3,421 Works

The Assessment of Land Availability for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Willow in Northern Ireland & Republic of Ireland Border Region through the Application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

B.P. Moss, A.M. Black & A.R. McCracken
The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology allows for the effective and efficient analysis of biomass potential. This study, encompassing Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland border counties, has produced the most detailed assessment of potential opportunities for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Willow growth in the region. A multivariate approach to the GIS analysis was adopted, with each parameter associated with the growth of SRC Willow individually analysed, and the regional suitability established....

Biomass Gasification with Dolomite and Olivine Particles as a Bed Inventory in Presence of Catalytic Ceramic Filter

S. Rapagnà & G. Spinelli
Continuously biomass gasification trials were carried out in a bench scale gasification plant. The main plant component has been a fluidized bed reactor containing in its freeboard alternately, non-catalytic and catalytic ceramic filters already used in other gasification tests. Both, catalytic and non-catalytic filters, were delivered by Pall Schumacher. The fluidized bed inventory was composed of olivine particles contains alternately 10% and 20% by weight of dolomite particles. The fluidization gases were air and steam...

Activated Carbon Catalytic Supercritical Water Gasification of Glycine

T. Samanmulya, M. Kanna & Y. Matsumura
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of glycine was studied in a tubular flow reactor which has the inside diameter of 2.17 mm and the length of 12 m. The experiments were carried out at 500­650 oC, 25 MPa with residence times in a range of 63­188 s. Activated carbon of 0.5 wt% was used as a catalyst. The results showed that the increase of temperature and residence time enhanced the gasification efficiency. Although, higher concentration resulted...

Sustainable Biomass Resources and Outlook on the European Pellet Market until 2020

N. Rensberg, J. Witt & D. Thrän
In recent years, the European wood pellet market has seen a significant growth and production capacities have been expanded continuously. In view of a further expansion of pellet production considerable potentials by the year 2020 could be identified. When it comes to allocating biomass potentials as input flows for pellet production, itemized according to the quality standard prEN 14961-2 for use in appropriate target markets, above all, significant potentials could be pointed out for the...

In Situ Catalytic Upgrading of Rice Husk Pyrolysis Oil over MCM-22 and its Delaminated Counterpart: Effect of Catalyst Physical Configuration on its Performance

S.R. Naqvi, Y. Uemura, N. Osman, Y. Sugiura & N. Nishiyama
Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of rice husk was performed with a medium pore framework zeolite (MCM-22) and its delaminated counterpart with a higher external surface area (ITQ-2) using a lab scale fixed-bed reactor. This work investigates the influence of the catalyst physical structure on the yields of gas, liquid and solid products and gas composition. Firstly, non-catalytic pyrolysis experiments were carried out at various temperatures between 350 to 600 °C. The maximum pyrolysis oil...

The Valorization of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste in a Biorefinery Concept

A. Conte, A. Cesaro & V. Belgiorno
The pretreatments of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) for the anaerobic digestion (AD) process are designed to address the limitations of substrate degradation related to the nature and composition of the raw material. In this view, they usually contribute to improve the AD process performances, enhancing the biomass conversion into both energy carriers and digestate. More recently, some studies have pointed out the possible use of OFMSW for the recovery of other...

The Impact of Aluminosilicate-based Additives upon the Sintering and Melting Behaviour of Biomass Ash

L.J. Roberts, P.E. Mason, J.M. Jones, W.F. Gale & A. Williams
Biomass ash typically contains higher concentrations of alkali-based compounds, with lower eutectic temperatures when compared with coal ash, which can become sticky and even molten at combustion temperatures. One approach to mitigate the consequent fouling risk is to use an additive to increase the concentration of higher melting-point compounds within the ash, which produces weaker deposits. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of two additives, waste coal pulverised fuel ash (PFA)...

Study of Post Sampling Treatment of Solid Phase Adsorption Method on Tar Yields and Comparison of Two Methods for Volatile Tar Compounds

A. Horvat, M. Kwapinska, G. Xue, W. Kwapinski, S. Dooley & J.J. Leahy
Tars are produced as vapours during gasification and their presence in the product gas is one of the main technological barriers for development of gasification and related applications. For most applications the product gas needs to be cleaned of impurities such as tars. Reliable tar measurement methods are therefore of particular importance for the efficient implementation of gasification processes. The present study investigates some aspects of solid phase adsorption (SPA) sampling method: (1) the extraction...

