116 Works

Life Expectancy by Education, Income and Occupation in Germany: Estimations Using the Longitudinal Survival Method

Marc Luy, Christian Wegner-Siegmundt, Angela Wiedemann & Jeroen Spijker
Reliable estimates for differences in life expectancy (LE) by socio-economic position (SEP), that can be assessed in an international context and are comprehensive in terms of considering different SEP dimensions, are missing for the German population so far. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by providing estimates for differences in LE by education, household income, work status and vocational class. The lack of national mortality data by SEP required an...

Einfluss regionaler Faktoren auf die Kohortenfertilität: Neue Schätzwerte auf Kreisebene in Deutschland

Martin Bujard & Melanie Scheller
Betrachtungen des regionalen Kontexts haben eine lange Tradition in der Fertilitätsforschung. Allerdings liegen für Deutschland kreisspezifische Fertilitätsdaten bisher lediglich für die zusammengefasste Geburtenziffer (TFR) vor, nicht jedoch zur endgültigen Kinderzahl (Kohortenfertilität, CTFR). Auf Basis von Zensus 2011 und Geburtenstatistik werden Schätzwerte für die CTFR auf Kreisebene generiert und Einflussfaktoren ihrer Variation analysiert. Zunächst wird die CTFR der Geburtskohorten 1969-72 für alle 402 Kreise berechnet. Die geschätzte CTFR variiert erheblich zwischen den Kreisen bei einer Spannbreite...

Lebenserwartung in Deutschland auf Basis des Zensus 2011: War der Healthy-Migrant-Effekt nur ein Artefakt?

Felix Zur Nieden & Bettina Sommer
Die allgemeine Sterbetafel für 2010/12 des Statistischen Bundesamtes liefert für das vereinte Deutschland erstmals Ergebnisse zur Lebenserwartung auf Basis von Zensusdaten. Der vorliegende Artikel widmet sich deshalb der Frage, wie sich die Korrekturen der Bevölkerungsbestände im Rahmen des Zensus 2011 auf die Messung der Lebenserwartung ausgewirkt haben. Hierfür werden sowohl die amtlichen Sterbetafeln auf Basis der alten Bevölkerungsfortschreibung vor dem Zensus als auch auf Basis der Bevölkerungsdaten des Zensus 2011 analysiert. Die Vorgehensweise zur Berechnung...

Life Expectancy in Germany Based on the 2011 Census: Was the Healthy Migrant Effect Merely an Artefact?

Felix Zur Nieden & Bettina Sommer
The Federal Statistical Office’s 2010/12 general life table is the first to provide results on life expectancy based on census data for reunified Germany. This article therefore examines the question of how the revisions of the population figures from the 2011 census affected the measured life expectancy. To do so, we analysed both the official life tables based on the old intercensal population updates before the census and those based on the population data from...

Adjusting Inter-censal Population Estimates for Germany 1987-2011: Approaches and Impact on Demographic Indicators

Sebastian Klüsener, Pavel Grigoriev, Rembrandt D. Scholz & Dmitri A. Jdanov
To derive reliable demographic indicators, appropriate data on population exposures are needed. Access to such data is becoming increasingly challenging in many countries due to factors such as the growing diversity of international migration patterns and the trend towards replacing full censuses with register-based censuses. Germany represents a particularly challenging case in this respect. Before Germany implemented its first register-based census in 2011, the country had not conducted a census for more than two decades....

Impact of Regional Factors on Cohort Fertility: New Estimations at the District Level in Germany

Martin Bujard & Melanie Scheller
Incorporating the regional context into fertility research has a long standing tradition. However, in Germany, fertility data at the district level only exist for period total fertility rates (TFR), but not for cohort total fertility rates (CTFR). Based on the 2011 census and birth statistics, we estimate the CTFR at the district level and analyse factors influencing their variation. First, we estimate the CTFR for the 1969-72 cohorts in all 402 German districts. The estimated...

Internal Migration in Germany, 1995-2010: New Insights into East-West Migration and Re-urbanisation

Nikola Sander
Over the last two decades, patterns of internal migration in Germany have been discussed under the headings of East-West movements and sub- and re-urbanisation. This paper argues that the intense scientific and public debate that ignited about the possible causes and consequences of internal migration should be based on a clear understanding of how internal migration flows impact on regional population change. Using the German Internal Migration (GIM) database, a unique new dataset that holds...

Fertility Postponement and Regional Patterns of Dispersion in Age at First Birth: Descriptive Findings and Interpretations

Mathías Nathan & Ignacio Pardo
Previous studies have documented an increasing heterogeneity in first-birth timing in countries experiencing the postponement transition. Sobotka (2004), for instance, showed a rising dispersion in age at first birth in developed countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States, where the timing polarisation between more and less advantaged women is most evident. However, these studies have included few countries outside Europe and North America, and lack a thorough interpretation of the rising dispersion...

