720 Works

The Linguistics of Keyboard-to-screen Communication: A New Terminological Framework

Christa Dürscheid & Andreas H. Jucker
New forms of communication that have recently developed in the context of Web 2.0 make it necessary to reconsider some of the analytical tools of linguistic analysis. In the context of keyboard-to-screen communication (KSC), as we shall call it, a range of old dichotomies have become blurred or cease to be useful altogether, e. g. "asynchronous" versus "synchronous", "written" versus "spoken", "monologic" versus "dialogic", and in particular "text" versus "utterance". We propose alternative terminologies ("communicative...

What Constitutes a Unit of Analysis in Language?

Pernilla Danielsson
Over the last decade, the study of multi-word units has become increasingly popular and now these units seem to have reached a status where they cannot be ignored. This paper should be seen as a recapituation of the discussion around multi-word units, especially focusing on corpus evidence of such units and what is perceived to be relevant findings. An unsupervised method for extracting multi-word units from corpora is presented and the findings examined. However, rather...

The semantic structure of Pejoratives

Nenad Mišćević
Pejoratives find their place in the context of linguistic violence and offensive speech, and a theory of pejoratives thus should be connected to the (im-)politeness research. Here, they are put on the map of generic expressions, and characterized as negative evaluative generic terms. The parallel between pejoratives and laudatory expressions is noted. Pejoratives have a rich semantics: causal-descriptive securing of reference, and several layers of non-descriptive meaning, mainly negative-evaluative and prescriptive (the expressive meaning might...

Discovering the prehistory of multilingual situations in the lexicon. An empirical study on the Caucasian Urum vocabulary

Veronika Ries, Kristin Nahrmann, Stavros Skopeteas & Emrah Turan
Multilingual situations are reflected in the lexicon; by consequence, lexical borrowings are powerful evidence for language contact in the prehistory of linguistic communities. This article presents an empirical study on the lexical knowledge of Caucasian Urum speakers, i. e., ethnic Greek speakers in the Small Caucasus, who are bilingual in a variety of Turkish (Urum) and Russian. The analysis is based on the established assumption that certain concepts are cross-linguistically associated with a certain likelihood...

Du dictionnaire de fréquence au lexique pour les apprenant·e·s de FLE : l’exemple des adjectifs / noms communs de personnes

Alain Kamber & Daniel Elmiger
In French morphology, there is a certain proximity of categories and inflectional models between adjectives and nouns (e. g. responsable (adj.) – le/la responsable (noun)). This is hardly reflected in FLE textbooks (French as a foreign language), which tend to present the grammatical categories and inflectional paradigms separately. The topic of transcategorisation is investigated using a large electronic corpus (Corpus français Leipzig), which will be briefly described, as well as the frequency dictionary created on...

Sprachliche Gleichbehandlung von Frau und Mann: Eine korpusgestützte Untersuchung über den Sprachwandel in der Schweiz

Daniel Elmiger
The use of designations used for men and women has been discussed in German (as well as in other languages) very controversally since the seventies. Language use has been challenged by feminist linguists and some propositions have been supported by various regulatory interventions. In German, the most critical issue – the avoidance of generically used masculine forms – has been documented quite thoroughly as regards the individual phenomena (creation and use of personal nouns, alternative...

"Imperfektibles" sprachliches Wissen. Theoretische Vorüberlegungen zu "sprachlichen Zweifelsfällen"

Gerd Antos
In linguistic cases of doubt a differentiation has to be made between the pragmatic reflections of language by laypersons (SZ 1) and the common 'extra-communicatice' reflections by linguists (SZ 2). These structural inhomogeneities of languages are based upon (e.g. ortho-graphic) variants, 'openings', so called 'language fluctuations' or some other irregular forms that have developed historically (SZ 2 = 'objective imperfectibility' of the linguistic system). On the other hand, the competence theoretical notion of 'linguistic doubt'...

Ein Land, nur Opfer? Zu Gruppenstereotypen in der Auseinandersetzung um die lettische Sprachenpolitik am Beispiel des Sprachreferendums von 2012

Sandra J. Langer
On February 18th 2012 the referendum on the Draft Law ‘Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia’ took place in Latvia. Its purpose was to decide whether or not the Russian language should be made the second official language of the Republic of Latvia. But this referendum was just the preliminary climax in a chain of events that exposed the relations between the ethnic Latvian and the ethnic Russian parts of Latvian society....

Prototypeneffekte im Grenzbereich von Phonologie und Morphologie

Hilke Elsen
This article presents names in science fiction and fantasy stories with problematic morphological structures as well as manufactured names which produce sound symbolic effects. The examples show a continuum from sound shape to recurring groups of sounds to morphemes. Not only individual phonemes, but also gestalts seem to constitute a level in language processing. Psychologically oriented approaches, e.g. prototype theory, deal with exactly these problems, structured categories, good and bad examples as well as continua...