Performance of Sida Hermaphrodita and Silphium Perfoliatum in Europe: Preliminary Results

G. Facciotto, M. Bury, F. Chiocchini, L. Cumplido Marín, H. Czyż, A. Graves, T. Kitczak, R. Martens, C. Morhart, P. Paris & M. Nahm
Sida hermaphrodita (Virginia mallow) and Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant), are two perennial herbs that can be used for energy production, or, particularly in the case of the first species, as a basic compound for various materials, such as fibre products or particle boards. Silphium can be used as an alternative to maize for biogas production. The flowers of both species provide abundant pollen and nectar for pollinating insects. These new crops are currently being tested...

Techniques and Technologies of Forest Residue Utilization in Hilly and Mountainous Conditions

M. Danilovic, D. Grujovic, V. Corbic & B. Letica
Presented in the article are the results of the research related to the selection of the most suitable technology of forestry utilization in high beech stands upon final cutting. Research was conducted in the mountainous region of Serbia. Two methods of cutting and processing were analyzed especially from the aspect of the extent of damaging that occurs on the regeneration following the skidding of the massive wood mass thicker than 3 cm without bark. Extent...

Steam Gasification of Pine Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor: Model Development and Validation at Different Operative Conditions

L. Vecchione, M. Moneti, E. Bocci, A. Di Carlo, M. Villarini, M. Carlini & P.U. Foscolo
One of the most important issues in biomass gasification is the correct prediction of gasification products, with particular attention to the Topping Atmosphere Residues (TARs). In this work, performed within the European 7FP UNIfHY project, develops and validates experimentally a model able of predicting the outputs, including TARs, of a steam-fluidized bed biomass gasifier. Pine wood was chosen as biomass feedstock: the products obtained in pyrolysis tests are the relevant model input. Hydrodynamics and chemical...

Techno-Economics of Dry and Wet Torrefaction Process for Improved Bio-Feedstocks for Biorefinery Applications

R.S. Kempegowda, R. Khalil & Ø. Skreiberg
This article deals with the techno-economic analysis of wet and dry torrefaction processes for producing high quality feedstocks. This article also compares the impact of wet and dry torrefaction processes on biomass to liquid fuel (BTL) production under Norwegian conditions. The study goal is to produce transportation fuel via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with combined heat and power (CHP) as a co-product. The biorefinery is fed by 150 MW (LHV basis) of biomass as woodchips. The biorefinery...

Determination of Kinetic Data for Torrefaction of Pine Bark and Maize Cane

C. Casajus, F. Marias & J.M. Legros-Adrian
Torrefaction is a mild pyrolysis process with an operating temperature included in the range 220°C­280°C. This technology, applied to ligno-cellulosic biomass, modifies its thermal properties and makes it stable, grindable and hydrophobic. It is then an interesting feedstock for high efficiency combustion and gasification. Because torrefaction mainly affects the hemicelluloses part of the incoming biomass, the associated reaction scheme and kinetics have been developed using this information (single step models, Di-Blasi and Lanzetta model and...

Forest Fuel Supply Through the Terminal Network in Finland and Sweden

M. Virkkunen & J. Raitila
Finland and Sweden are the world leaders in large scale wood fuel utilization for heat and power generation. A vast network of large installations and the great centralized demand around high capacity CHP generation units have created challenging requirements for the reliability and volumes of wood fuel supply all year round. To ensure smooth feedstock supply both countries have established a wide network of wood fuel terminals for securing continuous supply of wood fuel. The...

Definition of New Sorghum Ideotypes to Meet the Increasing Demand of Biofuel

S. Braconnier, S. Gutjhard, G. Trouche, B. Reddy, S. Rao, R. Schaffert, R. Parrella, A. Zacharias, N. Rettenmaier, G. Reinhardt, A. Monti, S. Amaducci, A. Marocco, W. Snijman, H. Terblanche, F. Zavala-Garcia, R. Janssen & D. Rutz
Geopolitical tensions in some oil producing regions and the uncertainties surrounding the future availability of fossil fuels, as well as the urgent necessity to mitigate negative impacts on climate through reduced CO2 emissions, have created a strong interest for biofuels. Among potential crops for the production of biofuels, sorghum is an interesting C4 plant, able to combine production of food and fuel as well as a variety of other products. However, new ideotypes of sorghum...

First Scientific Results with the Novel Dual Fluidized Bed Gasification Test Facility at TU Wien

J.C. Schmid, S. Müller & H. Hofbauer
Experiments with previous pilot plants at TU Wien, data from literature, and investigations on different cold flow models led to the design of an advanced 100 kWth dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. The new reactor arrangement is an optimized concept for steam gasification of a wide range of solid fuels, like biogenic residues and industrial waste materials. The aim of the novel design is to generate a nitrogen-free product gas for the production of hydrogen,...

