3,421 Works

Revealing Bioenergy Potentials: Mapping Marginal Lands in Europe - The Seemla Approach

S. Galatsidas, N. Gounaris, D. Vlachaki, E. Dimitriadis, F. Kiourtsis, D. Keramitzis, W. Gerwin, F. Repmann, N. Rettenmaier, G. Reinhardt, V. Ivanina, O. Hanzhenko, I. Gnap, K. Bogatov, F. Barbera, D. Mattioli, C. Volkmann & W. Baumgarten
Marginal land use for biomass production has received a lot of attention in the past decades. This alternative land use is free from conflicts with food and feed crops, however it presents multiple challenges starting from its definition, which varies between disciplines and is often determined based on management goals. Moreover, concerns over the impacts of marginal land use on environment, ecosystem services and sustainability are frequently raised. In response to these issues, the SEEMLA...

Physic Nut Wood: an Interesting Feedstock for Energy Production

L. Pari, A. Suardi, F. Gallucci, L. Longo, M. Carnevale & G. Toscano
In order to assure the energy security, the rural development and to reduce the effects of the climate change, many countries actively promote the cultivation of energy crops which have been identified as suitable for achieving national energy and environmental targets. Phisic nut (Jatropha curcas, L.) is a perennial oil crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions mainly for the production of biodiesel. Beside the oil, the pruning annually produced by jatropha could be a...

Experimental Design for Sugars Production by Maleic Acid Treated Wheat Straw

G.N. Katsamas & D.K. Sidiras
In the present work, the maleic acid hydrolysis of wheat straw was studied using a 3.75 L batch reactor. The hydrolysis reaction system was catalyzed by 0.01­0.09 M maleic acid at 140­180 oC for 0­50 min isothermal reaction time. The experimental condition combinations were chosen according to the principles of experimental design. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that this process is a potential method for cellulose and hemicelluloses hydrolysis. A rapid hydrolysis reaction...

Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Pure Vegetable Oils to be Used as Diesel Fuel

P. Emberger, K. Thuneke & E. Remmele
The ignition and combustion behaviour is of vital importance for a fuel to be used in diesel engines. For vegetable oils only little information is available concerning the ignition and combustion behaviour. Thus, target of the project was to determine the ignition and combustion behaviour of different vegetable oils in a Fuel-Ignition-Tester. The study was done by using ten different vegetable oils and two mixtures of vegetable oils. The vegetable oils were characterised by using...

Biomass Mobilisation for Industrial-Scale Bioenergy Plants - Practical Approach for Establishing Real Biomass Supply Pathways in Austria

R. Ehrig, M. Wörgetter, C. Kristöfel, N. Ludwiczek, C. Pointner & C. Strasser
Biomass plays a major role in the achievement of the EU 20-20-20 targets for renewable energy. In order to reach these targets huge amounts of solid biomass, especially forestal biomass, have to be mobilised. The sourcing of these immense additionally needed biomass amounts will substantially influence the entire biomass based market. For bioenergy plant operators, raw material and logistics are major cost components. Industry needs appropriate quality standards for biomass resources, just-in-time and long-term supply...

Hydrogen Generation from the Pyrolysis-Catalytic Gasification of Solid Wastes and Biomass Using Different Nickel-based Catalysts

P.H. Blanco, C. Efika, C. Wu, J.A. Onwudili & P.T. Williams
The potential of hydrogen as a fuel source has been increasing as it involves clean combustion compared with the greenhouse gases emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels; additionally hydrogen can be used as fuel in fuel cells or hydrogen powered turbines. The current hydrogen production processes involve the use of fossil fuels by natural gas steam reforming and partial oxidation of coal or heavy hydrocarbons; however there have been investigations into more sustainable sources...

Second and Third Generation Bioethanol Potential from Different Biomass Sources in Mexico

C.M. Galicia-Medina, C. Barrios, G.S. Alemán-Nava, J.F. Dallemand & R. Parra
Bioethanol is an alcohol that can be produced from fermentation of sugars found in grains and other biomass. This alcohol can produced from different feedstock such as grains, corn, wheat , agro industrial residues and non-edible crops depending of the feedstock, which are classified into first, second and third generation. In this sense, Mexico´s government have tried since 2009 with the Bioenergetics Promotion and Development Law for the production of bioethanol in a major scale...

Handling Uncertainty in Bioenergy Policy Design - A Case Study Analysis of UK and German Bioelectricity Policy Documents

A. Purkus, M. Röder, E. Gawel, D. Thrän & P. Thornley
In designing policies to promote bioenergy, policy makers face challenges concerning uncertainties about greenhouse gas balances of heterogeneous bioenergy pathways, the sustainability of biomass production, technology and resource costs, or future framework conditions of energy markets. New information becomes available with time, but policy adjustments can involve high levels of negotiation and adaptation costs. To enable an effective steering of technology choices and innovation efforts, policies have to strike a balance between creating a consistent...

