213 Works

When does the youthfulness of the female brain emerge?

N Maleki & Nasim Maleki
Goyal et al., report in the February issue of PNAS that the female adult brain has a persistently lower metabolic brain age compared with the male brain at the same chronological age (1). In interpreting this remarkable finding, the authors propose that sex-related differences in brain development may in part play a role in “setting” the female brain at a younger initial brain age at puberty, allowing them to maintain a younger brain throughout adulthood....

Measuring theory of mind in schizophrenia research: Cross-cultural validation.

Lee HS, Corbera S, Poltorak A, Park K, Assaf M, Bell MD, Wexler BE, Cho YI, Jung S, Brocke S & Choi KH
Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand mental states of others and it is crucial for building sensitivity to other persons or events. Measuring ToM is important for understanding and rehabilitating social cognitive impairments in persons with schizophrenia. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) has been successfully employed to measure ToM between individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) in North America. Given that the SAT-MC uses geometric shapes, is nonverbal and...

Derivation of Brain Structure Volumes from MRI Neuroimages hosted by NDAR using LONI Workflows

John Van Horn
LONI used de-identified data from NDAR's cloud and a LONI image processing pipeline to perform a secondary structural MRI study. The workflow used in this study pulls data from and provided by NDAR to an instance on a LONI cloud, aligns data to a standard orientation using FSLreorient2stsd, and undergoes further image processing to eventually identify, extract, and analyze cortical and sub-cortical structures in different MRI brain volumes. Two methods were used for this image...

Age- and performance-related differences in hippocampal contributions to episodic retrieval.

S. Ghetti, S. Bunge, J. Lee, C. Wendelken & M. Sastre
The goal of the present study was to investigate whether hippocampal contribution to episodic memory retrieval varies as a function of age (8-9 versus 10-11 versus adults), performance levels (high versus low) and hippocampal sub-region (head, body, tail). We examined fMRI data collected during episodic retrieval from a large sample (N=126). Participants judged whether a stimulus had been encoded previously, and, if so, which of three scenes it had been paired with (i.e., source judgment)....

Representation of real-world event schemas during narrative perception

C Baldassano & U Hasson
Understanding movies and stories requires maintaining a high-level situation model that abstracts away from perceptual details to describe the location, characters, actions, and causal relationships of the currently unfolding event. These models are built not only from information present in the current narrative, but also from prior knowledge about schematic event scripts, which describe typical event sequences encountered throughout a lifetime. We analyzed fMRI data from 44 human subjects presented with sixteen three-minute stories, consisting...

Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Multiple Continuous Treatments: An Application to Antipsychotic Drugs

S-L. Normand, M. Horvitz-Lennon, J. Spertus, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon & Sharon-Lise Normand
Modeling dose-response relationships of drugs is essential to understanding their eect on patient outcomes under realistic circumstances. While intention-to-treat analyses of clinical trials provide the eect of assignment to a particular drug and dose, they do not capture observed exposure after factoring in non-adherence and dropout. We develop Bayesian methods to exibly model dose-response relationships of binary outcomes with continuous treatment, allowing for treatment eect heterogeneity and a non-linear response surface. We use a hierarchical...

Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions

And The Brain Development Cooperative Group, Alan Evans, Jussi Tohka & Budhachandra Khundrakpam
Several studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have shown developmental trajectories of cortical thickness. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accurate estimation of individuals' brain maturity, therefore, is critical in establishing a baseline for normal brain development against which neurodevelopmental disorders can be assessed. In this study, cortical thickness derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging...

Targeted DNA Sequencing from Autism Spectrum Disorder Brains Implicates Multiple Genetic Mechanisms

N Sestan, A Lam, RE Reiff, S Jamuar, M Li, S Pochareddy, I D’Gama & CA Walsh
Single nucleotide variants (SNVs), particularly loss-of-function mutations, are significant contributors to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Here we report the first systematic deep sequencing study of 55 postmortem ASD brains for SNVs in 78 known ASD candidate genes. Remarkably, even without parental samples, we find more ASD brains with mutations that are protein-altering (26/55 cases versus 12/50 controls, p = 0.015), deleterious (16/55 versus 5/50, p = 0.016), or loss-of-function (6/55 versus 0/50, p =...

