The Balfour Declaration, the document that set the stage for establishing the state of Israel, was the product of months of wordsmithing and political jockeying. The evolution of its final wording sheds light on the goals and agendas of political powers in their advocacy for definitions of “nation.”
A renowned jurist with lasting influence, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando served as justice and interior minister between 1916 and 1917, implementing liberal policies despite strong opposition. As prime minister after the Caporetto crisis he rallied Italy, instituted social reforms, reorganized the army, protected civil rights, preserved civilian control of the military, and led the country to victory.
International Encyclopedia of the First World War
The commemorative period between 2014 and 2018 was marked globally by numerous exhibitions of original artworks that had been commissioned and created during and immediately after World War 1. Most national and state museums and galleries also curated comprehensive survey shows of original work from the period; some curators took a thematic approach, some designed new permanent exhibits, and a significant number created innovative opportunities for contemporary artists to reflect on the centenary through the...