111,552 Works

Additional file 1: of Cardiovascular health knowledge and preventive practices in people living with HIV in Kenya

Tecla Temu, Nicholas Kirui, Celestine Wanjalla, Alfred Ndungu, Jemima Kamano, Thomas Inui & Gerald Bloomfield
Questionnaire. (PDF 75 kb)

Cardiovascular health knowledge and preventive practices in people living with HIV in Kenya

Tecla Temu, Nicholas Kirui, Celestine Wanjalla, Alfred Ndungu, Jemima Kamano, Thomas Inui & Gerald Bloomfield
Abstract Background Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contribute to increase risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). Of all world regions, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV yet little is known about PLWH’s CVD knowledge and self- perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we assessed PLWH’s knowledge, perception and attitude towards cardiovascular diseases and their prevention. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in the largest HIV...

Consumer acceptance of reformulated food products: A systematic review and meta-analysis of salt-reduced foods

Rachael Jaenke, Federica Barzi, Emma McMahon, Jacqui Webster & Julie Brimblecombe
Food product reformulation is promoted as an effective strategy to reduce population salt intake and address the associated burden of chronic disease. Salt has a number of functions in food processing, including impacting upon physical and sensory properties. Manufacturers must ensure that reformulation of foods to reduce salt does not compromise consumer acceptability. The aim of this systematic review is to determine to what extent foods can be reduced in salt without detrimental effect on...

Weighted Statistic in Detecting Faint and Sparse Alternatives for High-Dimensional Covariance Matrices

Qing Yang & Guangming Pan
This article considers testing equality of two population covariance matrices when the data dimension p diverges with the sample size n (p/n → c > 0). We propose a weighted test statistic that is data-driven and powerful in both faint alternatives (many small disturbances) and sparse alternatives (several large disturbances). Its asymptotic null distribution is derived by large random matrix theory without assuming the existence of a limiting cumulative distribution function of the population covariance...

A Dynamic Structure for High-Dimensional Covariance Matrices and Its Application in Portfolio Allocation

Shaojun Guo, John Leigh Box & Wenyang Zhang
Estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices is an interesting and important research topic. In this article, we propose a dynamic structure and develop an estimation procedure for high-dimensional covariance matrices. Asymptotic properties are derived to justify the estimation procedure and simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate its performance when the sample size is finite. By exploring a financial application, an empirical study shows that portfolio allocation based on dynamic high-dimensional covariance matrices can significantly outperform the...

Nonlocal Priors for High-Dimensional Estimation

David Rossell & Donatello Telesca
Jointly achieving parsimony and good predictive power in high dimensions is a main challenge in statistics. Nonlocal priors (NLPs) possess appealing properties for model choice, but their use for estimation has not been studied in detail. We show that for regular models NLP-based Bayesian model averaging (BMA) shrink spurious parameters either at fast polynomial or quasi-exponential rates as the sample size n increases, while nonspurious parameter estimates are not shrunk. We extend some results to...

Salmonellatyphimurium in the Australian egg industry: Multidisciplinary approach to addressing the public health challenge and future directions

Kapil K. Chousalkar, Margaret Sexton, Andrea McWhorter, Kylie Hewson, Glen Martin, Craig Shadbolt & Paul Goldsmith
In Australia, numerous egg-related human Salmonella typhimurium outbreaks have prompted significant interest among public health authorities and the egg industry to jointly address this human health concern. Nationwide workshops on Salmonella and eggs were conducted in Australia for egg producers and regulatory authorities. State and national regulators represented Primary Production, Communicable Disease Control, Public Health and Food Safety, and Food Standards Australia and New Zealand. All attendees participated in discussions aimed at evaluating current evidence-based...

Dairy products and inflammation: A review of the clinical evidence

Alessandra Bordoni, Francesca Danesi, Dominique Dardevet, Didier Dupont, Aida S. Fernandez, Doreen Gille, Claudia Nunes Dos Santos, Paula Pinto, Roberta Re, Didier Rémond, Danit R. Shahar & Guy Vergères
Inflammation is a major biological process regulating the interaction between organisms and the environment, including the diet. Because of the increase in chronic inflammatory diseases, and in light of the immune-regulatory properties of breastfeeding, the ability of dairy products to modulate inflammatory processes in humans is an important but unresolved issue. Here, we report a systematic review of 52 clinical trials investigating inflammatory markers in relation to the consumption of dairy products. An inflammatory score...

Study on weak-light photovoltaic characteristics of solar cell with a microgroove lens array on glass substrate

Ping Li, Jin Xie, Jian Cheng & Yu Ning Jiang
Microgroove lens with 500-800 µm in depth is proposed on the glass substrate of thin-film solar cell. The objective is to improve photovoltaic characteristics under weak-light illumination. First, the micro-optical characteristics were theoretically studied in connection with micro-lens structure; then a diamond micro-grinding was employed to fabricate microgroove lens; finally, indoor conversion efficiency and outdoor electrical generation were measured. It is shown that the 800-µm-depth microgroove lens is able to absorb and scatter the inclined...

