96,361 Works

Centered Isotonic Regression: Point and Interval Estimation for Dose–Response Studies

Assaf P. Oron & Nancy Flournoy
Univariate isotonic regression (IR) has been used for nonparametric estimation in dose–response and dose-finding studies. One undesirable property of IR is the prevalence of piecewise-constant stretches in its estimates, whereas the dose–response function is usually assumed to be strictly increasing. We propose a simple modification to IR, called centered isotonic regression (CIR). CIR's estimates are strictly increasing in the interior of the dose range. In the absence of monotonicity violations, CIR and IR both return...

Centered Isotonic Regression: Point and Interval Estimation for Dose–Response Studies

Assaf P. Oron & Nancy Flournoy
Univariate isotonic regression (IR) has been used for nonparametric estimation in dose–response and dose-finding studies. One undesirable property of IR is the prevalence of piecewise-constant stretches in its estimates, whereas the dose–response function is usually assumed to be strictly increasing. We propose a simple modification to IR, called centered isotonic regression (CIR). CIR's estimates are strictly increasing in the interior of the dose range. In the absence of monotonicity violations, CIR and IR both return...

On the Optimal Timing of Futility Interim Analyses

Dong Xi, Paul Gallo & David Ohlssen
Futility analyses provide a mechanism to stop a trial early because of low likelihood to achieve its efficacy objective. They are usually motivated by ethical and economic purposes, so that stopping a trial with poor efficacy could save patients and resources for other promising trials. There are various methods to address futility analyses in the literature but most focus on equally spaced interim looks. We consider a constrained optimization framework where the timing and the...

Retrofitting residential building envelopes for energy efficiency: motivations of individual homeowners in Israel

Chanoch Friedman, Nir Becker & Evyatar Erell
The willingness of private individuals in Israel to invest in energy-saving retrofit of the envelope of residential buildings was studied by means of a survey. Responses show that awareness of the need to conserve energy is high, but that willingness to participate in a retrofit project is modest and is limited to relatively small outlays. The decision on whether to retrofit at all, and then how much to invest in the project, is characterized as...

Retrofitting residential building envelopes for energy efficiency: motivations of individual homeowners in Israel

Chanoch Friedman, Nir Becker & Evyatar Erell
The willingness of private individuals in Israel to invest in energy-saving retrofit of the envelope of residential buildings was studied by means of a survey. Responses show that awareness of the need to conserve energy is high, but that willingness to participate in a retrofit project is modest and is limited to relatively small outlays. The decision on whether to retrofit at all, and then how much to invest in the project, is characterized as...

Geochemical study of Cretaceous magmatic rocks in Chuzhou region, low Yangtze River metallogenic belt: implications for petrogenesis and Cu–Au mineralization

Zilong Hu, Xiaoyong Yang & Insung Lee
The low Yangtze River metallogenic belt (LYRMB) is one of the most important poly-metal deposit belts in China. The Chuxian, Machang and Shangyaopu intrusions in the LYRMB are intermediate rock series, mainly composed of monzonite and quartz monzonite. In this study, bulk rock major and trace elements, zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotope were analysed. Five ages have been obtained as (1) Chuxian, 121.8 ± 1.9 and 124.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively, (2) Machang intrusion, 123.1 ± 2.0 Ma and (3) Shangyaopu, 126.6 ± 1.8...

Geochemical study of Cretaceous magmatic rocks in Chuzhou region, low Yangtze River metallogenic belt: implications for petrogenesis and Cu–Au mineralization

Zilong Hu, Xiaoyong Yang & Insung Lee
The low Yangtze River metallogenic belt (LYRMB) is one of the most important poly-metal deposit belts in China. The Chuxian, Machang and Shangyaopu intrusions in the LYRMB are intermediate rock series, mainly composed of monzonite and quartz monzonite. In this study, bulk rock major and trace elements, zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotope were analysed. Five ages have been obtained as (1) Chuxian, 121.8 ± 1.9 and 124.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively, (2) Machang intrusion, 123.1 ± 2.0 Ma and (3) Shangyaopu, 126.6 ± 1.8...

Permo–Triassic granitoids of the Xing’an–Mongolia segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Northeast China: age, composition, and tectonic implications

Qiu-Ming Pei, Shou-Ting Zhang, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Hua-Wen Cao, Dong Li, Li Tang, Xin-Kai Hu, Hao-Xing Li & Da-Ren Fang
The Xing’an–Mongolia orogenic belt is located in the southeastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Its tectonic evolution, especially during the Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic, remains controversial. Here, we report new zircon U–Pb dates, whole-rock geochemistry, and Hf isotopes of representative samples from four plutons in the Linxi area of Northeast China to provide new constraints on this issue. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that the intrusions were emplaced in two stages: (1) Late...

