110,156 Works

P versus NP on NP-completeness

Frank Vega
P versus NP is considered as one of the most important open problems in computer science. This consists in knowing the answer of the following question: Is P equal to NP? This question was first mentioned in a letter written by John Nash to the National Security Agency in 1955. However, a precise statement of the P versus NP problem was introduced independently in 1971 by Stephen Cook and Leonid Levin. Since that date, all...

Real-life use of diagnostic biopsies before treatment of kidney cancer: results from a Norwegian population-based study

Christian Beisland, Tom B. Johannesen, Lars Anders R. Reisæter & Karin M. Hjelle
Objective: Interest in renal mass biopsies (RMBs) has increased in recent years. However, most publications are low-volume and/or single-center studies, so their generalizability is questionable. The aim of this study was to describe population-based, real-life use of diagnostic RMBs for localized and advanced kidney cancer (KC). Materials and methods: All KC patients diagnosed during 2008–2013 extracted from the database at the Cancer Registry of Norway were included. Relationships with outcome were analyzed using multivariate logistic...

Transforming Hidden Conflicts into Participation: The Case of a Charismatic Leadership in the Middle East

Pierre EL HADDAD, Marc Bonnet & Patrick Tabchoury
bstract Purpose - The presentis paper addresses the issues raised by hidden conflicts in a charismatic -led organization. The paper investigates the transformation from a management paradigm of quelling conflict artificially through charismatic leadership charismatic leadership artificially taming conflict, to a negotiation paradigm of negotiation that favors participationfavoring participation, systematicity, the multiplication multiplying of innovation sources, and synchronization. The research is based on a specific approach to action -research aimed at to revealing the inherently...

Mis trabajadores se van de la empresa, ¿cómo freno esta estampida?

Jorge Alba
Los motivos por los que la gente abandona una compañía son muy diversos, por lo que conocer la razón exacta es bastante complicado. La realidad es que, como sucede con los accidentes, suele tratarse de un cúmulo de factores.

İşbirlikli Problem Çözmenin Kodlama Öğretimine Yansıması Olarak Eşli Kodlamanın İncelenmesi

Ömer Demir & Süleyman Sadi Seferoğlu
Problem çözme becerisi; eğitimde bilginin transferi, otantik öğrenme ve üretmeye yapılan vurgunun artmasıyla birlikte giderek önem kazanmıştır. Bu arada işbirlikli öğrenme, bilginin öznel olarak birey tarafından yapılandırılmasının yoğun olarak kabul görülmesiyle birlikte sosyal uzlaşının sağlanabilmesi için önemli görülmeye başlanmıştır. Bu iki gelişme zamanla işbirlikli problem çözme kavramının doğmasına yol açmıştır.Öte yandan kodlama öğretimi özellikle son on yılda oldukça önem kazanmıştır. Kodlama öğretimi temelde bilgi-işlemsel düşünmenin temelini oluşturan işbirliği, eleştirel düşünme, algoritmik düşünme, yaratıcı düşünme ve...

Akademisyenlerin E-öğrenmeye Hazır Bulunuşluğu: Bir Ölçek Geliştirme Çalışması

Ömer Demir & Halil Yurdugül
E-öğrenmenin yaygınlaşmasıyla bireylerin e-öğrenmeye çeşitli açılardan hazır olup olmadıkları sorusu gündeme gelmiştir. Bu konudaki çalışmalar yoğunlukla öğrencilerin e-öğrenmeye hazır bulunuşluğu üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Bu noktada e-öğrenmeye hazır bulunuşluk hakkındaki çalışmaların akademisyenlerin e-öğrenmeye hazır bulunuşluğuna da odaklanması gerektiği ifade edilebilir. Ancak bunun için öncelikle Türkçe alanyazında geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracının bulunması gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle bu araştırma kapsamında akademisyenlerin e-öğrenmeye hazır bulunuşluğuna ilişkin bir ölçme aracı geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirme sürecinde ilk olarak ilgili alanyazın incelemesi sonucunda madde...

Öğretmen Yetiştiren Lisans Programlarındaki Öğretmen Adaylarının E-öğrenmeye Hazır Bulunuşluklarının İncelenmesi: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Örneği

Halil Yurdugül & Ömer Demir
E-learning readiness is one of the most important variables in e-learning because e-learning readiness directly affects the success of e-learning initiatives. Therefore, more studies about e-learning readiness are needed to make teacher training undergraduate programs readier for e-learning. In this study, in this respect, the correlations of the components of e-learning readiness construct with each other were investigated. Besides, senior and freshman students of faculty of education were compared in terms of their e-learning readiness...

