3,775 Works

Research Facility Assessment for Biomass Combustion in Moving Grate Furnaces

F. Gallucci, M. Salerno, E. Guerriero, M. Amalfi & F. Palmieri
The paper deals with the experimental activities on a biomass combustion test-bed. More in detail, experimental campaigns have been devoted to investigate the operation of a biomass moving grate furnace.A research-oriented facility based on a moving grate furnace (350kW) has been set up in order to perform experimental activities in a wide range of test configurations. The paper reports the description of the complete biomass-plant and the assessment of the system operation. As first step,...

Depolymerization of Lignin: Product Characterization and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Potential

J.L. Sánchez, J. Salafranca, S. Moles, J.F. Palomo, MartÍNez, C., N. Gil-Lalaguna, C. Dueso & A. Gonzalo
Soda black liquor produced from semichemical pulping of barley straw has been depolymerized at different temperatures (250 to 325 ºC), time (1 to 3 h) and initial solids content (7 to 14 %) and the liquid product has been added to biodiesel in order to test its antioxidant potential. The depolymerization products have been analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Regarding the molecular weight distribution, temperature...

Giant Reed and Milk Thistle Sugar Yield after Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Comparison with Standard Wheat Straw

S. Cianchetta, E. Ceotto & S. Galletti
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of an alkaline pre-treatment on the saccharification yield of two emerging lignocellulosic species of the Mediterranean area, giant reed and milk thistle compared to standard wheat straw, after hydrolysis with a complete enzyme blend. The pre-treatment (NaOH 6 and 12% w/w dry biomass, 120 °C, 20 min) increased sugar yields by 2-4 folds compared to control (NaOH 0%), depending on the NaOH dose and on the species. With...

Development of Sustainable Heat Markets for Biogas Plants in Europe

I. Dzene, C. Rochas, D. Rutz, R. Janssen, R. Ramanauskaite, B. Kulisic, J.M. Abramovic, B. Malek, M. Devetta, M. Surowiec, C. Amann, K. Leutgoeb, S. Amman, J. Hinge, L. Bailon, A. Ofiteru, M. Adamescu, N. Fevrier & S. Froning
In many European countries the production and use of biogas is increasingly recognized as a suitable and sustainable energy option in a renewable energy mix. Most biogas plants produce electricity in CHP plants due to technical availability of CHP systems and according support measures (electricity feed¬in tariffs). However, in many cases these plants or not, or only partially, operated in CHP mode. The problem of how to efficiently use heat from biogas plants at the...

Economic Evaluation of Woody Biomass Power Generation under FIT Program in Japan

T. Yanagida, T. Yoshida, H. Kuboyama & M. Jinkawa
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of woody biomass power generation business with two different feedstock fuel, unutilized forest biomass (UFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS), under Feed-in tariff program was calculated. If the feedstock price is stable over 20 years, the profitability of woody biomass power generation business is better to use the unutilized biomass. In case of fuel price increase year by year, the power generation business with less than 10,000 kW scale plant...

Olive Pomace Requirements for Small Combustion Applications in Western Australia: Experimental and Modelling Analysis

F.B. Ng, A.L. Guzzomi, H.T. Chua, X. Wang, F. Patuzzi, M. Baratieri & T. Mimmo
This study investigates the feasibility of olive pomace as an energy source through combustion in a biomass burner. Samples of pomace have been dried under controlled conditions utilising a moisture analyser. A modified Midilli model was developed and found to be the best at predicting the experimental data (±10% error). The model suggests that the total drying time required to dry a projected amount of olive pomace in the future is realistic. Simultaneous thermogravimetric (TG)...

Tackling Cardoon Agglomeration During Fluidized Bed Gasification

C. Christodoulou, C. Tsekos, G. Tsalidis, M. Fantini, K.D. Panopoulos, W. De Jong & E. Kakaras
Few tests have been c carried out in order to evaluate the use of cardoon in gasific cation and combustion applications most of the researcher rs dealt with agglomeration problems. The aim of this worrk is to deal with the agglomeration problem and to pres sent a solution for the utilization of this biofuel at a near industrial application scale. For this reason, two experimennts were conducted, one in TU Delft and one in CERTH...

Two-Staged Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Landfill Leachate

Ö. Kaplan, K. Yiğit & M. Gündüz
Management of municipal solid waste is a great deal of business for municipalities. In this study, co­digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and landfill leachate is investigated. A two­staged and a total volume of 5m3 digester system is used. Operating temperature is 37 °C (±1°C) in both digesters. 200 kg/day municipal solid organic waste and landfill leachate is fed to the first digester with a 10% dry matter content for 70 day. The...

Biogas Purification and Use as Vehicle Fuel in Rural Areas

M.B. Ruiz, P. Gómez, R. Giralda, N. Carreras, M. Rodríguez, J.L. Ramos-Suárez, J. Morales, S. Muñoz, M. Torrente & A. Pascual
The aim of the study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of biogas purification and use as vehicle fuel in rural areas from alternative biomasses. A preliminary economic balance will also be estimated. The study will be carried out in the facilities of the anaerobic digestion plant installed in Farm San Ramón (Requena, Valencia, Spain). A biogas purification pilot plant, based on chemical scrubbing with amines, has been installed next to the plant and connected...