Conversion of Food Waste into Energy: Impact of Thermal Pre-Treatment on Hydrogen and Methane Production

A. Gallipoli, C.M. Braguglia, M. Di Carlo, A. Gianico, D. Montecchio, P. Pagliaccia, C. Pastore & F. Gironi
In the framework of the waste circular economy, anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising treatment option, due to both renewable energy and fertilizer production. Nevertheless, in mesophilic conditions a part of the organic carbon fed is not degraded, reducing the possibility to fully exploit the waste energy potential, and opening the research to advanced processes that can increase AD efficiency. In this study, AD of food waste was investigated in thermophilic conditions. Scope of this...

Recycling and Energy Recovery from Incontinence Waste (Inkocycle): Anaerobic Treatment of Adults Diapers

S. Herbert, J. Heynemann, T. Luthardt-Behle, U. Theilen & H. Weigand
Due to the demographic change in Europe, the amount of incontinence waste is expected to increase drastically. In Germany, this waste stream is estimated as 200,000 metric tonnes per year. This study focused on the optimized energy recovery from incontinence waste using a combined approach of anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organics fraction followed by incineration of the digestate as refuse derived fuel (RDF). In a two years pilot test the AD resulted in 238...

Environmental Assessment of Tropical Oil Crops for Biodiesel Purposes

S. Fazio, A. Monti & L. Barbanti
Secure and sustainable energy supply is an urgent need worldwide. Renewable energy sources fit both goals. Among them, biodiesel is set to match several socio-economic goals for developing countries, and seems to be less impacting on food prices than bioethanol derived from cereals or other grain feedstocks. Recent studies on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioenergy chains based on dedicated crops showed that biodiesel scenarios are generally less impacting than other possible energy chains, but,...

Production and Characterisation of Solid Biofuels from Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops in Extremadura Region (Southwestern Spain)

L. Royano, A.I. Parralejo, F. Llera, J. González & J.F. González
Thermochemical biofuels can be produced locally, contributing to the maintenance of the employment and population in rural areas. Agricultural and forestry residues –almond, plum and holm-oak pruning-, and energy crops biomass –poplar and paulownia- were compared to standards for pellets and woodchips quality. All samples analyzed can be grouped according to Spanish standards for non-industrial solid biofuels –UNE 14961-, except almond woodchips that have a higher ash content than 3%.

Evaluation of Reusable Cellulase Activity in the Residue of Enzymatic Hydrolysis

F. Hasegawa, H. Inoue, S. Yokoyama, K. Imou & S. Yano
One of the most effective ways to reduce the cost of hydrolysis is to reuse enzymes. To do this, it is important to know how much enzyme activity remains in the liquid phase or in the solid residue. In the solid residue, however, enzymes are absorbed onto the substrate and are difficult to completely separate from it, so it is not easy to estimate the activity by the same method as for the liquid phase....

Ash Fusion Characteristics of the Blends of Reed and Wood Ashes

S. Link, Ü. Kask, T. Lausmaa, A. Paist, L. Kask & S. Arvelakis
The reed, waste wood, wood chips etc. are available for energy purposes in Estonia, while mainly utilized in fluidized bed boilers for heat production in district heating systems of smaller settlements. There is no correlation in the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends. A task of a boiler operator is to avoid the impact of unwanted properties of the blends on ash fusion. This work characterises the ash fusion of the blends of reed and...

RE2nAF: Exploring Scenarios for off Grid Electricity Production Options in Africa

I. Pinedo-Pascua, S. Szabó & T. Huld
The international community is committed to supporting Africa to address its energy challenges but the definition of continental priorities and ways of implementation is under national, sub-regional and regional African policy domains. The scope of this work is to present an analytical easy-to-use web-based tool, RE²nAF, which enables geographically based analysis for off-grid electricity production options in Africa. Decision makers, academia, investors and other stakeholders can benefit from its use in deciding which energy technology...

Towards Low Emission Power Plants: Biomass Co-Firing Combined with Post-Combustion CO2 Capture

D. Cebrucean, V. Cebrucean & I. Ionel
Coal­fired power plants generate significant amounts of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Among carbon mitigation strategies, biomass co­firing with coal in existing coal­based power generation plants combined with post­combustion CO2 capture is one of the potential options for reducing fossil­based CO2 emissions. Co­firing biomass with coal can also reduce the emissions of SO2 and NOx. Post­combustion CO2 capture based on chemical absorption is the most advanced technology that can be relatively easily integrated into existing...