Öğretmen Yetiştiren Lisans Programlarındaki Öğretmen Adaylarının E-öğrenmeye Hazır Bulunuşluklarının İncelenmesi: Hacettepe Üniversitesi Örneği

Halil Yurdugül & Ömer Demir
E-learning readiness is one of the most important variables in e-learning because e-learning readiness directly affects the success of e-learning initiatives. Therefore, more studies about e-learning readiness are needed to make teacher training undergraduate programs readier for e-learning. In this study, in this respect, the correlations of the components of e-learning readiness construct with each other were investigated. Besides, senior and freshman students of faculty of education were compared in terms of their e-learning readiness...

Yeni Kavramlar, Farklı Kullanımlar: Bilgi-İşlemsel Düşünmeyle İlgili Bir Değerlendirme

Ömer Demir & Süleyman Sadi Seferoğlu
Eleştirel, yaratıcı, yansıtıcı, analitik, mantıklı vb. düşünme becerileri eğitimin bireye sağlayacağı önemli kazanımlardandır. 1960’lardan beri farklı isimler altında gündemde olan bilgi-işlemsel düşünme becerisi de bireylere kazandırılması gereken düşünme becerileri arasında yer almaktadır. Bilgi-işlemsel düşünme becerisini diğer düşünme becerilerinden ayıran en önemli özellik bilgi-işlemsel düşünmenin insanların bilgisayarlarla işbirliği yapmalarına izin vermesidir. Bu nedenle özellikle 2000’li yıllardan sonra teknolojinin de gelişmesi ile bilgi-işlemsel düşünme daha çok mercek altına alınmaya başlanmıştır. Ancak bilgi-işlemsel düşünmenin eğitsel doğurgularının hala net...

Appendix A

Aditya Pratama
The behaviour of bucket brigades with worker collaboration on 3-station, 2-worker line with fully or partially cross-trained workers as slowest-to-fastest and fastest-to-slowest can be derived as follows:

Enhancement of mechanical and tribological properties of SiC- and CB-reinforced aluminium 7075 hybrid composites through friction stir processing

Pratip Roy, Subhash Singh & Kaushik Pal
Aluminium alloy has wide application in both aircraft and automobile industry due to its high strength and light weight benefits. In this research work, stir casting process was used for fabricating aluminium alloy 7075 reinforced by silicon carbide (SiC) and carbon black (CB) particulates. X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive X-Rays analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed the presence of SiC and CB particles and there uniform distribution in aluminium matrix. Further, as-cast...

Supplementary material from “Atlantic bluefin tuna spawn at suboptimal temperatures for their offspring”

P. Reglero, A. Ortega, R. Balbín, F.J. Abascal, A. Medina, E. Blanco, F. De La Gándara, D. Alvarez-Berastegui, M. Hidalgo, L. Rasmuson, F. Alemany & Ø. Fiksen
Supplementary material from “Atlantic bluefin tuna spawn at suboptimal temperatures for their offspring”

Supplementary Result Tables from Strong social relationships are associated with decreased longevity in a facultatively social mammal

Daniel T. Blumstein, Dana M. Williams, Alexandra N. Lim, Svenja Kroeger & Julien G. A. Martin
Humans in strong social relationships are more likely to live longer because social relationships may buffer stressors and thus have protective effects. However, a shortcoming of human studies is that they often rely on self-reporting of these relationships. By contrast, observational studies of non-human animals permit detailed analyses of the specific nature of social relationships. Thus, discoveries that some social animals live longer and healthier lives if they are involved in social grooming, forage together...

Mechanochemically-generated solid state complex of C60-fullerene with tetra-(5,7-diphenyl)calix[4]azulene, NMR, XRD and DFT studies

Celine Schneider, Hidetaka Nishimura, Jaehyun Lee, Lawrence T. Scott, Atsushi Wakamiya, Roy Forbes & Paris E. Georghiou
The synthesis of tetra-(5,7-diphenyl)calix[4]azulene via the reaction of 5,7-diphenylazulene with formaldehyde is described. Its solid-state supramolecular complexation with C60 produced by a grinding of the two components was evaluated by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Gas-phase DFT studies of possible structures are reported.

Additional file 2: of Myocardial inflammation, injury and infarction during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

Shirjel Alam, Colin Stirrat, Nick Spath, Vipin Zamvar, Renzo Pessotto, Marc Dweck, Colin Moore, Scott Semple, Ahmed El-Medany, Divya Manoharan, Nicholas Mills, Anoop Shah, Saeed Mirsadraee, David Newby & Peter Henriksen
Correlations and change in ejection fraction (pre to post surgery). (DOCX 176 kb)

Additional file 1: of Myocardial inflammation, injury and infarction during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery

Shirjel Alam, Colin Stirrat, Nick Spath, Vipin Zamvar, Renzo Pessotto, Marc Dweck, Colin Moore, Scott Semple, Ahmed El-Medany, Divya Manoharan, Nicholas Mills, Anoop Shah, Saeed Mirsadraee, David Newby & Peter Henriksen
Systemic inflammatory markers. (DOCX 387 kb)

