3,136 Works

Biomass Accident Investigations - Missed Opportunities for Learning and Accident Prevention

F.H. Hedlund
The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for...

Modelling of Biomass Combustion Chemistry to Investigate Gas Phase Alkali Sulphate Formation

H. Arabzadeh Moqadam & T. Gruber
Along their way through the boiler, alkali chlorides in the flue-gas, which are the main species responsible for corrosion, may convert to alkali sulfates which are in general less corrosive species. Among corrosion problems these two species are also the main aerosol and hence, fine dust forming flue gas species in biomass combustion. The work presented deals with the modelling of gas phase chemistry during biomass combustion and especially with the sulfation process of alkali...

Possibilities of Producing Energy from Horse Manure by Burning

R. Tanskanen, H. Soininen & J.-P. Lemponen
The project studied the potential of horse manure for energy production in the South Savo region (Finland). In the study, two different types of horse manure pellets were produced from wood and peat based horse manure litter batches. The horse manure pellets were then mixed with traditional wood pellets in mixtures of 5 and 10 per cent. The combustion of the pellet mixtures were made using small 20 kWh pellet boiler (Ariterm Biomatic +20). In...

Cost-Effective Utilisation of Horse Manure for Energy Production in Finland

R. Tanskanen, J. Föhr, H. Soininen & T. Ranta
In Finland, horse manure has traditionally been used as a nutrient in field cultivation. In the project, the regional potential of horse manure as bioenergy was studied in the South Savo region of Finland. In the study, four local service models for utilisation of horse manure were defined as being viable to both the horse entrepreneurs, as well as, the energy producers. In addition to energy production methods, some of the created service production models...

The Occupational Health Effects of Torrefied Biocoal Pellets

J.-P. Lemponen, S. Seppäläinen, H. Soininen, J. Föhr & T. Ranta
The Energy Production by Biocoal Pellets in Boilers of Small Scale project has been carried out in co-operation with the Forest, Environment, and Energy focus area of South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences – Xamk and the bioenergy technology research group of Lappeenranta University of Technology. The aim of the project was to study the possibilities for using biocoal pellets in small-scale energy production to produce heat and electricity. Biochar pellets are a new fuel...

Biogas Technology as a Part of Wastewater Treatment in the Future

V. Malk, H. Soininen, M. Lehesvaara & H. Poutiainen
Wastewater treatment is one of the most important processes in water and environment protection. Requirements keep becoming stricter as, for example, the EU issues new directives. In the future, wastewater treatment plants will need to address the increasing requirements set by legislation with regard to, for example, pharmaceutical residues and nutrients passing into the water system. Laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests have been utilised to study comprehensive wastewater treatment using a membrane bioreactor (MBR), and...

Effect of a Fuel Terminal on the Quality of Runoff

N. Laurila, I. Auvinen & H. Soininen
As part of EU’s climate policy, in its long-term climate and energy strategy of 2008, Finland has committed to increasing its share of renewable energy sources from 28.5% to 38% by 2020. In practice, this will be implemented by increasing the use of wood chips, as the by-products of the wood-processing industry, bark and wood, are already completely utilised. The annual targeted use of wood chips for 2020 is 25 TWh, which means a chip...

Biocoal for a Cleaner Environment and New Business in South Savo

N. Laurila, H. Soininen & J. Heinimö
88% of South Savo’s surface area is covered by forest. Forests have a significant effect on the economy of the South Savo region as the yield capacity of forests in the area is better than average when compared to the rest of Southern Finland. There is also potential to increase the utilisation rate of forests. Bioenergy is a growing sector, which has the potential to bring new business to the South Savo region. The project...

Boosting Water Protection Efficiency by Means of Biofilters in Forestry

K. Karosto, L. Lukkarinen, T. Ranta-Korhonen, H. Soininen & K. Kontinen
The aim of the study was to develop filters in order to decrease the nutrient and solid-matter load to waterways. It is difficult to prevent completely the transfer of solids and nutrients to lower water systems with traditional water protection methods (e.g. sedimentation tanks) used in forestry. Filter tests were carried out in order to find a solution, which would complement and enhance the existing methods. During the improvement of ditches, it was observed that...

