In wartime Austria-Hungary, propaganda’s usefulness for manipulating public opinion and upholding morale was slowly realized. Various types of official and unofficial propaganda then emerged in word, art, and moving image. But despite increasing sophistication by 1918, the success of these efforts ultimately depended on the empire’s ability to win the war and satisfy very diverse civilian aspirations.
Political life in the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy (particularly the constitutional framework, political traditions and mentality) can only be characterized as very different from that of the Cisleithanian half, with all the consequences upon the work and role of the Hungarian parliament during the First World War. The characteristics of the parliament provide explanations for the stability of the government in the first war years and the events following the military collapse of...
Much of the reign of Pope Benedict XV was dominated by the First World War. Pope Benedict deplored this war and thus, together with his Secretary of State, he tried to bring to an end to it through persistent, but unsuccessful, peace diplomacy. He also helped alleviate the suffering it caused through various humanitarian initiatives.