530 Works

Daszyński, Ignacy

Andrzej Chojnowski
Ignacy Daszyński was one of the foremost figures on the Polish political scene in the first half of the 20th century. He personified a subset of elites who merged the struggle for social justice with respect for the principles of the democratic order and understanding of other nations’ aspirations toward freedom.

War in the Balkans

Richard Hall
The Balkan Wars erupted in South Eastern Europe in October 1912. Fighting continued intermittently in the region until July 1914. As the First World War expanded into much of Europe, fighting continued throughout the South East until the autumn of 1918. In South Eastern Europe, the Balkan Wars and the First World War must be understood as a single community.

Ebert, Friedrich

Bernd Braun
Friedrich Ebert became the most important leader of the SPD during the First World War, alongside Philipp Scheidemann. During the revolution, Ebert rose to the top position within party hierarchy and drew Germany towards parliamentary democracy, first as ''Volksbeauftragter'' (people's representative) in the revolutionary government, then in February 1919 as ''Reichspräsident'' (president).


Dieter Storz
The rifle was by far the most common weapon used in the world war. When the major powers entered the conflict, they possessed around 11 million rifles. During the war, they either manufactured or imported 30 million more.

Le Feu

Olaf Müller
Henri Barbusse published the emblematic French war novel ''Le Feu'' in 1916. Given the context of its first publication, ''Le Feu'' was not critical of French propaganda; rather, it was part of a change in propaganda after the battles of Verdun and the Somme.

International Law and the Laws of War

Jean H. Quataert
The article examines international efforts to curb states’ war-making prerogatives in the second half of the “long” 19th century. It captures new humanitarian sentiments circulating in transnational society that propelled the movements to codify the laws of war and create permanent international institutions for their implementation. The article focuses specifically on the societal efforts that led to the passage of the Geneva Convention in 1864 and the work at the two Hague Conferences in 1899...

Thiepval Memorial

Glyn Prysor
The Thiepval Memorial commemorates “the Missing of the Somme”: more than 72,000 British and South African soldiers who were killed in the region between 1915 and 1918 but have no known grave. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, it also honours the Anglo-French alliance during the First World War.

Women's Mobilization for War (Russian Empire)

Pavel Petrovich Shcherbinin
The First World War contributed to sharp, wide-ranging changes in women's social, legal and familial status, which in turn impacted women's self-esteem and mental attitudes. Women entered the war in one state and emerged with new behavioral practices and attitudes toward life. Military life reshaped family foundations, revealed public initiative in women's organizations and led to manifestations of women's emancipation. Women were unavoidably active on the "home front," as prejudices and stereotypes about a woman's...

Historiography 1918-Today (East Central Europe)

Klaus Richter & Piotr Szlanta
East Central European historians of the First World War have focused and continue to focus on the regaining independence and state-building processes that took place in East Central Europe in the first half of the 20thcentury. During communist rule, the freedom to conduct independent research in the region was severely restricted and subordinated to a Marxist ideological framework.

Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Xaver Josef Graf

Claudia Reichl-Ham
Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf was an Austrian officer and Chief of the General Staff of the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1906 to 1911 and from 1912 to 1917.


Akeo Okada
The First World War fundamentally changed the course of 20th century music. The era of late Romanticism, Symbolism and Expressionism had ended, the music culture of the European high bourgeoisie had begun to decline, and after the war American popular music became important. The use of music as propaganda also had roots in the First World War.

United States of America

Jennifer D. Keene
The American debate over neutrality ended when Woodrow Wilson decided in April 1917 that German aggression on the high seas threatened US national security. From 1917-18 the Wilson administration vastly expanded the power of the federal government by conscripting an army, controlling raw materials, and enforcing anti-sedition laws. War-induced social changes included women’s suffrage, internal migrations, and an energized civil rights movement. Fighting in Europe for the first time, the American army made a decisive...

Baltic States and Finland

Klaus Richter
This article presents a survey of the First World War in the region of today’s states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland. Chronologically the article begins with the outbreak of the war in August 1914 and ends with the conclusion of the Polish-Soviet Peace Treaty in Riga on 18 March 1921. The article covers the historical background of the region as well as a survey of the course of war and its effects on the...