Permo–Triassic granitoids of the Xing’an–Mongolia segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Northeast China: age, composition, and tectonic implications

Qiu-Ming Pei, Shou-Ting Zhang, Ken-Ichiro Hayashi, Hua-Wen Cao, Dong Li, Li Tang, Xin-Kai Hu, Hao-Xing Li & Da-Ren Fang
The Xing’an–Mongolia orogenic belt is located in the southeastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Its tectonic evolution, especially during the Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic, remains controversial. Here, we report new zircon U–Pb dates, whole-rock geochemistry, and Hf isotopes of representative samples from four plutons in the Linxi area of Northeast China to provide new constraints on this issue. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that the intrusions were emplaced in two stages: (1) Late...

Quantitative sensory testing for assessment of somatosensory function in human oral mucosa: a review

Pin Zhou, Yaming Chen, Jinglu Zhang, Kelun Wang & Peter Svensson
Objective: This narrative review provides an overview of the quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess somatosensory function in human oral mucosa. Material and methods: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database to identify studies in vivo on human oral mucosa using QST methods. A list of 149 articles was obtained and screened. A total of 36 relevant articles remained and were read in full text. Manual search of the reference lists identified eight...

Quantitative sensory testing for assessment of somatosensory function in human oral mucosa: a review

Pin Zhou, Yaming Chen, Jinglu Zhang, Kelun Wang & Peter Svensson
Objective: This narrative review provides an overview of the quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess somatosensory function in human oral mucosa. Material and methods: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database to identify studies in vivo on human oral mucosa using QST methods. A list of 149 articles was obtained and screened. A total of 36 relevant articles remained and were read in full text. Manual search of the reference lists identified eight...

On the Y-DNA of the Lost Tribes of Israel

John Smith
Biblical chronology has since the advent of the scientific revolution generally, and particularly since the publication of On the Origin of Species in November 1859, fallen into disrepute. This is in no small part because the bible tells of a human race that is much younger than evolutionary chronology requires. It is a matter of great irony therefore that in November 1859 a work was published on the seemingly unrelated topic of the prime numbers...

Subjective assessment of the effects of an herbal supplement containing lavender essential oil on sleep quality: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

Nicole Stevens, Jeff Dorsett, Alex DaBell, Dennis L. Eggett, Xuesheng Han & Tory L. Parker
Sleep disorders are associated with an elevated risk of developing various diseases. Herbal supplementation has been shown to alleviate sleep disorders such as insomnia. Here, the effect on sleep quality of an herbal supplement was evaluated subjectively. The supplement primarily contained lavender essential oil, as well as L-theanine and extracts of lemon balm, passion flower, and chamomile. Fifty-one healthy adults with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, divided into placebo and treatment groups, completed a 6-week crossover...

Subjective assessment of the effects of an herbal supplement containing lavender essential oil on sleep quality: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

Nicole Stevens, Jeff Dorsett, Alex DaBell, Dennis L. Eggett, Xuesheng Han & Tory L. Parker
Sleep disorders are associated with an elevated risk of developing various diseases. Herbal supplementation has been shown to alleviate sleep disorders such as insomnia. Here, the effect on sleep quality of an herbal supplement was evaluated subjectively. The supplement primarily contained lavender essential oil, as well as L-theanine and extracts of lemon balm, passion flower, and chamomile. Fifty-one healthy adults with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, divided into placebo and treatment groups, completed a 6-week crossover...

Supplementary Material for: Citation Classics in Stroke: The Top-100 Cited Articles on Hemorrhagic Stroke

Y. Kim, D.Y. Yoon, J.-E. Kim, K.M. Park, J.-H. Lee, H.-K. Song & J.S. Bae
Background: Stroke is a disastrous disease and a major health burden worldwide, especially in Korea. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) accounts for approximately 20% of all the types of strokes. It is important to be able to evaluate stroke diagnoses and evolving treatments. Objective: We aimed to identify the top-100 cited articles and assess a paradigm shift that occurred in the field of HS. Methods: We searched all articles that had been cited more than 100 times...

Supplementary Material for: Citation Classics in Stroke: The Top-100 Cited Articles on Hemorrhagic Stroke

Y. Kim, D.Y. Yoon, J.-E. Kim, K.M. Park, J.-H. Lee, H.-K. Song & J.S. Bae
Background: Stroke is a disastrous disease and a major health burden worldwide, especially in Korea. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) accounts for approximately 20% of all the types of strokes. It is important to be able to evaluate stroke diagnoses and evolving treatments. Objective: We aimed to identify the top-100 cited articles and assess a paradigm shift that occurred in the field of HS. Methods: We searched all articles that had been cited more than 100 times...

