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Testing for shifts in mean with monotonic power against multiple structural changes

Daisuke Yamazaki
It is known that several widely used structural change tests have non-monotonic power because the long-run variance is poorly estimated under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a modified long-run variance estimator to alleviate this problem. We theoretically show that the tests with our long-run variance estimator are consistent against large multiple structural changes. Simulation results show that the proposed test performs well in finite samples.

Testing for shifts in mean with monotonic power against multiple structural changes

Daisuke Yamazaki
It is known that several widely used structural change tests have non-monotonic power because the long-run variance is poorly estimated under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a modified long-run variance estimator to alleviate this problem. We theoretically show that the tests with our long-run variance estimator are consistent against large multiple structural changes. Simulation results show that the proposed test performs well in finite samples.

Testing for shifts in mean with monotonic power against multiple structural changes

Daisuke Yamazaki
It is known that several widely used structural change tests have non-monotonic power because the long-run variance is poorly estimated under the alternative hypothesis. In this paper, we propose a modified long-run variance estimator to alleviate this problem. We theoretically show that the tests with our long-run variance estimator are consistent against large multiple structural changes. Simulation results show that the proposed test performs well in finite samples.

Additional file 1:Figure S1. of Life-history traits of Drosophila melanogaster populations exhibiting early and late eclosion chronotypes

K. Nikhil, Karatgi Ratna & Vijay Sharma
Schematic of eclosion profile of D. melanogaster under laboratory LD12:12 (12 h of light and dark each) cycles at 25 °C. The shaded area represents night and the unshaded area represents day. Zeitgeber Time (ZT) depicts the time of day with ZT00 indicating lights-ON and ZT12 representing lights-OFF. Figure S2: Schematic of laboratory selection protocol employed for the early and the late populations. Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 21-00 represents the early window during which flies for...

Raw Data.zip

Cheng-He Sun, Hong-Yi Liu & Chang-Hu Lu
To understand the essential feature of gut microbiome and better preserve Père David’s deer, stool samples from captive and wild deer were used to identify healthy core microbiome in the gut of this species and investigate how dietary factor influence the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and comparative analysis were adopted in the present study. The results showed that the core gut microbiome in healthy deer was consisted of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The...

Raw Data.zip

Cheng-He Sun, Hong-Yi Liu & Chang-Hu Lu
To understand the essential feature of gut microbiome and better preserve Père David’s deer, stool samples from captive and wild deer were used to identify healthy core microbiome in the gut of this species and investigate how dietary factor influence the gut microbiome. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and comparative analysis were adopted in the present study. The results showed that the core gut microbiome in healthy deer was consisted of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The...

Supplementary Material for: Normal Growth despite Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency

M. ElKholy, H. Elsedfy, L. Perin, W. AbiHabid, N. Thibaud, M. Bozzola, S. Rossignol, P. Leneuve, F. Godeau, S. Chantot-Bastaraud, I. Netchine & Y. LeBouc
Background: The paradox of normal growth despite a lack of growth hormone (GH) is an unexplained phenomenon described in some pathological (sellar, suprasellar, and hypothalamic disorders) and overgrowth syndromes. It has been suggested that the paradoxical growth is due to other GH variants, GH-like moieties, prolactin, insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and unidentified serum factors or growth mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying this normal growth without GH. Case...

Supplementary Material for: Normal Growth despite Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency

M. ElKholy, H. Elsedfy, L. Perin, W. AbiHabid, N. Thibaud, M. Bozzola, S. Rossignol, P. Leneuve, F. Godeau, S. Chantot-Bastaraud, I. Netchine & Y. LeBouc
Background: The paradox of normal growth despite a lack of growth hormone (GH) is an unexplained phenomenon described in some pathological (sellar, suprasellar, and hypothalamic disorders) and overgrowth syndromes. It has been suggested that the paradoxical growth is due to other GH variants, GH-like moieties, prolactin, insulin, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and unidentified serum factors or growth mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying this normal growth without GH. Case...

Proficiency affects intra- and inter-regional patterns of language control in second language processing

Angela Grant & Ping Li
This study examines the use of cognitive control during second language (L2) processing by adult language learners. Although cognitive control has been acknowledged as an important component of language processing for years, its conception was as a top-down mechanism of inhibition. Our functional MRI study investigated the correlates of both top-down and bottom-up control as well as semantic decision-making in a group of Spanish learners who varied in proficiency. We observed that multivariate activity patterns...

A lexical bottleneck in shadowing and translating of narratives

Jeroen Van Paridon, Ardi Roelofs & Antje S. Meyer
In simultaneous interpreting, speech comprehension and production processes have to be coordinated in close temporal proximity. To examine the coordination, Dutch-English bilingual participants were presented with narrative fragments recorded in English at speech rates varying from 100 to 200 words per minute and they were asked to translate the fragments into Dutch (interpreting) or repeat them in English (shadowing). Interpreting yielded more errors than shadowing at every speech rate, and increasing speech rate had a...

A lexical bottleneck in shadowing and translating of narratives

Jeroen Van Paridon, Ardi Roelofs & Antje S. Meyer
In simultaneous interpreting, speech comprehension and production processes have to be coordinated in close temporal proximity. To examine the coordination, Dutch-English bilingual participants were presented with narrative fragments recorded in English at speech rates varying from 100 to 200 words per minute and they were asked to translate the fragments into Dutch (interpreting) or repeat them in English (shadowing). Interpreting yielded more errors than shadowing at every speech rate, and increasing speech rate had a...