Vom Text zur Übung. Kollokationen in Lesetexten und ihre Widerspiegelung in Übungen (am Beispiel ausgewählter DaF-Lehrwerke)

Joanna Targońska
Collocations are an important part of lexis. Their use is often indispensable and they cannot be replaced by any other lexical means. Unfortunately, they pose a big problem for learners of a foreign language because they are not conspicuous and the learners are not aware of their conventionality and fixed character. It is then important to draw the learner’s attention to that part of lexis, for example by placing collocations in the vocabulary practice. This...

Embedding additive particles in the sentence information structure: How L2 learners find their way through positional and prosodic patterns

Giuseppina Turco & Cecilia Maria Andorno
Since 1986, Klein pinpointed the 'embedding problem' among the main tasks L2 learners have to cope with in L2 speaking, the term referring to the need of linking the semantic content of a sentence to the information already available in the ongoing discourse. Research in L2 acquisition has shown that, even when the lexical and morphosyntactic structures needed to express specific information configurations are in place, learners can still lack the ability to use them...

Ansätze zur Darstellung nicht- und schwach idiomatischer verbonominaler Wortverbindungen in der zweisprachigen (Lerner-)Lexikografie Deutsch-Finnisch (Beschreibung eines Forschungsvorhabens)

Antje Heine
The study focuses on verb-noun-connections of the type verb + subject (accusative) and verb + preposition + subject. They will be described systematically, among themselves and in relation to free word connections. The units to be examined will be taken from electronic corpora. They will be analysed with regard to their utilisation. The second part of the research project focuses on the elaboration of Finnish analogies to these units, asking, whether the results can be...

¿Cómo traducir el lunfardo al alemán? El reto de la variación lingüística en la traducción audiovisual

Eva Gugenberger
This article focuses on the problems arising from non-standard varieties in the translation of audiovisual texts using the example Lunfardo. This special repertoire of words, which originated in the late 19th century in the lower classes in Buenos Aires, has become a commonly used and characteristic part of colloquial Rioplatense Spanish. Taking the example Okupas, an Argentine TV series for young people, and guided by the priority function that the use of Lunfardo has in...

Zur Rolle von Stereotypisierungen bei Assimilations- und Akkommodationsprozessen

Jörg Roche
Meaning is widely understood as being a mental construct generated and negociated by means of viabalisation processes. It constantly develops and changes through processes of assimilation and accommodation. How then can stereotypes develop in such a dynamic system of knowledge management where language is a decisive tool in information transfer? The information transfer based on established parameters contributes to a stabilization of meaning and, as a consequence, serves as a point of reference for further...

"Zeltdörfer im Burgenland" – Zur Relevanz materieller und sprachlicher Bilder im politischen Diskurs. Eine exemplarische Analyse

Dorothee Meer
This paper analyses the use of figures of speech as well as of material images from a discourse semiotic point of view. The empirical basis comprises the news coverage of the FAZ and of the SZ concerning the hunger strike of refugees on the Munich Rindermarkt during the summer of 2013. Based on this specific empirical data, this paper initially illustrates basic assumptions with regard to the specific semiotic resources of figures of speech and...

InliAnTe: Instrument für die linguistische Analyse von Textkommentierungen

Anke Beyer
Giving feedback on texts is a common method of supporting the writing process in different contexts. It involves using language in two different ways: It focuses on language and textual phenomena in the draft of the text, and is itself a communicative activity expressed through language. This double relationship with language has not, however, until now been taken into account systematically and comprehensively enough in either writing courses or research on feedback.This article presents an...

Niederländisch toch und Deutsch doch: Gleich oder doch nicht ganz?

Ad Foolen
In this paper, a semantic analysis is presented of the Dutch particle toch and its German cognate doch. On the formal level they may appear as either adverb, conjunction or interjection, and they also occur in different sentence types. It is argued that the core meaning of both particles is the same. The range of uses differs, however, between the two languages. For example, German doch can be used as an 'answering particle' in reaction...

Languages in contact: The influence of language activation and competing language patterns on translation performance

Susanne J. Jekat & Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow
The two pilot studies described in this article, both part of a larger on-going project investigating multilingualism in a translation context, deal with separation of languages in translation students. At the same time, they demonstrate how multilingualism research can be integrated into the translation classroom. Within the framework of Grosjean's model (1997, 1998, 2001), the first study tests the influence on translation performance of preferentially activating one of the languages for the translation version Spanish...

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