On the Y-DNA of the Lost Tribes of Israel

John Smith
Biblical chronology has since the advent of the scientific revolution generally, and particularly since the publication of On the Origin of Species in November 1859, fallen into disrepute. This is in no small part because the bible tells of a human race that is much younger than evolutionary chronology requires. It is a matter of great irony therefore that in November 1859 a work was published on the seemingly unrelated topic of the prime numbers...

Quantum mechanical studies on the singlet and triplet potential energy surface of the reactions CF3O2 + I, CF3O + OI and CF3 + OIO

Evangelos Drougas
The singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces for the reactions CF3O2 + I (1), CF3O + OI (2) and CF3 + OIO (3) are investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Four important isomeric energy minima were found, three on the singlet surface, CF3OOI, CF3OIO and CF3IO2 and one on the triplet surface 3CF3OIO. CF2O + FOI are shown to be the most probable products for all reactions, CF3O +I and CF3O + O(3P) are...

Quantum mechanical studies on the singlet and triplet potential energy surface of the reactions CF3O2 + I, CF3O + OI and CF3 + OIO

Evangelos Drougas
The singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces for the reactions CF3O2 + I (1), CF3O + OI (2) and CF3 + OIO (3) are investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. Four important isomeric energy minima were found, three on the singlet surface, CF3OOI, CF3OIO and CF3IO2 and one on the triplet surface 3CF3OIO. CF2O + FOI are shown to be the most probable products for all reactions, CF3O +I and CF3O + O(3P) are...

Modulation of the aggregation behaviour and physicochemical properties of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in aqueous solutions by β-CD

Xia Gao, Yongcheng Yao, Chuang Liu & Zhongzhi Yang
The modulation of aggregation behaviour of ionic liquids (ILs) in aqueous media is one of the important research topics. In the present work, aggregation behaviour of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C12mim]Br) modulated by beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated by using conductivity, volume, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The results suggested that the addition of β-CD significantly affects the aggregation of [C12mim]Br in aqueous solutions. For example, the apparent critical micelle concentration increases with...

Modulation of the aggregation behaviour and physicochemical properties of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in aqueous solutions by β-CD

Xia Gao, Yongcheng Yao, Chuang Liu & Zhongzhi Yang
The modulation of aggregation behaviour of ionic liquids (ILs) in aqueous media is one of the important research topics. In the present work, aggregation behaviour of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C12mim]Br) modulated by beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated by using conductivity, volume, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The results suggested that the addition of β-CD significantly affects the aggregation of [C12mim]Br in aqueous solutions. For example, the apparent critical micelle concentration increases with...

Eight new cucurbitane triterpenoids from “Xue Dan,” the roots of Hemsleya pengxianensis

Ying Li, Wen-Xue Wang, Zhong-Fei Zheng, Yan-Ling Mu, Yong-Jun Liu, Hai-Yang Wang, Ling Li & Qing-Qiang Yao
Eight new natural products (four new cucurbitane aglycones, hemslepencins A–D (1–4), four new cucurbitane glucosides, hemslepensides F–I (5–8), along with seven known compounds (9–15), were isolated from the roots of Hemsleya pengxianensis. The structures of 1–8 were elucidated using IR, HRESIMS, and NMR. Compound 3 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines.

Eight new cucurbitane triterpenoids from “Xue Dan,” the roots of Hemsleya pengxianensis

Ying Li, Wen-Xue Wang, Zhong-Fei Zheng, Yan-Ling Mu, Yong-Jun Liu, Hai-Yang Wang, Ling Li & Qing-Qiang Yao
Eight new natural products (four new cucurbitane aglycones, hemslepencins A–D (1–4), four new cucurbitane glucosides, hemslepensides F–I (5–8), along with seven known compounds (9–15), were isolated from the roots of Hemsleya pengxianensis. The structures of 1–8 were elucidated using IR, HRESIMS, and NMR. Compound 3 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines.

Community resilience to natural disasters in the informal settlements in Mwanza City, Tanzania

Herbert Hambati & Genesis T. Yengoh
The impacts of natural disasters on communities living in hazard prone areas are wide ranging and complex. In Mwanza, steep slopes, rocky hills and river valleys are inhabited by society's poorest people. These areas are prone to natural disasters. Residents have accumulated coping mechanisms for disaster risks and impact reduction. We combine spatial data, household surveys and data from focus groups to identify and rank areas based on their exposure to major disasters. We also...

Community resilience to natural disasters in the informal settlements in Mwanza City, Tanzania

Herbert Hambati & Genesis T. Yengoh
The impacts of natural disasters on communities living in hazard prone areas are wide ranging and complex. In Mwanza, steep slopes, rocky hills and river valleys are inhabited by society's poorest people. These areas are prone to natural disasters. Residents have accumulated coping mechanisms for disaster risks and impact reduction. We combine spatial data, household surveys and data from focus groups to identify and rank areas based on their exposure to major disasters. We also...

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