248 Works

Prospective associations among borderline personality disorder symptoms, interpersonal problems, and aggressive behaviors.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We controlled for other PD symptoms and demographic variables. BPD symptoms at baseline were associated with interpersonal sensitivity, interpersonal ambivalence, interpersonal aggression, need for social approval, and lack of sociability 6...

Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder....

Personality traits and chronic illness: a comparison of individuals with psychiatric, coronary heart disease, and HIV/AIDS diagnoses.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
This secondary analysis used the five-factor model of personality to examine personality traits in four samples of patients with chronic disorders. Profiles of personality traits differed across disorders. Although participants with psychiatric disorders and participants with HIV/AIDS had similar patterns of personality traits, patients with psychiatric disorders were more extreme on all traits except agreeableness. Patients with hyperlipidemia and those who had cardiothoracic transplants had similar patterns. Nurses and researchers need to consider personality traits...

Borderline personality and substance use in women.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
The association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorder (SUD) was examined in a predominantly psychiatric (77.6%) sample of 232 women. BPD proved to be a significant predictor of a lifetime diagnosis of SUD across four different categories: any SUD (including alcohol); alcohol use; drug use; and heroin, cocaine, or poly-substance use. BPD continued to be a predictor of SUD even when the effects of other cluster B and all cluster C PDs...

Can DSM-IV borderline personality disorder be diagnosed via dimensional personality traits? Implications for the DSM-5 personality disorder proposal.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
The proposal for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5;American Psychiatric Association, in preparation) involves, in part, the use of elevated scores on dimensional personality traits. For instance, the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in the DSM-5 will require evidence of self- and interpersonal impairment as well as elevated scores on traits of emotional lability, anxiousness, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and...

Narcissistic personality disorder: relations with distress and functional impairment.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals...

Age-related differences in individual DSM criteria for borderline personality disorder.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
This study examined age-related effects of individual DSM criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and symptoms of depression and anxiety in three groups: patients diagnosed with BPD, another personality disorder, or no personality disorder. The goal was to determine if distinctive age effects emerged within the BPD group. This mixed clinical and community sample (N = 380) ranged from 20-50 years old. Each participant was assessed for symptoms of axis I and II psychopathology. We...

The role of attachment styles and interpersonal problems in suicide-related behaviors.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
The relationships among adult attachment styles, interpersonal problems, and categories of suicide-related behaviors (i.e., self-harm, suicide attempts, and their co-occurrence) were examined in a predominantly psychiatric sample (N = 406). Both anxious and avoidant attachment styles were associated with interpersonal problems. In turn, specific interpersonal problems differentially mediated the relations between attachment style and type of suicide-related behaviors. These findings suggest the importance of distinguishing between these groups of behaviors in terms of etiological pathways,...

Evidence for a single latent class of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders borderline personality pathology.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been described as clinically heterogeneous, with numerous subtypes of the disorder posited. The present study investigated this potential heterogeneity by conducting both confirmatory factor analysis and latent class analysis of consensus ratings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Revised Third Edition BPD criteria in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample (n = 411). Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested that a single factor fit the data most parsimoniously....

Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort

C Newschaffer, I Hertz-Picciotto, L Croen, L Goldman, S Brown, R Tryggvadottir, A Jaffe, K Bakulski, J Feinberg, M. Fallin & Andrew Feinberg
Epigenetic mechanisms such as altered DNA methylation have been suggested to play a role in autism, beginning with the classical association of Prader-Willi syndrome, an imprinting disorder, with autistic features. Here we tested for the relationship of paternal sperm DNA methylation with autism risk in offspring, examining an enriched-risk cohort of fathers of autistic children. We examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort,...

Brain structure, cognition and behavior in child and adolescent survivors of leukemia

Brian Nieman & Brian Nieman
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common for of childhood cancer. It is successfully treated in ~90% of cases, primarily based on combination chemotherapy. Survivors of ALL are at elevated risk of cognitive or behavioral problems, which frequently include impairments in processing speed, working memory, attention, and executive function. These changes are accompanied by alterations in brain development, evident by changes in brain structure volume. In our study, data from the Pediatric MRI...

Evidence for a single latent class of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders borderline personality pathology.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been described as clinically heterogeneous, with numerous subtypes of the disorder posited. The present study investigated this potential heterogeneity by conducting both confirmatory factor analysis and latent class analysis of consensus ratings of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Revised Third Edition BPD criteria in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample (n = 411). Confirmatory factor analysis results suggested that a single factor fit the data most parsimoniously....

An examination of the factor structure of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder criteria: one or two factors?

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
A growing body of research has suggested that narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) contains 2 factors or types: overt/grandiose and covert/vulnerable. A recent factor analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), NPD symptoms supported a similar 2-factor model. The present research tested this proposed 2-factor solution against a 1-factor solution (N = 289; 72% patients) using both confirmatory factor analysis and an examination of associations between the resultant factors and theoretically...

