3,421 Works

Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Mechanical Behavior of Charcoal for Metallurgical Applications

A. Dufourny, J. Blin, G. Humbert, D. Guibal, L. Martin, J. Banos & L. Van De Steene
Substitution of fossils reducers by charcoal from woody biomass is one of the most suitable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of metallurgical industries. The main problem involved in fossils reducers replacement is the lack of mechanical strength of charcoal. Aim of this study is to investigate the impact of pyrolysis parameters, such as temperature and solid residence time, on the mechanical properties of charcoal. Charcoal was produced from two woody biomasses, Eucalyptus globulus and...

Agrochains - Supply Chains of Green Residues for Bioenergy Exploitation

I. Eleftheriadis, I. Papamichael, M. Christou, K.D. Panopoulos, V. Bellis & S. Chatzigavriel
The main objectives of this work is the development, implementation and evaluation of biomass supply chains from“green”agricultural residues for the production of energy products (solid biofuels, energy) through specific field trials, testing ofenergy exploitation technologies and related techno-economic and environmental assessments. For that purpose, two major categories of biomass were selected, straw and corn residues, as well aspruning, including urban tree’s clearing and forest residues. The work will be implemented in three regions in Greece,...

Developing Technique Anaeorobic Digestion in the Context of Renewable Energy Sources

WałOwski, G.
Methods and techniques applied in the immobilization of methanogens were analyzed. The literature-based examples of immobilization were reviewed to seek research areas referring to media for strains of bacteria used in bioreactors. The reason for this study is the use of microorganisms to produce gas by means of porous materials. Technical and process aspects of the technology resulting biogas technologies were identified. The selected techniques were reviewed and their technological aspects were characterized. The conditions...

Optimisation of Gas Production in a Biogas Plant by Improving the Monitoring

H. Soininen, S.K. Mörsky & L. Pulkkinen
In the future, biogas production processes must be more cost efficient than they are now. The factors affecting the process must also be better identifiable and manageable. The aim of this study is to develop the processes, monitoring, and process diagnostics of biogas plants in order to meet the increasing business environment demands of the future. Comprehensive optimisation and monitoring of biogas plants and their end products will be studied in the course of this...

Septic Tank Sludges as Part of The Optimized Sewage Treatment Process

H. Särkkä & H. Soininen
Rural areas without sewage coverage rely strongly on on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks for disposal of sewage. Separation of solid matter from the liquid part will occur and sludge is formed on the bottom of the tank. Septic tank sludges can be feeded into municipal wastewater treatment process in their current form or after pretreatment. Suitable pretreatment techniques can be physical, chemical or biological, for instance sedimentation, centrifugation, ultrasound treatment and chemical oxidation....

Demonstration Tests on Horse Manure in order to Strengthen the Economic Life of the South Savo Region

R. Tuominen, T. Seppänen, H. Soininen, H. Karhu, H. Tirkkonen, J. Föhr & T. Ranta
The HevosWatti project advances the possibilities for utilising bioenergy in the South Savo region. The demonstration tests will improve fuel management at energy production plants and the utilisation of horse manure as fuel, and they will also assist in monitoring the effect of the fuel on, e.g., emissions. The demonstration tests of the HevosWatti project will initiate a shared energy management supply chain between the region’s energy production plants and horse sector entrepreneurs – from...

Anaerobic Digestion of Different Organic Feedstocks by Continuous Bioreactors

H. Särkkä, T. Saario, A. Mykkänen & H. Soininen
Anaerobic digestion of different kind of organic feedstocks is an important part in recycling of waste resources and producing bioenergy. Materials used for wet and dry digestion processes affect essentially to methane production rates. In this study methane production rates of different mixtures of raw materials (forage, cattle manure sludge and sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes) were investigated by using continuous 15 L anaerobic digestion reactors. Reactors were run for 250 days and same...

Cultivation of Scenedesmus Obliquus in Mixtures of Urban and Olive-Oil Mill Wastewaters for the Dual Application of Algal Biomass Production and Wastewater Treatment

G. Hodaifa, A. Malvis, M. Maaitah & S. Sánchez
Olive-oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a great environmental problem because of its high organic load plus another antioxidant compounds as phenolic compounds. On the other hand, the treated urban wastewater (TUW) in depuration plants, which have primary and secondary treatment processes, is directly disposed to public waterways. Both wastewaters could be used as sources for microalgal culture media constitution. These wastewaters are rich in nitrogen and phosphorus compounds such as ammonium, nitrates and phosphates as...

Mass Culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Using Olive-Mill Wastewater

M. Maaitah, G. Hodaifa, R. Órpez, A.M. Romero & S. Sánchez
Olive oil industry is one of the most important industries in the world. Many environmental problems occur from that industry because of the production of huge amounts of wastewater since this by-product is characterized by a high inorganic and organic load. Organic substances found in olive-mill wastewater (OMWW) include sugars, phenolic compounds, polyalcohol, pectin’s, and lipids. This wastewater can be used as nutrients to produce an algal biomass with a biochemical composition rich in lipids....