Study of Tolerance of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spp. to Phenols of Lignin and High Level of Sugars

S. Vázquez & M.I. Lopretti Correa
Lignocellulosic materials are one of the most important renewable sources for the energy production. Several transformations are crucial for the use of this type of materials. There are several processes that can be use to turn cellulose into sugar, like aerobic conversion by fungi, such as Trichoderma reesei, acid and basic hydrolysis and radiation. By means of these processes a mixture of glucose and xilose is obtained at a concentration of about 10 g/l, which...

Life Cycle Analysis of Short Rotation Coppice through the Example of Eucalyptus and Poplar for Bioenergy in France

N. Nguyen Thé, P. Maupu, B. Gabrielle & E. Vial
Numerous international and French policies are nowadays promoting renewable energy sources such as biomass. Among possible sources (waste, forest, straw, etc.), dedicated energy crops such as Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) are being studied. Grown on agricultural lands, they enable the production of a well qualified biomass under easy harvestable conditions and give the opportunity to reduce possible competition with other forest resource utilizations. Beside technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are now important to...

A Chemical Approach to Biomass Gasification

A. Frassoldati, T. Maffei, D. Ongari, A. Cuoci, T. Faravelli, S. Pierucci & E. Ranzi
This paper describes GASDS, a comprehensive model of a biomass gasifier on a travelling grate. This general mathematical model deals with the complex multiphase gas¬solid problem of biomass gasification both at the reactor and the particle scale. Mass and energy balances plus proper closure equations describe the behavior of both the phases. Key elements of the model are the detailed kinetic schemes describing the biomass volatilization, including the formation of TAR species and char, and...

Consortium of Simplified Kinetic Models: an Alternate Approach for Describing the Behaviour of Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

V.B. Furlong, R.C. Giordano, R.L.C. Giordano, L. Jacob, F. Lima & M.P.A. Ribeiro
Modeling lignocellulosic biomass enzymatic hydrolysis is complex. Choosing a models becomes exponentially challenging, since a wide variety of formulations may be equally applicable to a system. This work focuses on the task of choosing a congregation of different semi-mechanistic Michaelis-Menten models using fuzzy logic to combine more than one group of reaction rates that best fit sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis under batch and fed-batch operations. Data were obtained from batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of...

Exploring the Biomass Trade Potential from North America to Europe and Subsequent Environmental Consequences

R. KC & T. Ranta
Biomass has been one of the major renewable energy sources. However, recently it has been increasingly scrutinized in policy level in Europe. The scrutiny may be aroused from the fact that the governing bodies are increasingly on pressure to cut down carbon emissions and bioenergy is often compared to other clean energies such as solar and wind and compared to these, bioenergy reportedly performs worse. The scrutiny may cause a significant change in the bioenergy...

Harvesting Citrus and Olive Pruning Residues for Energy Use in Southern Italy

A.R. Proto, S. Benalia, S. Papandrea, B. Bernardi, R. Bonofiglio, A. Leuzzi, G. Zimbalatti, A. Tonolo, L. Pari & F. Gallucci
Traditionally, the Mediterranean basin symbolizes the geographic location in which, more than elsewhere, olive and citrus growing represent not only a crop, but also a significant source of income and employment for rural populations as well as a characteristic element in many Mediterranean landscapes. In Southern Italy, olive and citrus orchards cover about 918,000 and 145,000 hectares, respectively. The biomass produced yearly in these agricultural systems is not mobilized and used for bioenergy production. In...

Experimental Analysis of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Coupled with Biomass Gasification

R. Gadsbøll, J. Thomsen, C. Bang-Møller, C. Nygaard, A. Tomaszewski, J. Ahrenfeldt & U. Henriksen
Thermal gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies represent an interesting combination for power generation, as high fuel flexibility and high electric efficiencies are expected. The TwoStage gasifier is a high-efficient downdraft gasifier fueled by wood chips that produces a very clean product gas with virtually no tar. This study operated an 800 We SOFC stack with product gas from the TwoStage gasifier for a total of 145 hours. Only minimal gas conditioning was...

Techno-Economical Analysis for a 3 MWth Gasification Plant Revamping: Use of Enriched Air and Steam as Gasifying Agent

M. Campoy, A. Gómez-Barea, D. Fuentes-Cano, S. Nilsson, G. Claro & P. Ollero
An assessment of the revamping of a 3 MWth atmospheric­pressure bubbling fluidized bed biomass gasifier was made in order to study the techno­economical viability of changing the gasifying agent from air to a mixture of enriched air based on membrane technology (up to 40% in volume oxygen) and low­pressure saturated steam. The expected changes in the gasification yields were obtained from extrapolating the yields of the non­condensable main gases (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4) measured...