Study on weak-light photovoltaic characteristics of solar cell with a microgroove lens array on glass substrate

Ping Li, Jin Xie, Jian Cheng & Yu Ning Jiang
Microgroove lens with 500-800 µm in depth is proposed on the glass substrate of thin-film solar cell. The objective is to improve photovoltaic characteristics under weak-light illumination. First, the micro-optical characteristics were theoretically studied in connection with micro-lens structure; then a diamond micro-grinding was employed to fabricate microgroove lens; finally, indoor conversion efficiency and outdoor electrical generation were measured. It is shown that the 800-µm-depth microgroove lens is able to absorb and scatter the inclined...

LCD-based digital eyeglass for modulating spatial-angular information

Zichao Bian, Jun Liao, Kaikai Guo, Xin Heng & Guoan Zheng
Using programmable aperture to modulate spatial-angular information of light field is well-known in computational photography and microscopy. Inspired by this concept, we report a digital eyeglass design that adaptively modulates light field entering human eyes. The main hardware includes a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) and a mini-camera. The device analyzes the spatial-angular information of the camera image in real time and subsequently sends a command to form a certain pattern on the LCD. We...

LCD-based digital eyeglass for modulating spatial-angular information

Zichao Bian, Jun Liao, Kaikai Guo, Xin Heng & Guoan Zheng
Using programmable aperture to modulate spatial-angular information of light field is well-known in computational photography and microscopy. Inspired by this concept, we report a digital eyeglass design that adaptively modulates light field entering human eyes. The main hardware includes a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) and a mini-camera. The device analyzes the spatial-angular information of the camera image in real time and subsequently sends a command to form a certain pattern on the LCD. We...

Design and modeling of an ultra-compact 2x2 nanomechanical plasmonic switch

Vladimir A. Aksyuk
A 2x2 Mach-Zehnder optical switch design with a footprint of 0.5 μm x 2.5 μm using nanomechanical gap plasmon phase modulators [Nat. Photonics9(4), 267-273 (2015)] is presented. The extremely small footprint and modest optical loss are enabled by the strong phase modulation of gap plasmons in a mechanically actuated 17 nm air gap. Frequency-domain finite-element modeling at operating wavelength 780 nm shows that the insertion loss is ≤ 8.5 dB, the extinction ratio is >...

Design and modeling of an ultra-compact 2x2 nanomechanical plasmonic switch

Vladimir A. Aksyuk
A 2x2 Mach-Zehnder optical switch design with a footprint of 0.5 μm x 2.5 μm using nanomechanical gap plasmon phase modulators [Nat. Photonics9(4), 267-273 (2015)] is presented. The extremely small footprint and modest optical loss are enabled by the strong phase modulation of gap plasmons in a mechanically actuated 17 nm air gap. Frequency-domain finite-element modeling at operating wavelength 780 nm shows that the insertion loss is ≤ 8.5 dB, the extinction ratio is >...

Correlation singularities in a partially coherent electromagnetic beam with initially radial polarization

Yongtao Zhang, Yan Cui, Fei Wang & Yangjian Cai
We have investigated the correlation singularities, coherence vortices of two-point correlation function in a partially coherent vector beam with initially radial polarization, i.e., partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam. It is found that these singularities generally occur during free space propagation. Analytical formulae for characterizing the dynamics of the correlation singularities on propagation are derived. The influence of the spatial coherence length of the beam on the evolution properties of the correlation singularities and the...

Correlation singularities in a partially coherent electromagnetic beam with initially radial polarization

Yongtao Zhang, Yan Cui, Fei Wang & Yangjian Cai
We have investigated the correlation singularities, coherence vortices of two-point correlation function in a partially coherent vector beam with initially radial polarization, i.e., partially coherent radially polarized (PCRP) beam. It is found that these singularities generally occur during free space propagation. Analytical formulae for characterizing the dynamics of the correlation singularities on propagation are derived. The influence of the spatial coherence length of the beam on the evolution properties of the correlation singularities and the...

Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope

Lei Tian & Laura Waller
Illumination-based differential phase contrast (DPC) is a phase imaging method that uses a pair of images with asymmetric illumination patterns. Distinct from coherent techniques, DPC relies on spatially partially coherent light, providing 2× better lateral resolution, better optical sectioning and immunity to speckle noise. In this paper, we derive the 2D weak object transfer function (WOTF) and develop a quantitative phase reconstruction method that is robust to noise. The effect of spatial coherence is studied...