Adsorption of H2S on Residual Biomass Gasification Char

F. Marchelli, F. Patuzzi, E. Cordioli, E. Sisani, L. Barelli, M. Baratieri, B. Bosio & E. Arato
Char is the solid by-product of biomass gasification. Plant owners usually dispose of it at a cost, but its high carbon content and surface area could make it suitable for further applications. In this work, we studied its potential to adsorb hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a common pollutant, e.g. present in the producer gas of gasification, as well as in biogas from anaerobic digestion. We tested different samples of char collected from commercial gasification plants in...

Bioethanol Production by Fermentation is an Energy Balance Process

E. Moawad
Considerable research is aimed at determining the mechanism by which ethanol produced from food ­ waste leachate (FWL) using S. cerevisiae as inoculums when subjected to an optimized fermentation process, to be predictable and controllable. The wide range of reduced sugar concentration (RSC), from low (35 gm per liter) to very high (100 gm per liter), estimated statistically is responsible for costs increasing besides risks of FWL contamination. A mathematical model is presented that describes:...

Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production in Argentina Case Study

J.A. Hilbert, S. Galbusera & S. Galligani
Soybean production is immersed within a productive system that cannot be analyzed on its own. A number of political and market factors, both nationally and internationally, explain the development and growth of soybean production throughout the globe. In the case of Argentina, the evolution of the agricultural system of soybean production has been characterized by continuous technological improvement. This has changed the whole agricultural system and set the base for societies growing demands for environmental...

Development of a Rice Husk Fired Biomass Stove for Cooking, Water and Space Heating

J.K. Tangka, J.N. Mbinkar, V.C. Tidze & E.T. Sako
Rice husk, a major by-product of the rice-milling industries, accounts for 20% by weight of rice paddy and is abundantly available in the rice processing industries. This potential energy source is usually burnt off in many rice industries to create space by farms that are in dire need of thermal energy for air and water heating as well as for electricity generation. A simple energy efficient rice husk fired stove was developed for space and...

Influence of Processing Parameters on Wood Biomass Disintegration and Pellets Production

J. Beniak, L. Šooš, P. Križan & M. Matúš
Material preparation for briquettes and pellets production is really important and have very big influence to production process and also to final products conditions. There is many factors which could affect final quality of biomass briquettes and pellets. Also many processes and machine settings can lead to quality change. As we know from previews research, there is really important size of biomass particles from which the pellets and briquettes are produced. Shredding machines are directly...

Optimizing a Small Biogas Reactor and Estimating Its Energy Payback Time

S. Marini, M. Villa, C. Della Casa & A. Primante
The aimm of this work is to estimate the energy paybback time of a small (1 m3) experimental anaerobic digester developed by RES when the input material is sludge and organic fraction of urban waste in a 50%-50% proportion. We have carefully optimized the pre-treatment and the working conditions of the reactor annd fully characterized its yields and energy requirements. We have then estimated the primary energy "cost" of the reactor and its enclosure and...

Techno-Economics of Dry and Wet Torrefaction Process for Improved Bio-Feedstocks for Biorefinery Applications

R.S. Kempegowda, R. Khalil & Ø. Skreiberg
This article deals with the techno-economic analysis of wet and dry torrefaction processes for producing high quality feedstocks. This article also compares the impact of wet and dry torrefaction processes on biomass to liquid fuel (BTL) production under Norwegian conditions. The study goal is to produce transportation fuel via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with combined heat and power (CHP) as a co-product. The biorefinery is fed by 150 MW (LHV basis) of biomass as woodchips. The biorefinery...

Assessing Possible Emission Reductions in the Energy Mix: Unconventional Gas or Miscanthus Biomass?

I.G. Gyparis & D.K. Sidiras
European countries seek to expand their energy mix to confront resource scarcity, competition for various land-use types and coverage of human needs sustainably, without polluting. Poland aims to replace the obsolete technologies of electricity production with modern, such as electricity generated by Miscanthus biomass or shale gas. In 2015, 28% of new power projects used gas technologies while 8% biomass. Although the growth of the sector was decelerated; shale gas is fostered in Poland because...

Product Distribution and Heat for Pyrolysis of Dry Sewage Sludge

Atienza-MartÍNez, M., A. Morales, J. Ábrego, I. Fonts & G. Gea
Although pyrolysis of sewage sludge is an emerging alternative for managing this residue, the use of autogenous atmospheres has been seldom investigated, nor has been the experimental determination of the heat involved in the process. Performing pyrolysis under a self-generated atmosphere allows to reduce the energy consumption. The fact that the gas surrounding the solid is composed of the vapours produced during the pyrolysis itself could have effect on the products distribution. Different approaches have...

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