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Tunisian Lif of Date Palm Phoenix Dactylifera L.

Y. Antit, K. Zaafouri, I. Olivares, M. Handi & S. Sánchez
Lif is a byproduct generated by the date palm tree Phoenix dactylifera L. with an annual production of around 30460t/year. As this material is not exploited thermochemically and biochemically, it could be a good feedstock for bioenergy recovery. Therefore, to reach this purpose it is necessary to hydrolyze enzymatically the hydrotreated lif fibers (young and old) at 220°C using a combination of two enzymes. The optimization of enzymatic saccharification in young lif (33.33 FPU of...

Selection and Establishment of Energy Crops in Abandoned and Unused Land for Biomass Production in Cambrils

D-S. Kourkoumpas, C.E. Papadelis, P. Grammelis, S. Karellas & E. Kakaras
The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of a new business model for agricultural cooperatives, integrating energy savings and the generation of renewable energies and biomass production. Coop Cambrils active in oil production, faces high maintenance and operation costs. That issue, in conjunction with the presence of unexploited land area next to cooperative facilities, led the stakeholders of the cooperative to assess the possibility of the cultivation of...

Methodology of Agitator Design for Large-Volume Bioreactors

T. Jirout
Substrates processed in biotechnological processes for the purpose of the production of biofuels are heterogenous suspensions with pseudoplastic flow behaviour. When these suspensions are mixed by high-speed impellers there is a risk that in more distant areas of the batch the shear stress is low and because of it the apparent viscosity is high and the fluid practically does not flow there. The fluid flows only near the impeller where the well agitated cavern is...

The Effect of Economic Variables Over a Biodiesel Production Plant Using Calcium Oxide as a Catalyst

S.N. Gebremariam & J.M. Marchetti
Extensive use of fossil fuels has been contributing a lot to the human induced climate change. This calls for the use of renewable energy resources, such as biofuels produced from different renewable resources. Among these types of fuels, biodiesel is considered as a convenient substitute for petrol diesel for its substantial environmental benefits. The challenge to use biodiesel for fuel is mainly due to its higher cost of production. This is usually attributed to the...

Hydrodynamics and Mass Transfer in Conical Jet-Loop Airlift Bioreactor with Deflector

R. Šulc & J. Dymák
The airlift reactors (ALRs) are multiphase contactors that are characterized by pneumatically induced fluid circulation in a defined cyclic pattern through built internal or external channels. The effect of riser superficial gas velocity uSGR on gas holdup .gT, homogenization time tH and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa in two phase gas-liquid system and three phase gas-liquid-solid phase was investigated in laboratory conical jet-loop airlift bioreactor equipped by adjustable deflector placed above riser. The deflector...

Syngas Transformation Technologies to Produce Biofuels and Biochemicals - A Techno-economical Review

P. Seghman, L. Krátký & T. Jirout
The study shows main aspects of biomass transformation into biofuels using gasification-product gas as feedstock. The first part of the study focuses on summing up the main parameters and properties of the gasification product gas and their effect on its further utilization. The second part of the study proposes methods that might be used for product-gas cleaning and purification. The last part focuses on industrial possibilities of bio-syngas (and product gas) transformation into chemicals and...

Lab Scale Cultivation of Baltic Ulva intestinalis in Different Light and Nutrient Conditions: Effects on Growth and Morphology

K. Balina, A. Piscika, A. Gruduls, F. Romagnoli & D. Blumberga
Seaweed cultivation is underdeveloped in Baltic countries because low salinity reduce seaweed growing efficiency. Seaweed grown in brackish water have adapted to low salinity and their physical demands are different than seaweed growing in ocean water. Therefore, there is a need to determine best cultivation parameters that would favour brackish seaweed cultivation. The effects of nutrient loading and different lighting colours were assessed on the growth and morphology of the abundant filamentous green algae Ulva...

Technical study of Pilot Plant and Industrial Photobioreactors

T. Žáková, L. Krátký & T. Jirout
Petrochemical, food and processing technologies produce a large number of emissions and waste heat. There is, therefore, a potential to use emission gases, rich for CO2 especially, together with waste heat to produce algae-based biofuels and to reach a concept of emission-free technology – these are third generation biofuels. CO2 is the most important nutrient component for algae. Generally known, the transformation of both CO2 and waste to algae occurs in photobioreactors of various technical...

Identification of EU Success Factors for Sustainable Wood Waste Valorization

A.L. Fernando, J. Costa, M. Cocchi & D. Boulday
Absorbing the potential of wood waste in EU regions and industrial biobased ecosystems is the objective of the BioReg project funded by the European Union. Overall, the project aims to identify, develop and fully unlock the unused wood waste potential at European level and allow for the implementation of the full range of wood waste valorisation practices among European regions. For the purpose, five model regions were analyzed and three recipient regions will be engaged...