Clarifying interpersonal heterogeneity in borderline personality disorder using latent mixture modeling.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
Significant interpersonal impairment is a cardinal feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, past research has demonstrated that the interpersonal profile associated with BPD varies across samples, which is evidence for considerable interpersonal heterogeneity. The current study used inventory of interpersonal problems-circumplex (IIP-C; Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) scale scores to investigate interpersonal inhibitions and excesses in a large sample (N = 255) selected for significant borderline pathology. Results indicated that BPD symptom counts were...

Narcissist or narcissistic? Evaluation of the latent structure of narcissistic personality disorder.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
We investigated the latent structure of narcissistic personality disorder by comparing dimensional, hybrid, and categorical latent variable models, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), nonparametric and semiparametric factor analysis, and latent class analysis, respectively. We first explored these models in a clinical sample and then preregistered replication analyses in 4 additional data sets (with national, undergraduate, community, and mixed community/clinical samples) to test whether the best-fitting model would generalize across different data sets with different sample...

Assessment procedures for narcissistic personality disorder: a comparison of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 and best-estimate clinical judgments.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) methodology. NPD scores demonstrated moderate convergence for the total scores but weak convergence for the individual criteria. The authors also examined the correlates created by each set of...

Using clinician-rated five-factor model data to score the DSM-IV personality disorders.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
Proposals suggest that many or all of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders (PDs) may be omitted from the DSM (5th ed.; DSM-V) and replaced with a dimensional trait model of personality pathology (Krueger, Skodol, Livesley, Shrout, & Huang, 2007; Skodol, 2009). Several authors have expressed concerns that this may be difficult for clinicians and researchers who are more comfortable with the extant PD...

Interpersonal and emotional experiences of social interactions in borderline personality disorder.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
GENERAL AIM: We examined interpersonal experiences of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) using a time-contingent diary procedure to collect information about social interactions for 7 days. METHOD: We examined the (1) quantity of social interactions and (2) interpersonal and emotional experiences during social interactions for patients with BPD (BPD; N = 42) compared with those with another personality disorder (OPD; N = 46) and those without significant personality pathology (NOPD; N = 23). RESULTS:...

Multimethod investigation of interpersonal functioning in borderline personality disorder.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
Even though interpersonal functioning is of great clinical importance for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), the comparative validity of different assessment methods for interpersonal dysfunction has not yet been tested. This study examined multiple methods of assessing interpersonal functioning, including self- and other- reports, clinical ratings, electronic diaries, and social cognitions in three groups of psychiatric patients (N = 138): patients with (1) BPD, (2) another personality disorder, and (3) Axis I psychopathology only....

Social domain dysfunction and disorganization in borderline personality disorder.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
BACKGROUND: Social dysfunction in personality disorder is commonly ascribed to abnormal temperamental traits but may also reflect deficits in social processing. In this study, we examined whether borderline and avoidant personality disorders (BPD, APD) may be differentiated by deficits in different social domains and whether disorganization of social domain functioning uniquely characterizes BPD. METHOD: Patients were recruited from psychiatric clinics in Pittsburgh, USA, to provide a sample with BPD, APD and a no-personality disorder (no-PD)...

Anger, preoccupied attachment, and domain disorganization in borderline personality disorder.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
Emotional dysregulation and attachment insecurity have been reported in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Domain disorganization, evidenced in poor regulation of emotions and behaviors in relation to the demands of different social domains, may be a distinguishing feature of BPD. Understanding the interplay between these factors may be critical for identifying interacting processes in BPD and potential subtypes of BPD. Therefore, we examined the joint and interactive effects of anger, preoccupied attachment, and domain disorganization on...

Examining the reliability and validity of clinician ratings on the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
Despite substantial research use, measures of the five-factor model (FFM) are infrequently used in clinical settings due, in part, to issues related to administration time and a reluctance to use self-report instruments. The current study examines the reliability and validity of the Five-Factor Model Score Sheet (FFMSS), which is a 30-item clinician rating form designed to assess the five domains and 30 facets of one conceptualization of the FFM. Studied in a sample of 130...

Conceptual changes to the definition of borderline personality disorder proposed for DSM-5.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group proposed the elimination of diagnostic criterion sets in favor of a prototype matching system that defines personality disorders using narrative descriptions. Although some research supports this general approach, no empirical studies have yet examined the specific definitions proposed for DSM-5. Given the wide interest in borderline personality disorder (BPD), it is crucial to determine how this methodological shift might affect...

Interpersonal problems across levels of the psychopathology hierarchy.

Kelly Johnston & Paul Pilkonis
We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major...

Prospective associations between features of borderline personality disorder, emotion dysregulation, and aggression.

Paul Pilkonis & Kelly Johnston
Difficulties with emotion regulation and behavioral instability, including impulsive aggression, are seen as core dimensions underlying borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although both BPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are associated with impulsivity and aggressive behavior, difficulties regulating emotions may be associated uniquely with BPD and may explain distinctive associations between BPD and aggression. This study was designed to examine the unique prospective associations between BPD symptoms at baseline, difficulties with emotion regulation and trait impulsivity,...

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