417 Works

Pub Conversations. Antisemitic Attitudes among Hamburg’s Craftsmen around 1900

Ulrich Wyrwa
This source is one of ca. 20,000 reports written by police spies about conversations they overheard in Hamburg pubs and in public spaces between the end of 1892 and the end of 1910. When the Anti-Socialist Law The “Law against the Publicly Dangerous Endeavors of Social Democracy,” [Sozialistengesetz] passed on October 19, 1878. was not renewed in 1890, the Hamburg senate began to fear the Social Democratic labor movement and the outbreak of social revolt....

Jewish Martial Arts. Hamburg’s Sports Club “Schild”

Erik Petry
This source is a letter published by the sports club “Schild” run by the Hamburg chapter of the Vaterländischer Bund jüdischer Frontsoldaten e.V. [German-Jewish War Veterans’ Association]. It appeals to all male and female Jewish athletes to join the newly founded sports club “Schild.” Although sports clubs named “Schild” and linked to the Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten (RjF), the umbrella organization of the Vaterländischer Bund, had been founded as early as 1925, there was no local...

Die Entlohnung jüdischer Seelsorger durch den Staat

Robert Richter
Die Seelsorge jüdischer Strafgefangener war im Hamburger Gefängnis Fuhlsbüttel bereits seit Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts eine gängige Praxis, doch erst mit dem Vertrag vom Januar 1914 wurde dafür eine rechtliche Grundlage geschaffen. Der zweiseitige, aus den Beständen des Hamburger Staatsarchivs stammende Vertrag zwischen der Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde und der Hamburger Finanzdeputation hat das Thema der Entlohnung jüdischer Seelsorger im Gefängnis Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel zum Gegenstand. Der Vertrag wurde „vorbehaltlich der Bewilligung der erforderlichen Mitel“ geschlossen. Er wirft ein...

Gabriel Riesser and the Emancipation Debate in Hamburg

Arno Herzig
In 1834, following several anti-Jewish excesses in Hamburg, the Jewish jurist and native, Gabriel Riesser, commissioned by the Committee for the Improvement of the Civil Conditions of Israelites Comité zur Verbesserung der bürgerlichen Verhältnisse der Israeliten, wrote “Denkschrift über die bürgerlichen Verhältnisse der Hamburgischen Israeliten” [“A Memorandum Concerning the Civil Conditions of the Israelites of Hamburg”], which was presented to the Council as a petition. In this document, comprising 120 printed pages, the author raised...

The Jew-Eater. A Response to Wilhelm Marr

Werner Bergmann
In June 1862, the satirist Julius Stettenheim published a four-page lampoon (Hamburg) with the title “The Jew-Eater – Hope you Like it!” It contained a caricature and a seven-stanza poem entitled “Mad Spook of a Summer Night’s Dream.” The pamphlet was borne on poles, proclaimed by its bearers throughout the city, and sold for a Schilling. It was a satirical answer to a letter by Wilhelm Marr, published by the “Courier on the Weser” (June...

“The Enemy is in the Country: The Jew.” Poster Stamps Printed by the Deutschvölkischen Schutz- und Trutz-Bundes [German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation]

Martin Ulmer
The collection of Hamburg’s Forschungsstelle für Zeitgeschichte [Research Centre for Contemporary History] contains numerous examples of antisemitic poster stamps printed from 1919 to 1922 by the large organization Deutschvölkischer Schutz- und Trutz-Bund (DSTB) [German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation]. They were an expression of a new strategy of street agitation utilizing mass communication media such as stamps, broadsheets, and flyers. One of their creators was (DSTB) chief executive Alfred Roth. In the first six months...

A Hamburg Friendship. Erwin Panofsky’s obituary on Aby Warburg

Emily J. Levine
This source is an obituary first published by the art historian Erwin Panofsky in the Hamburger Fremdenblatt on 28.10.1929 following his elder colleague Aby Warburg’s death on 26.10.1929. However, it is more than the record of an art historian’s life. Born in Hannover in 1892, and educated in Berlin, Freiburg, and Munich, Panofsky was hired by the University of Hamburg in 1920, and he quickly climbed the ranks to become an Ordinarius professor in 1928...

Ruben Maleachis Besuch der Synagoge der portugiesischen Sefarden in Hamburg und die sefardisch-aschkenasischen Beziehungen im Hamburg des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts

Constanze Kolbe
Über zwei Jahre hinweg, von 1978 bis 1980, veröffentlichte der in Israel lebende Ruben Maleachi seine Eindrücke von mehreren Synagogen aus der Vorkriegszeit sowie von verschiedenen Bräuchen der jüdischen Gemeinden in Hamburg in deutscher Sprache in den Mitteilungen des Verbandes ehemaliger Breslauer und Schlesier in Israel. Seine Beschreibungen, die er in den späten 1950er-Jahren verfasste, bieten Einblicke in das jüdische religiöse Leben Hamburgs und insbesondere in eine der kleinsten und am wenigsten bekannten Synagogen der...