Quantitative differential phase contrast imaging in an LED array microscope

Lei Tian & Laura Waller
Illumination-based differential phase contrast (DPC) is a phase imaging method that uses a pair of images with asymmetric illumination patterns. Distinct from coherent techniques, DPC relies on spatially partially coherent light, providing 2× better lateral resolution, better optical sectioning and immunity to speckle noise. In this paper, we derive the 2D weak object transfer function (WOTF) and develop a quantitative phase reconstruction method that is robust to noise. The effect of spatial coherence is studied...

Real-time absolute frequency measurement of continuous-wave terahertz radiation based on dual terahertz combs of photocarriers with different frequency spacings

Takeshi Yasui, Kenta Hayashi, Ryuji Ichikawa, Harsono Cahyadi, Yi-Da Hsieh, Yasuhiro Mizutani, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Tetsuo Iwata, Hajime Inaba & Kaoru Minoshima
Real-time measurement of the absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation is required for characterization and frequency calibration of practical CW-THz sources. We proposed a method for real-time monitoring of the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation involving temporally parallel, i.e., simultaneous, measurement of two pairs of beat frequencies and laser repetition frequencies based on dual THz combs of photocarriers (PC-THz combs) with different frequency spacings. To demonstrate the method, THz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzers were constructed with...

Real-time absolute frequency measurement of continuous-wave terahertz radiation based on dual terahertz combs of photocarriers with different frequency spacings

Takeshi Yasui, Kenta Hayashi, Ryuji Ichikawa, Harsono Cahyadi, Yi-Da Hsieh, Yasuhiro Mizutani, Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Tetsuo Iwata, Hajime Inaba & Kaoru Minoshima
Real-time measurement of the absolute frequency of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation is required for characterization and frequency calibration of practical CW-THz sources. We proposed a method for real-time monitoring of the absolute frequency of CW-THz radiation involving temporally parallel, i.e., simultaneous, measurement of two pairs of beat frequencies and laser repetition frequencies based on dual THz combs of photocarriers (PC-THz combs) with different frequency spacings. To demonstrate the method, THz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzers were constructed with...

360 degree viewable floating autostereoscopic display using integral photography and multiple semitransparent mirrors

Dong Zhao, Baiquan Su, Guowen Chen & Hongen Liao
In this paper, we present a polyhedron-shaped floating autostereoscopic display viewable from 360 degrees using integral photography (IP) and multiple semitransparent mirrors. IP combined with polyhedron-shaped multiple semitransparent mirrors is used to achieve a 360 degree viewable floating three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic display, having the advantage of being able to be viewed by several observers from various viewpoints simultaneously. IP is adopted to generate a 3D autostereoscopic image with full parallax property. Multiple semitransparent mirrors reflect...

360 degree viewable floating autostereoscopic display using integral photography and multiple semitransparent mirrors

Dong Zhao, Baiquan Su, Guowen Chen & Hongen Liao
In this paper, we present a polyhedron-shaped floating autostereoscopic display viewable from 360 degrees using integral photography (IP) and multiple semitransparent mirrors. IP combined with polyhedron-shaped multiple semitransparent mirrors is used to achieve a 360 degree viewable floating three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic display, having the advantage of being able to be viewed by several observers from various viewpoints simultaneously. IP is adopted to generate a 3D autostereoscopic image with full parallax property. Multiple semitransparent mirrors reflect...

Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes

Bing Shen, Randy Polson & Rajesh Menon
We applied nonlinear optimization to design integrated digital metamaterials in silicon for unidirectional energy flow. Two devices, one for each polarization state, were designed, fabricated, and characterized. Both devices offer comparable or higher transmission efficiencies and extinction ratios, are easier to fabricate, exhibit larger bandwidths and are more tolerant to fabrication errors, when compared to alternatives. Furthermore, each device footprint is only 3μm × 3μm, which is the smallest optical diode ever reported. To illustrate...

Integrated digital metamaterials enables ultra-compact optical diodes

Bing Shen, Randy Polson & Rajesh Menon
We applied nonlinear optimization to design integrated digital metamaterials in silicon for unidirectional energy flow. Two devices, one for each polarization state, were designed, fabricated, and characterized. Both devices offer comparable or higher transmission efficiencies and extinction ratios, are easier to fabricate, exhibit larger bandwidths and are more tolerant to fabrication errors, when compared to alternatives. Furthermore, each device footprint is only 3μm × 3μm, which is the smallest optical diode ever reported. To illustrate...

Different polarization dynamic states in a vector Yb-doped fiber laser

Xingliang Li, Shumin Zhang, Huiyun Han, Mengmeng Han, Huaxing Zhang, Luming Zhao, Fang Wen & Zhenjun Yang
Different polarization dynamic states in an unidirectional, vector, Yb-doped fiber ring laser have been observed. A rich variety of dynamic states, including group velocity locked polarization domains and their splitting into regularly distributed multiple domains, polarization locked square pulses and their harmonic mode locking counterparts, and dissipative soliton resonances have all been observed with different operating parameters. We have also shown experimentally details of the conditions under which polarization-domain-wall dark pulses and bright square pulses...

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