Listener-oriented phonetic reduction and theory of mind

Rory Turnbull
Predictable words tend to be phonetically reduced relative to unpredictable words. Under “listener-oriented” accounts of this phenomenon, the talker has tacit knowledge of their interlocutor's mental state. These theories consequently predict that individual variation in theory of mind is related to magnitude of probabilistic phonetic reduction. The current study tests this prediction for three acoustic variables (word duration, vowel duration, and vowel dispersion) in two definitions of predictability (contextual predictability and discourse mention). A relationship...

Proficiency affects intra- and inter-regional patterns of language control in second language processing

Angela Grant & Ping Li
This study examines the use of cognitive control during second language (L2) processing by adult language learners. Although cognitive control has been acknowledged as an important component of language processing for years, its conception was as a top-down mechanism of inhibition. Our functional MRI study investigated the correlates of both top-down and bottom-up control as well as semantic decision-making in a group of Spanish learners who varied in proficiency. We observed that multivariate activity patterns...

Listener-oriented phonetic reduction and theory of mind

Rory Turnbull
Predictable words tend to be phonetically reduced relative to unpredictable words. Under “listener-oriented” accounts of this phenomenon, the talker has tacit knowledge of their interlocutor's mental state. These theories consequently predict that individual variation in theory of mind is related to magnitude of probabilistic phonetic reduction. The current study tests this prediction for three acoustic variables (word duration, vowel duration, and vowel dispersion) in two definitions of predictability (contextual predictability and discourse mention). A relationship...

Reading Pinyin activates sublexcial character orthography for skilled Chinese readers

Lin Chen, Charles A. Perfetti, Xiaoping Fang, Li-Yun Chang & Scott Fraundorf
How do skilled Chinese readers, accustomed to characters, process Pinyin, a phonemic transcription of Chinese? Does the orthography of Chinese characters become activated? In four experiments, native speakers first made a meaning judgment on a two-syllable word written in Pinyin. Immediately following, they responded to a character whose orthography sometimes was related to the character corresponding to the Pinyin. In Experiments 1 and 3, participant named the colour of the presented characters; there was an...

Reading Pinyin activates sublexcial character orthography for skilled Chinese readers

Lin Chen, Charles A. Perfetti, Xiaoping Fang, Li-Yun Chang & Scott Fraundorf
How do skilled Chinese readers, accustomed to characters, process Pinyin, a phonemic transcription of Chinese? Does the orthography of Chinese characters become activated? In four experiments, native speakers first made a meaning judgment on a two-syllable word written in Pinyin. Immediately following, they responded to a character whose orthography sometimes was related to the character corresponding to the Pinyin. In Experiments 1 and 3, participant named the colour of the presented characters; there was an...

Cell quality control mechanisms maintain stemness and differentiation potential of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells

Silvia Magalhães-Novais, Juan C. Bermejo-Millo, Rute Loureiro, Katia A. Mesquita, M. Rosário Domingues, Elisabete Maciel, Tânia Melo, Inês Baldeiras, Jenna R. Erickson, Jon Holy, Yaiza Potes, Ana Coto-Montes, Paulo J. Oliveira & Ignacio Vega-Naredo
Given the relatively long life of stem cells (SCs), efficient mechanisms of quality control to balance cell survival and resistance to external and internal stress are required. Our objective was to test the relevance of cell quality control mechanisms for SCs maintenance, differentiation and resistance to cell death. We compared cell quality control in P19 stem cells (P19SCs) before and after differentiation (P19dCs). Differentiation of P19SCs resulted in alterations in parameters involved in cell survival...

Cell quality control mechanisms maintain stemness and differentiation potential of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells

Silvia Magalhães-Novais, Juan C. Bermejo-Millo, Rute Loureiro, Katia A. Mesquita, M. Rosário Domingues, Elisabete Maciel, Tânia Melo, Inês Baldeiras, Jenna R. Erickson, Jon Holy, Yaiza Potes, Ana Coto-Montes, Paulo J. Oliveira & Ignacio Vega-Naredo
Given the relatively long life of stem cells (SCs), efficient mechanisms of quality control to balance cell survival and resistance to external and internal stress are required. Our objective was to test the relevance of cell quality control mechanisms for SCs maintenance, differentiation and resistance to cell death. We compared cell quality control in P19 stem cells (P19SCs) before and after differentiation (P19dCs). Differentiation of P19SCs resulted in alterations in parameters involved in cell survival...

Supplementary Tables from Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary material from "Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot"

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary Tables from Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary Figure 1 from Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary material from "Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot"

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary Figure 1 from Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

Supplementary Figure 3 from Phylogenomics of Aplacophora (Mollusca, Aculifera) and a solenogaster without a foot

Kevin M. Kocot, Christiane Todt, Nina T. Mikkelsen & Kenneth M. Halanych
Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations strongly supported the placement of the shell-less, worm-shaped aplacophoran molluscs (Solenogastres and Caudofoveata) and chitons (Polyplacophora) in a clade called Aculifera, which is the sister taxon of all other molluscs. Thus, understanding the evolutionary history of aculiferan molluscs is important for understanding early molluscan evolution. In particular, fundamental questions about evolutionary relationships within Aplacophora have long been unanswered. Here, we supplemented the paucity of available data with transcriptomes from 25 aculiferans...

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