Heritability of nested hierarchical structural brain network.

Harold Hill Goldsmith & Nicole Schmidt
When a brain network is constructed by an existing parcellation method, the topological structure of the network changes depending on the scale of the parcellation. To avoid the scale dependency, we propose to construct a nested hierarchical structural brain network by subdividing the existing parcellation hierarchically. The method is applied in diffusion tensor imaging study of 111 twins in characterizing the topology of the brain network. The genetic contribution of the whole brain structural connectivity...

Sexual dimorphism and laterality in neurostructural development from late childhood to early adulthood: A cross-sectional voxel based morphometry study

Andrey Anokhin & James Kennedy
Intro: Adolescence is a sensitive period for social, emotional, risk, and reward behavior and is an onset period for serious psychiatric disorders. Changes in behavior in adolescence may be mediated by the rapid changes in brain structure observed during this time period. While adolescent structural development has been extensively analyzed, less is known about the developmental effects of sex or lateralized differences. Understanding how the brain typically develops during these critical periods may give insight...

ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019: Test Set

Kilian Pohl & Kilian Pohl
The test data set for the ABCD Neurocognitive Prediction Challenge 2019 contains skull stripped and segmented T1-weighted MRIs, and volumetric brain measures of 3648 participants of the ABCD study. https://sibis.sri.com/abcd-np-challenge provides a detailed description about the processing. When using the data in publications, the Data Supplement of "Pfefferbaum et al., Altered Brain Developmental Trajectories in Adolescents After Initiating Drinking. Am J Psychiatry, 175(4), pp. 370-380, 2018" for should be cited as description of the processing...

The Diagnostic Efficacy of a Facial Recognition Screening Tool for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and by restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior. An important quantitative social deficit, which is oftentimes not discussed but seen in those with ASD is impaired facial recognition, or the ability to identify and discriminate faces based on memory of one’s unique facial features. Despite the absence of this impairment in the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

Developmental and environmental influences on memory systems

Donald Mabbott & Alexandra Decker
Children with low socioeconomic status consistently show reduced memory ability and smaller hippocampal volumes. These findings have motivated a theory that the hippocampus underlies income-related cognitive gaps. However, income-related differences in hippocampal structure do not seems to mediate cognitive gaps, possibly because past studies do not distinguish between anterior and posterior hippocampus. We investigate anterior and posterior hippocampal volumes in children and adolescents from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

T1 white/gray contrast as a predictor of chronological age, and an index of cognitive performance

John David Lewis & Alan C. Evans
Knowing the maturational schedule of typical brain development is critical to our ability to identify deviations from it; such deviations have been related to cognitive performance and even developmental disorders. Chronological age can be predicted from brain images with considerable accuracy, but with limited spatial specificity, particularly in the case of the cerebral cortex. Methods using multi-modal data have shown the greatest accuracy, but have made limited use of cortical measures. Methods using complex measures...

Osteoarthritis Imitative (OAI) 48-Month Follow-up Visit (V08)

This NDA Study contains all images collected as part of the OAI 48-Month Follow-up visit. The Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) is a multi-center, ten-year observational study of men and women, sponsored by the NIH. The goals of the OAI are to provide resources to enable a better understanding of prevention and treatment of knee osteoarthritis, one of the most common causes of disability in adults.

Attentional bias modification treatment for depression: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Christopher Beevers & Christopher Beevers
Theoretical models and empirical research point to negatively biased attention as a maintaining factor in depression. Although preliminary studies suggest experimentally modifying attentional biases (i.e., attentional bias modification; ABM) reduces depression symptoms and depression risk, relatively few rigorous studies with clinical samples have been completed. This clinical trial examines the impact of ABM on a sample of adults (N = 123) with elevated depression severity who also exhibit at least modest levels of negatively biased attention prior...