Prisoners of War

Heather Jones
The First World War marked the shift from a 19th century, relatively ''ad hoc'' management of prisoners of war, to the 20th century’s sophisticated prisoner of war camp systems, with their bureaucratic management, rationalization of the labour use of prisoners, and complex modern logistical and security apparatuses. It also led to transnational, global systems of captivity. This article will assess prisoner treatment throughout the war in a variety of theatres, looking at capture, the construction...

Marie Adelheid, Grand-Duchess of Luxembourg

Josiane Weber
Marie Adelheid reigned from 1912 to 1919 as the Grand-Duchess of Luxembourg. Because of her friendly attitude towards the German occupying forces during World War I, the Luxembourgers and Allies accused her of sympathizing with the Germans. Failing to overcome domestic political opposition, she abdicated after the war.

U.S. Race Riots

Charlene Fletcher Brown
A race riot is a mob-related domestic disturbance in which specific racial groups are targeted for violence. The United States experienced a significant increase in race riots during and after World War I; much of the violence resulted from a variety of factors including African-American migration, labor shortages and postwar demobilization.

Historiography 1918-Today: Serbia and Montenegro (South East Europe)

Gordana Krivokapic-Jovic
Serbian historiography was analysed in light of Serbia’s historical position and role in the Western Balkans. The topics evolved out of the war’s origin and course, as well as out of Serbia’s relation to European historiography during 20th century. This article outlines ten main themes with corresponding subgroups and identifies the most important authors according to their scholastic achievements and their research focus.


Steven E. Rowe
Across the major belligerent powers, industrial production and the mobilization and organization of industrial labor became central to the conduct of the First World War. States and private industries restructured labor towards large-scale production, employing increasing numbers of semiskilled and unskilled laborers, women and men, and laborers from across the world. Organized labor’s political power saw some significant increases during the war, and declining real wages and living conditions for many industrial workers led to...

Dominion Soldiers on Leave in Europe (New Zealand)

Felicity Barnes
This article considers the experiences of New Zealand soldiers on leave in Britain. In particular it focuses on the efforts of voluntary organizations like the YMCA to construct London as a ‘home away from home’ for the New Zealand soldier. Though existing New Zealand literature emphasizes war’s role in helping to construct a sense of national identity, this article argues that the experiences of soldiers on leave may have reinforced some of the bonds of...

Germanophobia (Great Britain)

Panikos Panayi
During the First World War Britain became gripped with a Germanophobic hatred in which both government and the press played a central role. This hatred impacted the German community that lived within Britain as well as other representations of the enemy within the country.

Pre-war Socialist Pacifism

Elisa Marcobelli
The Socialists’ opposition to war in France, Germany and Italy during the period of the Second International (1889-1914) was contradictory. They tried to combine internationalism, antiwar engagement and antimilitarism with patriotic ideals and the defense of the nation in case of danger. This resulted in war in 1914. Therefore, is it really possible to speak of a “socialist Pacifism”?

The Military at Home

Odile Roynette
Regardless of whether it was based on volunteer enlistment or conscription, mass mobilization in all of the countries at war between 1914 and 1918 completely upended the pre-war relationships that existed between civil society and the army. It provoked an (at times radical) transformation of the home front which involved a three-faceted change: a new, unprecedented interface between the army and civilian population; spaces that were far more militarized; and an intensification of interrelations between...

Decree on Peace

Siobhan Peeling
Following the Bolshevik seizure of power in October 1917, Lenin issued his Decree on Peace, calling for a truce and demanding that peace be agreed upon by people’s assemblies to be convened across Europe. There was no popular European uprising, however, and Lenin’s government eventually signed a punitive separate peace with Germany.

Revolutionary Networks (India)

Gajendra Singh
Revolutionary movements in India haunted the imagination of post-war British officialdom. They were used in the aftermath of the First World War to justify everything from colonial massacres to the indefinite censorship of the press. But what were these conspiracies that loomed so large in official British thinking? And how successful or effective were these movements? This paper will provide some answers with an analysis of the Ghadar Movement which provided a locus through which...

Ottoman Empire/Middle East

Yücel Yanıkdağ
During the Great War, the Ottoman Empire fought on several major and minor fronts, both in the Middle East and in the Balkans. Although initially seen as a military liability by its allies and a weak enemy by its foes, Ottoman armies delivered some heavy blows to the Entente powers, mainly the British. Yet, by 1918, the military was battered beyond recognition. Ottoman civilians did not fare any better: they suffered and died by the...

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