Combustion Evaluation of Torrefied Wood Pellets on a 50 KWth Boiler

J.-B. Michel, C. Mahmed, J. Ropp, J. Richard, M.A. Sattler & M. Schmid
Torrefied wood pellets are produced from torrefied chips by thermo-chemical pre-treatment of biomass at 200-320°C in the absence of oxygen during about 15-30 minutes. Overall, the torrefaction process efficiency has been reported to be 90-95% % as compared to 84% for pelletisation. Torrefaction improves the biomass: 30% higher calorific value and 50% higher energy density resulting in much lower handling and transport costs. The fuel becomes hydrophobic making long term outdoor storage possible. The purpose...

Ultrastructural Changes to Overcome the Biomass Recalcitrance with Liquild Hot Water Pretreatment

Q. Yu, X. Zhuang & Z. Yuan
Energy sorghums and Pennisetum hybrids were pretreated with liquid hot water to investigate their recalcitrance to hydrothermal condition and cellulosic enzyme. The results about enzymatic hydrolysis of sorghum indicated that lignin level was an important restraining factor in the cellulosic digestibility, but was not the unique one. Moreover, although two Pennisetum hybrids had a great difference on the degree of polymerization of lignin and cellulose, there seemed no significant differences in terms of 72 h...

Comparative Evaluation of Biofuel Standardisation & Certification Schemes - Developing an Approach to Evaluate Assets, Drawbacks and the Future Potential of S&C Schemes

A. Hofer & V. Schneider
Based on a brief overview of barriers to the success of sustainable biofuels, a selection of important standardisation and certification (S&C) schemes for biofuels is presented. A possible approach for the evaluation of prominent challenges and difficulties is discussed with focus on crucial socio-economic aspects like stakeholder participation, overall legitimacy and transparency. Complementary to this, technical aspects like verifiable GHG savings, proof of compliance, traceability and enforceability of principles and criteria are explicated as well....

Inhibitory Effect of Free Nitrous Acid on Short-Cut Nitrification Treating Methanogenic-Treated Incineration Leachate by Sequencing Batch Reactor

X. Liu, Y. Dang & D. Sun
Anaerobically treated leachate from municipal solid waste incineration plants contains extremely high ammonia concentrations (1200~1600 mg/L NH4+-N). The nitrogen removal process treated by short-cut nitrification/denitrification produced a high level free nitrous acid(FNA)which can hinder short-cut nitrification processes. In order to develop strategies that will help overcome this limitation, thresholds of FNA inhibition on ammonia oxidation (nitritation) were identified in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors, which was ~0.1 mg/L for nitritation. pH adjustments made during the nitritation...

Effect of Inhibitors from Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Ethanol Fermentation

Y. Fukutomi, T. Yanagida, M. Kanna & Y. Matsumura
The inhibitory effect of the main fermentation inhibitors (formic acid, acetic acid, furfural and 5-HMF) which are formed during hydrothermal pretreatment on fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. Ethanol concentration change during fermentation process was analyzed. Formic acid, furfural and 5-HMF reduced ethanol production with increasing concentration but acetic acid didn’t affect ethanol production.

How Does Crop Management Influence Biomass Yield and Quality of Different C3 Perennial Herbaceous Species?

R. Barro, P. Ciria, J. Pérez, P. Pérez, M. Fernández, I. Pérez & J.E. Carrasco
The aim of this work is to evaluate and quantify the effect of several crop management techniques, such as top dress nitrogen, delayed harvest, and field leaching by rainfall, on the inter-annual yields and the combustion quality of the biomass obtained from different cool season grasses under semi-arid conditions in Spain. Elytrigia elongata, together with its varieties Jose and Alkar were the top performing species at the two studied experimental sites. The soil characteristics as...

Control of Fine Particle Emissions from Small Scale Wood Combustion Boilers

A. Bologa, M. Ecker, H.-P. Rheinheimer, K. Woletz & H.-R. Paur
Wood combustion in small scale boilers is widely used for domestic heating. The boiler capacity, combustion conditions, fuel quality, etc. strongly influence on particle emissions from the facility. However, fine particles, which are associated with various diseases, still contribute significantly to the PM-burden in many cities. The purpose of the current work is the development of effective methods and equipment for control fine particle emissions from small scale wood combustion boilers. The first part of...

The Effect of Sewage Sludge Blending on the Properties of Precipitator Ash Generated in a Coal or Biomass Fired Boiler

P. Tóth, K. Szemmelveisz & Á.B. Palotás
In Hungary, roughly 1,5 million tons of sewage sludge is produced each year. This yearly quantity shows a steady increase since year 2000, which is not expected to change in the near future. Due to stricter and stricter environmental regulations, trends in the European Union (EU) show that the share of sewage sludge combustion among other disposal methods, such as dumping or agricultural use is increasing each year, therefore, as an alternative of utilization, co­combustion...

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