Human Connectome Project-Development (HCP-D): Initial Release

Eileen Cler & David Van Essen Deanna Barch
Initial release of unprocessed data and preprocessed structural data for 100+ subjects.

Screen media activity and brain structure in youth: Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study

Martin P Paulus & Florence Breslin
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i.e. the...

Age attenuates noise and increases symmetry of head movements during sleep resting-state fMRI in healthy neonates, infants, and toddlers

Kristina Denisova & Kristina Denisova
Newborns produce spontaneous movements during sleep that are functionally important for their future development. This nuance has been previously studied using animal models and more recently using movement data from sleep resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans. Age-related trajectory of statistical features of spontaneous movements of the head is under-examined. This study quantitatively mapped a developmental trajectory of spontaneous head movements during an rs-fMRI scan acquired during natural sleep in 91 datasets from healthy children from ~birth...

The Landscape of Somatic Mutation in Human Cerebral Cortex

Walsh, CA; Park, P & Minseok Kwon
Although roles of somatic mutations-- acquired post-fertilization and present in only a subset of an individual’s cells1-- in cancer and certain focal epilepsies are well established2, the extent to which such mutations shape the normally developing human brain or affect risk of neuropsychiatric disease is poorly understood3,4. Here we characterize the landscape of developmental somatic mutations in the human brain by identifying those somatic mutations present in ≥2-3% of cells using ultra-deep (~250X) whole-genome sequencing...

Cognitive remediation for individuals with psychosis: Efficacy and mechanisms of treatment effects

Steven Silverstein, Jimmy Choi, Morris Bell, Kee-Hong Choi & Joanna Fiszdon
The popularity of cognitive remediation (CR) interventions for individuals with psychosis is in part based on the well-established link between cognition and functioning and the assumption that by targeting cognition, function can improve. While numerous trials have reported CR's efficacy, it is still not considered an evidencebased treatment. Importantly, little is known about the mechanisms through which it may affect functioning. Method: In this study, we evaluated CR's proximal and distal effects, and examined potential...

Hippocampal Growth after Febrile Status: FEBSTAT Five Year Follow-Up

e Mosh, M Frank, J Bello, S Chan, S Sun, L Epstein, Y Xu, R Shinnar, D Nordli, DC Hesdorffer, E Bagiella, D Masur, J Pellock, S Shinnar & DV Lewis
The FEBSTAT study (Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood) is prospectively examining long term outcomes of febrile status epilepticus ( FSE). We have previously reported the results of the acute2 and 1 year follow-up3 MRIs in the FEBSTAT cohort. This report describes the results of the 5 year follow-up MRIs on the FEBSTAT cohort. In this analysis we have integrated brain growth data from a large group of older normal control subjects obtained from...

Construction of the Design Matrix for Generalized Linear Mixed-Effects Models in the Context of Clinical Trials of Treatment Sequences

Francisco Diaz & Francisco J. Diaz
The estimation of carry-over effects is a difficult problem in the design and analysis of clinical trials of treatment sequences including cross-over trials. Except for simple designs, carry-over effects are usually unidentifiable and therefore nonestimable. Solutions such as imposing parameter constraints are often unjustified and produce differing carry-over estimates depending on the constraint imposed. Generalized inverses or treatment-balancing often allow estimating main treatment effects, but the problem of estimating the carry-over contribution of a treatment...

The relationship between functional brain organization and self-reported digital screen engagement in late childhood

Kathryn L Mills & Kathryn Mills
The idea that the increased ubiquity of digital devices negatively impacts neurodevelopment is as compelling as it is disturbing. The proposed study will investigate this concern by systematically evaluating how different profiles of screen-based engagement relate to functional brain organization in late childhood. Participants will be drawn from a large and representative sample of young people participating in the first wave of the ABCD study (ages 9-12 years). Of interest are the relations between self-reported...

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