Pretreatment of Birch Wood for Bioethanol Production

N. Vedernikovs, M. Puke, V. Kampars & I. Kruma
In the near future, deciduous wood may be a real alternative to oil as a raw material for production of chemicals and motor fuel. Now bioethanol is produced mainly by fermenting starch­containing (wheat, corn) and sugar­containing (sugar beat, sugar cane) materials. However, in the very immediate future, the circumstances of these raw materials and the new situation in the oil market will put up the use of biomass for the production of bioethanol and different...

SNG Production from Gasified Biomass, Electrolytic H2 and Captured CO2

M. Vogt, F. Fischer, S. Fendt & H. Spliethoff
The concept for a flexible gasification methanation plant is described in this work. A fixed bed reactor is combined with an electrolysis and a CO2 storage. In the electrolysis, hydrogen is produced from renewable electricity. Depending on electricity prices, different modes of operation are possible to create synthetic natural gas. For a catalytic methanation reactor, a CFD model is developed including the choice of a suiting kinetic model and a realistic description of the porous...

Performaces Analisys Based on Experimental Campaign of a Micro CHP Plant with Microgas Turbine Supplied by Wood Chips

A. Spadi, G. Riccio, D. Chiaramonti & F. Martelli
Once the installation, the commissioning and the preliminary tests have been completed, the Bio_MGT plant was finally started up successfully and it has been running for some thousands of operation hours. The Bio_MGT plant is a micro CHP plant based on a commercial Micro Gas Turbine (MGT, 100 kW) modified to make it suitable for an externally fired cycle. The system is characterized by a dual combustion configuration and it supplies electric and thermal power...

A Trias Biologica for Better Biobased Policies

K.W. Kwant, A. Moerkerken, A.B. Stuij & N. Van Beeck
Sustainable production and use of biomass for the biobased economy and bioenergy is continuously discussed. In order to gain insight into the global agricultural and environmental limitations of biomass use a study has been carried out. Cascading is a precondition in the transition towards a bio-based economy, as part of the concept of the ‘Trias Biologica’, which is a logical concept to feed both people and livestock, to produce enough materials and energy to meet...

Life Cycle Assessment of Torrefaction and Hydrothermal Carbonization of Olive Husk

E. Christoforou & P. Fokaides
The mitigation of the environmental impact and the further development of the existing technologies for the treatment and exploitation of biomass resources towards biofuels, currently consist a major scientific challenge. This study aims to the comparative assessment using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two alternative technologies for upgrading solid biofuels: torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization. In terms of this study olive husk, a biomass source widely used in the Mediterranean basin, is considered. The environmental footprint...

Production of Biodiesel from By-Product of Sunflower Oil Refining

N. Azcan & P. Misiroǧlu
Although biodiesel is becoming more and more important as an environmentally friendly and renewable fuel, the high cost of feedstock for biodiesel production is still the biggest problem to be resolved for more proliferated use of it. Sunflower soap stock (SS) as a lipid-rich by product produced during vegetable oil refining process, is one of the most promising candidates for biodiesel production because of its easy collection [1]. In this study, obtaining biodiesel from SS...

Effective Methods of Allocation from Natural Sources (Relic Lakes of Azerbaijan) Strains of Micro Algae for the Biotechnological Industry

F. Omarov & Y. Abdulrahimbayov
The work purpose to create system of effective allocation from natural relic lakes of Azerbaijan highly productive new strains of micro Algae. This system includes carried out (scientific regulations) and preparation of laboratory base (a collection of micro algae). Many micro­algae have a high nutritional value since they contain proteins, vitamins, minerals, and nonsaturated fats. Moreover, they can yield higher outputs for the same levels of water and land than many conventional agricultural products. The...

Quality Guidelines of Wood Chips and Hog Fuels - Applying International Solid Biofuels Standards

E. Alakangas
Quality guidelines of wood chips and hog fuel (VTT-M-04712-15) provide unambiguous and clear classification principles for solid wood fuels, provide guidance for the determination of their quality, and thus act as a tool to enable efficient trading of wood fuels and good understanding between seller and buyer, and to serve the needs of equipment manufacturers. These guidelines will also facilitate authority permission procedures and report-ing. Guidelines give detailed information about fuel specification, sampling and sample...

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