Assessment of the Potential of Green Floating Filters for Bioenergy Production

D-S. Kourkoumpas, M.D. Curt, S. Kallen, M. Buevinc, M. Zapatero, S. Kiartzis, P. Diaz, P.L. Aguado, S. Bezergianni & P. Grammelis
The purpose of this research is to use helophytes as floating filters in an artificial aqautic system for water treatment in Lake Cheimaditida and irrigation channels (Western Macedonia, 40 km southeast of Florina, Greece) and in irrigation channels and pods (broader region of Avila, province 150 km east of Madrid, Spain). By using these floating filters, the challenge of producing feedstock for bioenergy without using agricultural land will be achieved. There are several factors that...

Evaluation of the Low-temperature Corrosion Potential of Flue Gases from the Combustion of Wood and Non-wood Fuels

T. Brunner, I. Obernberger, C. Ramerstorfer & W. Kanzian
During recent years increased efforts have been taken to make biomass combustion technologies more fuel flexible. Especially in the medium and large capacity range but recently also in the residential heating sector the utilisation of fuel assortments other than classical wood fuels (pellets, wood chips, forest residues) opens a wide potential of different and also more cost efficient feedstocks to be utilised. Examples are wood from SRF and agricultural residues such as shells, olive stones,...

Development of a New Highly Efficient and Fuel Flexible Medium-scale CHP Technology Based on Fixed-bed Updraft Biomass Gasification and a SOFC

T. Brunner, F. Biedermann, I. Obernberger, S. Hirscher, M. Schöch, C. Milito, H. Leibold, J. Sitzmann, S. Megel, M. Hauth, Y. De Vos, T. Götz, L. Shen & B. Corona
The H2020 project HiEff-BioPower aims at the development of a new, innovative, fuel flexible and highly efficient medium-scale biomass CHP technology. It consists of (i) a fuel-flexible fixed-bed updraft gasifier, a novel primary gas treatment zone placed downstream the gasifier for gas and tar reforming, (ii) a novel compact gas cleaning system for dust, HCl and S removal as well as final tar cracking within one process step, (iii) a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)...

To-Syn-Fuel: Turning Sewage Sludge into Fuels and Hydrogen

A. Hornung, A. Apfelbacher, R. Daschner, N. Jäger, M. Ouadi, T. Hornung, M. Möbus, E. De Wit, S. Capaccioli, A. Contin, S. Righi, D. Marazza, R. Miglio, A. Peltenburg, C. Tuck, L. Sijstermans & J. Bastos
The To-Syn-Fuel project aims to demonstrate a sustainable process able to transform waste biomass such as sewage sludge into renewable liquid fuels. The Thermo-Catalytic Reforming TCR®, which is a technology developed by Fraunhofer UMSICHT, will be implemented in a new process integrated with hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technologies to convert a wide range of residual biomass into three main products: H2-rich synthesis gas, biochar and a liquid bio-oil that can be upgraded...

Fuel Flexible and Low-Emission Biomass Combustion by Combination of Fuel Additivation and Combustion Related Primary Measures

C. Mandl, I. Obernberger & H. Knautz
The demand for wood fuels for biomass heating and CHP plants is steadily increasing, thus the prices also rise accordingly, which results for more and more plant owners in economic problems. The utilisation of non-wood biomass fuels, e.g. Miscanthus, grass and agriculture residues such as straw, corn cobs or sunflower husks would be a possible alternative, but due to ash-related problems (slagging, deposit formation, corrosion and enhanced particulate matter emissions) these fuels cannot be used...

Reduction of NOx Emissions from Automated Boilers by Multiple Air Staging

C. Mandl, I. Obernberger & H. Knautz
Within recent years the utilisation of „new“ biomass fuels (e.g. agricultural residues and energy crops) in biomass combustion processes has gained relevance. Unfortunately, most of these new biomass fuels are characterised by elevated contents of i.e. N resulting in higher NOx-emissions. Currently available biomass heating systems for the combustion of non-wood biomass fuels have a high system complexity and cost intensive secondary measures have often to be applied. Thus, emission reduction by primary measures can...

Alternative Aviation Fuels: Assessment of Supply Potential in the EU

M. Prussi, O'Connell, A. & L. Lonza
The significant growth of the aviation sector over recent decades has increased the pressure of the sector on the environment and on the role it is expected to play in meeting the international climate targets set forth in the 2015 Paris Agreement. With no mandatory targets for emissions reduction, air operators in Europe and worldwide have conducted several pilot actions demonstrating their interest in using ASTM-certified drop-in biofuels, to move towards complying with the industry-wide...

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