Women’s Attitudes toward Assisted Reproductive Technologies – A Pilot Study among Migrant Minorities and Non-migrants in Germany

Sonja Haug & Nadja Milewski
This study examines attitudes toward assisted reproductive technologies (ART) among immigrant women and non-migrants in Germany. The social relevance of ART is increasing in Western countries due to overall low birth rates, a high rate of childlessness, and a gap between the desired and the actual numbers of children. Previous literature has been scarce, however, on attitudes toward ART, and immigrant minorities have rarely been included in studies on ART. Our working hypotheses are drawn...

Attitudes toward Abortion for Medical and Non-medical Reasons among the Turkish Second Generation in Europe – The Role of the Family and Societal Contexts

Nadja Milewski & Sarah Carol
This paper studies attitudes toward abortion among the second generation of Turkish migrants and their native counterparts in six western and northern European countries. We focus on Turkish migrants because they not only constitute one of the largest immigrant groups, but are also hypothesised to be culturally and demographically very distinctive from the native group. We used data from the project on “The Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES 2007-08)” from Austria, France, Germany,...

Fertility Intentions and Views on Gender Roles: Russian Women in Estonia from an Origin-destination Perspective

Allan Puur, Hanna Vseviov & Liili Abuladze
In this article we investigate fertility intentions of Russian women in Estonia from an origin-destination perspective. Russian migrants to Estonia and their descendants are compared with women in the sending and host countries in order to identify similarities and differences in intended transitions to first, second and third births. The study is based on the Estonian and Russian Generations and Gender Surveys, which were conducted in 2004/2005, and employs logistic regression models. The dependent variables...

The Same Fertility Ideals as in the Country of Origin? A Study of the Personal Ideal Family Size among Immigrant Women in Italy

Eleonora Mussino & Livia Elisa Ortensi
The role of the personal ideal family size for international migrants has rarely been studied in the current debate on fertility and migration in the European context. It is not known to which extent the reduction of fertility observed among immigrants who settle in a country where fertility is lower than in their country of origin is the result of a change in fertility norms among those immigrants. The study of migrants’ ideals family size...

Towards a Comprehensive Understanding of Fertility: The Model of Dyadic Pathways

Uta Brehm & Norbert F. Schneider
In this theoretical contribution, we propose a comprehensive and integrative heuristic model to explain fertility, the Model of Dyadic Pathways (MDP). We show how existing models such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour often do not withstand empirical challenges, especially not individual self-reports in qualitative studies. Furthermore, existing models vary in their premises and foci, resulting in a collection of models which do not necessarily align with or supplement one another. For these reasons, these...

Fertility Intentions across Immigrant Generations in Sweden Do Patterns of Adaptation Differ by Gender and Origin?

Erik Carlsson
In being representative of individuals’ demographic value orientations, fertility preferences provide information about immigrants’ adaptation to family formation patterns in the destination country at a deeper, ideational level than actual fertility does. Using data from Wave 1 of the Swedish GGS from 2012/2013 (n=3,932), this study compares the first, 1.5, and second generations with either one or two foreign-born parent(s) to Swedes without an immigrant background by gender and across origins. Binary logistic regression is...

Unequal Neighbours? A French-German Comparison of Family Size Intentions

Kerstin Ruckdeschel, Anne Salles, Sabine Diabaté, Laurent Toulemon & Arnaud Régnier-Loilier
The neighbouring countries France and Germany show very different levels of fertility. Differences also exist between the two regions of East and West Germany. The aim of this paper is to help close a remaining gap in explaining these differences by applying a cultural concept of role models. Data is based on the German survey “Family-related role models” (2012) and the French survey “Situation de couple, intentions de fécondité et opinions sur la famille”, ELIPSS...

Later Life Moves and Movers in Germany: An Expanded Typology

Tim Winke
In times of ageing baby boomer cohorts and increasing regional disparities, residential choice in later life is important regarding family relations and the provision of social services. In this study, a new typology of later life moves is developed based on observed patterns and characteristics of residential changes. For this purpose, the German Socio-Economic Panel data has been linked to uniquely detailed neighbourhood information to study how aspects of both later life movers and moves...

The Impact of Union Dissolution and Divorce on Adolescents’ and Adults’ Relationships with their Parents

Oliver Arránz Becker
Using data of the German Family Panel pairfam, this article examines whether relationship-related transitions among adolescents and adults – separations with or without subsequent new relationships and transitions from being single to a relationship – impact different aspects of their relationship with their parents (contact frequency, intimacy, and conflict). Several competing hypotheses are tested. The resource hypothesis, following a supply-side argumentation, posits that relationships generate resources (i.e. social capital) that facilitate exchange with parents; relationship...

Life Expectancy in Germany Based on the 2011 Census: Was the Healthy Migrant Effect Merely an Artefact?

Felix Zur Nieden & Bettina Sommer
The Federal Statistical Office’s 2010/12 general life table is the first to provide results on life expectancy based on census data for reunified Germany. This article therefore examines the question of how the revisions of the population figures from the 2011 census affected the measured life expectancy. To do so, we analysed both the official life tables based on the old intercensal population updates before the census and those based on the population data from...