Appointment of Chief Rabbi Anschel Stern of Hamburg to Honorary Membership in the Israelite congregation of Lübeck

Nadine Garling
On 20 December 1884, the executive board of the Israelite congregation of Lübeck wrote to the Chief Rabbi of Hamburg, Anschel Stern, officially appointing him as an honorary member. The positive developments in Lübeck since the emancipation legislation, above all the formation of the most important congregation organizations and a relatively balanced budget, had only been possible thanks to the support of its Hamburg sister city. By awarding the honorary membership to Anschel Stern, the...

From Hamburg out into the World—Jewish Emigration and the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden [Aid Organization of German Jews]

David Hamann
The business reports of the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden [Aid Organization of German Jews] were published annually since 1902 and documented in great detail the emigration trends among eastern European and especially Russian and Galician Jews. In the appendix to the sixth business report presented here, the Hilfsverein gives an overview of Jewish emigration from eastern Europe for the calendar year 1907 and illustrates the association’s extensive support for Jewish emigrants by means of statistics,...

Administered Restitution. Expropriation and “Compensation”: The Case of Elsa Saenger

Sina Sauer
In the course of the administration of assets expropriated by the National Socialists, the British military government set itself the goal of specifying the property control that had already begun in 1946, which also included the expropriated assets of persons persecuted by the Nazis. On October 20, 1947 it issued the General Decree No. 10 on the basis of Law No. 52 of the Military Government concerning the blocking and control of property. The decree...

Salomo Birnbaums Erfahrungen an der Universität Hamburg

David Birnbaum
Dieser auf den 12.7.1983 datierte Brief wurde von Salomo / Solomon A. Birnbaum an Peter Freimark in Hamburg geschrieben. Prof. Dr. Peter Freimark, damaliger Direktor des dortigen Instituts für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland, erforschte seinerzeit die Situation an der Universität Hamburg zur Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Der Brief ist Teil einer Korrespondenz über Salomo / Solomon A. Birnbaums Erinnerungen aus dieser Zeit und über die Frage, inwiefern er mit Antisemitismus konfrontiert war. Der Brief...

Jüdische Kulturgüter in der Nachkriegszeit. Hannah Arendts Bericht zur Situation in Hamburg

Elisabeth Gallas
Der Tätigkeitsbericht Hannah Arendts entstand während der ersten Deutschlandreise, die die 1941 in die Vereinigten Staaten geflohene jüdische Intellektuelle nach Kriegsende antrat. Anders als ihr berühmt gewordener Reisebericht „Besuch in Deutschland“ verweist der „Field Report“ unmittelbar auf die Umstände, die Arendt nach Deutschland führten. Sie kam als Emissärin der 1947 in New York gegründeten Treuhandgesellschaft Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, Inc. (JCR), einem Zusammenschluss der wichtigsten jüdischen Organisationen und Institutionen der Zeit, der sich nach Kriegsende um...

Modern Jewish Social Work. The Israelite-Humanitarian Women’s Association

Magdalena Gehring
Founded in 1893, the Israelite-Humanitarian Women’s Association [Israelitisch-humanitärer Frauenverein] advocated for women’s rights as well as social policy issues in Hamburg and explicitly addressed a Jewish audience. The source presented here is a printed copy of the association’s by-laws of March 19, 1911, printed in 1912 by Martin Philipsen’s printing office in Hamburg. Set in Gothic print, the document is twelve pages long and divided into 18 paragraphs stating the following: name and location of...

Jitte Glückstadt’s Testament. The Soul’s Care and Salvation in the Early Modern Era

Monika Preuß
Jitte Glückstadt, an unmarried Jewish woman in Altona, had her last will and testament recorded on April 8, 1774. A testament (from the Latin testare, to testify or bear witness to) enables a person to arrange what is to happen to one’s personal property after death, as well as the details of the burial and funeral ritual. Jitte Glückstadt performed this act. Two men came to her sickbed, heard her dictate her last will, and...

The Centralverein’s Opposition to National Socialism

Avraham Barkai & Pavel Golubev
This flyer was published by the Hamburg chapter of the Centralverein deutscher Staatsbüger jüdischen Glaubens [Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith] and distributed on April 13, 1932 as a supplement to the newspaper Hamburger Fremdenblatt, which had a print run of ca. 150,000 copies.In 1932 the liberal newspaper Hamburger Fremdenblatt, which claimed to be “the largest political daily newspaper in northwest Germany,” had a daily print run of ca. 150,000 copies and...

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