Additional file 6 of DNA and RNA-sequence based GWAS highlights membrane-transport genes as key modulators of milk lactose content

Thomas Lopdell, Kathryn Tiplady, Maksim Struchalin, Thomas Johnson, Michael Keehan, Ric Sherlock, Christine Couldrey, Stephen Davis, Russell Snell, Richard Spelman & Mathew Littlejohn
Figure S3. WGS resolution for eQTL of all gene located within 1Mbp windows centred on QTL peaks for lactose phenotypes. (PDF 8428 kb)

Additional file 1: of Bioinformatically predicted deleterious mutations reveal complementation in the interior spruce hybrid complex

Gina Conte, Kathryn Hodgins, Sam Yeaman, Jon Degner, Sally Aitken, Loren Rieseberg & Michael Whitlock
Supplementary Material. Supplementary Figure S1-S6 (referenced in text). (PDF 9957 kb)

Additional file 1: of Canary: an atomic pipeline for clinical amplicon assays

Kenneth Doig, Jason Ellul, Andrew Fellowes, Ella Thompson, Georgina Ryland, Piers Blombery, Anthony Papenfuss & Stephen Fox
canary usage.docx: Description of the Canary command line options. (DOCX 136 kb)

Additional file 6: Figure S5. of Targeted bisulfite sequencing identified a panel of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)

Weilin Pu, Chenji Wang, Sidi Chen, Dunmei Zhao, Yinghui Zhou, Yanyun Ma, Ying Wang, Caihua Li, Zebin Huang, Li Jin, Shicheng Guo, Jiucun Wang & Minghua Wang
The detailed description of biomarker selection pipeline. (PDF 97 kb)

Additional file 2 of DNA and RNA-sequence based GWAS highlights membrane-transport genes as key modulators of milk lactose content

Thomas Lopdell, Kathryn Tiplady, Maksim Struchalin, Thomas Johnson, Michael Keehan, Ric Sherlock, Christine Couldrey, Stephen Davis, Russell Snell, Richard Spelman & Mathew Littlejohn
Figure S2. WGS resolution for 1Mbp windows centred on QTL peaks for lactose phenotypes. (PDF 1010 kb)

Additional file 1: Table S1. of Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study

Thomas Kötter, Josefin Wagner, Linda Brüheim & Edgar Voltmer
PMSS items (english wording); Table S2. Longitudinal results from our sample. Description of data / legend: The (english language) wording of the PMSS items [8, 16] is presented in Table S1. Table S2 shows the mean scores for the single PMSS items, as well as the sum scores for T1 and T2. Results of the dependent t-tests for paired samples are also shown in Table S2. (DOCX 18 kb)

Additional file 1 of DNA and RNA-sequence based GWAS highlights membrane-transport genes as key modulators of milk lactose content

Thomas Lopdell, Kathryn Tiplady, Maksim Struchalin, Thomas Johnson, Michael Keehan, Ric Sherlock, Christine Couldrey, Stephen Davis, Russell Snell, Richard Spelman & Mathew Littlejohn
Figure S1. Stratification in the 30,000 discovery and validation animals, illustrated using PCA on the GRM matrix. Animals are coloured by the percentages of ancestry recorded in the LIC animal recording database. Breeds are Jersey and Holstein-Friesian. PCA was performed using GCTA [46]. (PDF 1770 kb)

Additional file 1: of Discovery of the fourth mobile sulfonamide resistance gene

Mohammad Razavi, Nachiket Marathe, Michael Gillings, Carl-Fredrik Flach, Erik Kristiansson & D. Joakim Larsson
Figure S1. Predicted functions of open reading frames recovered by the chromosomal integron primer pair MRG284-MRG285 separated by samples. The results are based on known homologues in the CARD database. Figure S2. Predicted functions of open reading frames of the “clinical” and “environmental” integrons from the HS464-GCP2 amplicons separated by samples. The results are based on known homologues in the CARD database. Figure S3. Functional annotation of the open reading frames not previously reported in integrons....

Additional file 4: Figure S3. of Targeted bisulfite sequencing identified a panel of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)

Weilin Pu, Chenji Wang, Sidi Chen, Dunmei Zhao, Yinghui Zhou, Yanyun Ma, Ying Wang, Caihua Li, Zebin Huang, Li Jin, Shicheng Guo, Jiucun Wang & Minghua Wang
The ROC (Receiver Operating characteristics) curve for the subgroup analyzes. A-H represent the ROC curve for the young, old, male, female, smoked, non-smoked, alcohol, and non-alcohol subgroups, respectively. A-H each represent the overall ROC curve for the subgroup, which was calculated through a logistic regression model, incorporating the mean methylation percentage of the five genomic regions as the variables and without the adjustment for gender, age, and smoking status and alcohol status. (PDF 446 kb)

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