and medical imaging field. Many works focus on multiple camera panoramic and...

Design, Modelling and Sensing Possibilities of Magneto-Rheological Based Devices

Daniel Grivon
This thesis has been put in place during the development of an innovative medical device which consists in an intelligent footwear for foot plantar pressure redistribution in diabetic patients. In fact, despite the several sophisticated techniques developed in the last twenty years, diabetes remains one of the first causes of non-traumatic lower limb amputation worldwide. This is mainly due to the combination of peripheral neuropathy, which determines the loss of pain sensation in the lower...

Workshop Report: The Governance of Decision-Making Algorithms

Kujtese Bejtullahu Michalopoulos
This report presents key interdisciplinary insights from IRGC’s expert workshop on the governance of decision-making algorithms, with particular focus on automated decisions based on learning algorithms (DMLAs). It highlights, among others, the need to improve the accuracy of DMLAs; embed good standards, principles or governance rules into their very design and functioning; address algorithmic bias with unfair social consequences; better differentiate if and when humans are in control, or unable to take control back; govern...

Femtosecond pulse length and arrival time measurement of hard X-Ray FELs

Ishkhan Gorgisyan
The ultra-bright short-pulsed radiation provided by the free electron lasers (FEL) is used for many new discoveries in different fields of science and industry. The advancement of the FEL technologies allows the generation of shorter photon pulses with higher photon energies or shorter radiation wavelengths that open new horizons for the new research. In order to better understand the measurements using the free electron laser pulses, it is important to know the properties of these...

Resistance & Compromise:Spatial & Aesthetic Approaches of Alternative Cultural Spaces in Lisbon, Ljubljana & Geneva

Letícia Cabeçadas Do Carmo
Contemporary architecture and urbanism concern everyday life in multiple contradictory ways. Floating between alienation and hope, post-industrial and other interstices often hold beautiful and poetic aesthetics of decay, attracting people driven by curiosity or political causes, stimulating the creativity of these spatial environments. Driven by struggles against standardised and authoritarian urban contexts, a search for Alternative Cultural Spaces (ACS) as concrete contemporary examples of spatial, convivial, creative and political experiences is the main objective of...

Cryogenic infrared spectroscopy as a probe of structure and dynamics of biomolecules

Valeriu Scutelnic
The pivotal theory of molecular biology states that the structure of biomolecules is directly related to their function in living systems. In this way, the structural investigation of biological molecules allows understanding and intervening in the fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, the structural characterization of isolated biomolecules in the gas phase offers the advantage of determining their intrinsic structural properties free from environment perturbations. A particularly sensitive gas-phase technique to the finest structural details of biomolecules...

Atomistic simulation of bio-relevant ionic and organic species interacting with rutile - Towards the understanding of apatite formation

Azade Yazdan Yar
Atomistic simulation methods, namely molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics, are used in this thesis to investigate apatite formation from different aspects. First, ions which are more abundant in SBFs under physiological conditions were identified and their interaction with the rutile surface was studied. Using free energy calculations, it was possible to identify ions with a favorable interaction with the rutile surface. Among the ionic species which were studied, potassium, sodium, calcium, carbonate and phosphate showed...

Functional Peaks-Over-Threshold Analysis for Complex Extreme Events

Raphaël Gérard Théodore Michel Marie De Deloÿe Et Fourcade De Fondeville
Most current risk assessment for complex extreme events relies on catalogues of similar events, either historical or generated artificially. In the latter, no existing methods produce completely new events with mathematically justified extrapolation above observed level of severity. This thesis contributes to the development of stochastic generators of events based on extreme value theory, with a special focus on natural hazards. The sources of historical meteorological records are multiple but climate model output is attractive...

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