Aspects of the Forest-Wood Sector and Bioenergy Production

W. Baumgarten & B. Kerckow
There is an increasing demand for lignocellulosic biomass from the energy and materials sectors, which, on a first glance, is positive for forest owners and the whole forest value chain. At the same time, there are many challenges for the forest sector: Forests have a multitude of roles in our ecosystem and our society beyond economic aspects, i.e. starting from functioning as carbon sinks, contributing to biodiversity up to providing space to relax or perform...

Promoting Energy Efficiency in Finland South Savo Region's Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

R. Tanskanen & H. Soininen
Project “Promoting energy efficiency in the South Savo region’s small and medium-sized enterprises” aims at creating new practices to improve energy efficiency and to increase the awareness of renewable energy forms in South Savo. Finland has committed to a significant reduction in its carbon dioxide emissions during the next decades. One measure to improve energy efficiency is to implement the company energy reviews. However, the conventional energy review made for big companies is laborious and...

Optimization of Waste Management Scenarios by Principal Component Analysis: a Case Study in Reunion Island

C. Hatik & J.C. Gatina
Knowledge of waste composition and production is a requirement to build an efficient waste management scenario. Moreover, analysis of this data at a detailed level of observation (regional or communal) is useful to create adapted local scenarios, thus optimizing the overall waste management. However, working at a detailed level of observation multiplies the number of scenarios to build. In this article, we make use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to identify similarities between local administrative...

Quantitative and Qualitative Biomass Production Potential of Giant Reed Mutants under Rainfed and Irrigated Conditions

W. Zegada-Lizarazu, S. Salvi, G. Di Girolamo & A. Monti
A large pool of arundo mutants was developed within the WATBIO EU project with the aim to increase the genetic variability within the species as a means to increase its agronomic and industrial value. The performance in quantitative and qualitative terms of a pre-selected material was evaluated for the first time in a field plot-scale experiment during two growing seasons (2015 and 2016) under irrigated and rainfed conditions. The initial results indicate that the UniBO3...

Two-Year Old Giant Reed Ecotypes Adaptation to Drought

W. Zegada-Lizarazu, G. Di Girolamo, G. Della Rocca, M. Centritto, F. Loreto & A. Monti
Morpho-physiological traits that convey two years-old giant reed (Arundo donax) ecotypes (Moroccan and Northern Italy) high drought tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE) have been evaluated in large rhizotrons under semi-controlled environmental conditions. No large differences between the two ecotypes tested was evident in terms of plant height, number of tillers or biomass production. However, an interesting physiological parameter that distinguished both ecotypes under drought was the predawn leaf water potential (LWP), which was closely...

Innovative Biomass Conversion in Africa

I. Virgin, A. Komakech, J. Kyambadde, K.N. Njau & S. Leta
Transforming the African agroprocessing sector so that it effectively adds value to the primary production and converts waste to valuable products in an environmentally friendly manner will be central in improving agricultural productivity in Africa. Applied modern bioscience is slowly but surely penetrating the agricultural and agroprocessing sector in Eastern Africa improving its sustainability and productivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe a selection of agroprocessing technology cases in Eastern Africa and their...

Investigation of Ammonia Removal from the Simulated Producer Gas of Biomass Gasification by H2-Reduced Titanomagnetite

Y. Wang & S. Pang
Catalytic removal of NH3 by unprocessed and H2-reduced titanomagnetites (Fe2.9Ti0.1O4) from two different gases has been experimentally investigated in a lab-scale fluidised bed reactor. The test gases include Ar gas as control and simulated producer gas from biomass steam gasification (H2, CO, CO2 and CH4). In these two test gases, the NH3 concentration was 2300±100 ppmv. The operation temperatures were varied from 500 to 850°C. The experimental results show that in the control Ar gas,...

Biodiesel Production from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical Methanol: Esterification Kinetics of Free Fatty Acids

O. Aboelazayem, O. Abdelaziz, M. Gadalla, C. Hulteberg & B. Saha
In this study, low quality waste cooking oil (WCO) with high total acid value has been used for biodiesel production. The main factors affecting the reaction have been analysed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A quadratic model representing the interrelationships between reaction variables and free fatty acids (FFA) conversion has been developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to evaluate the significance of the predicted model. Numerical optimisation predicted the optimum conditions for maximum...