Die Korrespondenz von normativen Vorstellungen und Handeln Das Beispiel männlicher Hausarbeit

Daniela Grunow & Nina Baur
In der Geschlechter- und Familienforschung wird immer wieder eine Diskrepanz zwischen normativen Vorstellungen und faktischem Handeln festgestellt. Zahlreiche Studien belegen, dass seit den 1970er Jahren auf der Ebene der Werte und Einstellungen ein deutlicher Modernisierungstrend hin zu egalitären Geschlechterrollen stattgefunden hat, der sich aber in der Alltagspraxis kaum niederschlägt. Dies gilt insbesondere für die Beteiligung von Männern an der Hausarbeit. Am Beispiel des Staubsaugens, Wäschewaschens und Kochens geht der Beitrag daher der Frage nach, inwiefern...

The Economic Lifecycle by Gender – Results Combining Monetary and Time Use Estimates

Fanny A. Kluge
In recent decades, we have witnessed profound changes in family size and structure. While marriage rates and the number of children have declined in most industrialised countries, female labour force participation rates have risen significantly. However, while the working hours and wages of women have increased, we continue to observe huge discrepancies in market production by gender in Germany. This results in considerable differences in the economic lifecycle of men and women. The differences diminish...

Theoretische Erklärungen der zunehmenden Kinderlosigkeit – Divergierende Ansätze und das Integrationspotenzial der Frame-Selektions-Theorie

Jan Eckhard
Zur Erklärung des seit den 1960er Jahren in zahlreichen europäischen Ländern stattfindenden Anstiegs der Kinderlosigkeit wird in der Forschung einerseits auf soziokulturelle Wandlungsprozesse, andererseits auf gewachsene Kosten einer Familiengründung verwiesen. Es fehlt jedoch eine übergreifende Theorie, die beide Ursachenkomplexe in ihrem Zusammenwirken erfassen kann. Der vorliegende Beitrag erörtert die Möglichkeiten eines entsprechenden integrativen Erklärungsmodells. Vorgeschlagen wird ein Modell auf der Grundlage der Frame-Selektions-Theorie. Das Modell bezieht sich auf Entscheidungssituationen in Paarbeziehungen und thematisiert die Wechselwirkung...

Der Eintritt in die nachelterliche Familienphase

Barbara Wawrzyniak
Der Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Eintritt in die nachelterliche Familienphase, also die familiäre Situation, bei der alle Kinder aus dem elterlichen Haushalt ausgezogen sind. Zum einen wird dieser Eintritt zeitlich im Lebensverlauf positioniert und zum anderen das Übergangsrisiko untersucht. Mit Hilfe von Paneldaten (3 Erhebungswellen) über einen Zeitraum von 40 Jahren einer Kohorte ehemaliger nordrhein-westfälischer Gymnasiasten wird mittels eines ereignisanalytischen Verfahrens (Cox-Regression) analysiert, welche Faktoren den Übergang beschleunigen bzw. verlangsamen. Es zeigt sich, dass...

Reflecting on the Margins: Socio-spatial Stigmatisation among Adolescents in a Peripheralised Region

Frank Meyer, Judith Miggelbrink & Tom Schwarzenberg
Based on the project “Discourse and practices in shrinking regions”, we analyse the subjective relevance of derogative discourses using the example of the district of Altenburger Land (Germany). The article combines three aspects: First, it focuses on how young people’s representations of practices of social differentiation are informed by regionalised discourses about and conditions of shrinkage. Second, it identifies two rhetoric strategies by which young people distance themselves from perceived deviance. Finally, it asks how...

Soziale Unterschiede in der Säuglingssterblichkeit in Rostock im 19. Jahrhundert Eine demografische Analyse anhand von Kirchenbuchdaten

Michael Mühlichen, Rembrandt D. Scholz & Gabriele Doblhammer
Der Beitrag untersucht die historische Entwicklung der Säuglingssterblichkeit in der Hansestadt Rostock und widmet sich im Speziellen der Frage, inwieweit sozioökonomische Faktoren die Höhe der Säuglingssterblichkeit im frühen 19. Jahrhundert beeinflussten. Es lässt sich für die Stadt ein im deutschlandweiten Vergleich äußerst niedriges Säuglingssterblichkeitsniveau feststellen, besonders für das erste Drittel des Jahrhunderts. Dabei kann ein signifikanter Einfluss der beruflichen Schicht des Vaters auf die Überlebenschancen des Kindes im ersten Lebensjahr für das frühe 19. Jahrhundert nachgewiesen werden:...

Fertility, Family Policy and Welfare Regimes

Elina Schleutker
Dieser Beitrag wurde durch die zahlreichen Übereinstimmungen zwischen der genderspezifischen Wohlfahrtsstaatsforschung und der Bevölkerungsforschung im Bezug auf die Determinanten der Fertilität angeregt. Der erste Teil dieses Beitrages befasst sich mit einer Reihe von Reproduktionstheorien vor dem Hintergrund der These des genderspezifischen Wohlfahrtsstaates. Eine zentrale Parallele zwischen diesen beiden Theorien ist die Tatsache, dass bei der Analyse von Work-Life-Choices schwerpunktmäßig eine Politik untersucht wird, die eine Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Familie ermöglicht. Folglich nimmt man an,...

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