Environmental Impact of an Integrated Biorefinery Model Processing Cardoon

M.T. Petrone, V. Fatta, G. Stoppiello & I. De Bari
Integrated biorefineries are the concrete tool to foster the transition from a fossil based economy to bioeconomy. This paper focuses on an integrated biorefinery from cardoon, providing oils from seeds, second-generation sugars (2GS) from the lignocellulosic part of biomass to be used for the production of BDO, and energy from unconverted residues. A process for the production of 20 kt/y 2GS was modelled and optimized. The layout includes the in situ production of hydrolytic enzymes....

Simulation of Flow and Design of Agitated Large-Volume Biorectors

T. Jirout & Potoč
Industrial fermenters are designed as large-volume equipment with a volume of several tens of m3 with side-entry impellers. For this reason, experimental modeling of mixing in those batches is very difficult and subsequent scale-up of the obtained results. In the literature, we very often encounter modeling of these processes that the geometric similarity is not entirely keep and particularly the ratio of impeller diameter to vessel diameter. Another manner is the replacement of the modeling...

Biorefinery: A Critical Technical Review

L. Kratky, T. Jirout & A. Kutsay
VDI 6310 standard defines the term biorefinery as a dedicated integrative, multifunctional concept which uses biomass from a range of raw material sources for sustainable generation of a range of different products and intermediate products (chemicals, materials, bioenergy including biofuels) while exploiting the biomass to the fullest extent possible. This critical technical review is dedicated to define crucial techno-economical aspects that play the major role for environmentally friendly, technically simple and economically sustainable waste conversion...

Continuous Cultivation of Microalgae as an Efficient Method to Improve Carbohydrate Productivity and Biochemical Stability

C.E. De Farias Silva, E. Sforza & A. Bertucco
Nowadays,the production ofcarbohydrates or lipids from microalgae with good productivities values is limited because, generally, the systems used are in batch mode operation, with two steps of nutrient starvation (mainly, nitrogen) after cultivation. In this work, a literature outlook and a comparisonof the results obtained in continuous mode with Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, undernitrogen inlet in the system are presented and discussed in view of carbohydrate production. Nitrogen inlet optimization lead to a reduction...

Feasibility Study of a Pyrolysis Conversion Plant for Heat and Power Production with Sewage Sludge as Feedstock - Mass and Energy Balance

E. Pieratti, V. Cabbai, A. Salino & W. Capponi
The present work aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a waste to energy plant, at a global glance, considering not only the conversion step but also all the required installations before and after the conversion process. The process conditions have been fixed to maximize the syngas production (process temperature: 850°C, residence time: 20 minutes). In the present work a feasibility study of a waste to energy plant feed with sewage sludge is reported. 16000 t/years...

Smart Regional Planning: Unlocking Innovative Resource Use and Economic Competitiveness - A Look at Biomass Energy Infrastructure Provision at Local Municipal Scale in eThekwini and iLembe, South Africa

L. Beires & G.M. Lincoln
The sustainable generation and use of innovative energy alternatives continues to be the contested dominant discourse for municipalities and civil society. Key objectives for regional development planning are the need to support economic competitiveness, territorial cohesion and sustainability. In developing countries like South Africa, unemployment, poverty and inequality are key concerns. The current global context is one of climate change, dwindling and increasing costs of fossil fuels, growing urban populations and affordability challenges. In this...

Effect of Serial Subculturing on the Adaptive Potential of Dunaliella Salina Strain KU11

W. Dejtisakdi, Z. Wu, P. Pantong, P. Thinthungthong & V. Sriwisat
Dunaliella is a halotolerant green microalga. It has the great potential for commercially generating nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biofuel products. Dunaliella salina strain KU11 was isolated from hypersaline soil in Nakorn Ratchasrima province, Thailand [1,2]. In this study, we aimed to explore the adaptive potential of D. salina KU11 growth and biomass by using “Natural selection” that was previously successful on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growth rate improvement [3]. In our experiments, we started growing D. salina KU11...

Cyclic Adsorption and Desorption of Methane and Carbon Dioxide on Coconut Shell Activated Carbon

S. Uttaraphat, P. Rangsunvigit, B. Kittiyanan & S. Kulprathipanja
Natural gas can be stored as an adsorbed phase in porous materials and is referred to as ANG. The use of adsorbent materials in a storage vessel for storing natural gas, at relatively low pressure (3.5-4 MPa) and at room temperature, is a possibility for making natural gas vehicles competitive with other types of vehicle. For adsorbent materials, activated carbon is the most commonly used and effective modified adsorbent support because of its high specific...

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