3,775 Works

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Slagging in Biomass Combustion

T. Plankenbühler, D. Müller & J. Karl
The Chair of Energy Process Engineering at Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU-EVT) developed a prediction tool for slagging and fouling in biomass boilers, based on CFD simulation and verified through lab-scale experiments. Main focus lies on collision induced deposition of molten ash particles carried away from fuel bed, thus burning in the flue gas canal. Key parameters for the occurrence of slagging are the ash melting temperature, particle residence time and fuel’s fine particle fraction. In combination...

Bio-SNG Production via Gasification - Process Integration Aspects for Improving Process Performance

S. Heyne, H. Thunman, M. Seemann & S. Harvey
This paper presents results from a comprehensive process integration study of different process alternatives for Bio-SNG production based on biomass gasification. The influence of the different conversion steps in the process chain – drying, gasification, gas cleaning, methanation, and gas upgrade – on the overall process performance is investigated. Process bottlenecks as well as heat and material integration aspects are highlighted. Using future energy market scenarios, the energetic, economic, and carbon footprint performance of different...

N-Loss Enhanced by Removal of Crop Residues from Cotton, Maize and Tomato Fields for Biofuel Production

D. Bartzialis, S.V. Archontoulis, P. Tziamali & N.G. Danalatos
Crop residues normally comprise an important source of biomass. An important issue is whether and to what extent the use of crop residues is sustainable with respect to the nutrient removal from the field. Another important issue comprises the moisture content of the crop residues for further industrial processing. On the other hand, in central Greece there are some 400.000 ha (irrigated cropland) with important cash crops like cotton, maize, and industrial tomato that produce...

Combustion Behaviour of Oat and Triticale Straws in Comparison with Wheat Straw

I. Mediavilla, E. Borjabad, R. Ramos, M.J. Fernández & J.E. Carrasco
The main objective of this work is to show the behaviour during combustion of oat and triticale straw compared to wheat straw, related to emissions and differences in slagging and fouling of boiler components, working under similar conditions. Several combustion tests have been carried out in a 500 kWth moving grate boiler as preliminary tests before using these biomass straws in a 25 MWe power generation plant. Three combustion tests with a stationary period of...

A Multistep Mild Process for Preparation of Nanocellulose from Orange Bagasse

M. Mariño, R. Camila C. & L. Tasic
In this study, biomasses with low lignin contents, named industrial orange bagasse (IOB-Citrosuco, Matão, SP) and orange bagasse in natura (OBN), were investigated as starting materials for the production of nanocellulose under mild conditions. These last account for both acid hydrolysis (at 100 °C and pH 2.0) and alkaline hydrolysis (with NaOH 1.6-4.0%, m/v), performed at 120 ºC, followed by bleaching (with NaClO2 1-3% m/v) at 70 ºC. After chemical and mechanical treatments, it was...

LCA of Forest Chips Versus Diesel Boilers in the Mediterranean Region

B. Esteban, G. Baquero, R. Puig, J-R. Riba & A. Rius
Obtaining energy from forest chips is a technology widely used in many regions. There are currently many studies and applications on the use of forest biomass [1,2], mainly promoted by policies aimed to reduce greenhouse gases. The forests of the Mediterranean area are characterized by a mountain relief. This orography makes difficult the selective biomass extraction from the forest. Thus, the biomass is accumulated in the forest and becomes a serious danger for wildfires. Forest...

Comparison of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Sugar Beet Pulp: Digestion, Performance, Dewaterability, and Foam Control

S. Suhartini, S. Heaven & C.J. Banks
Thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of sugar beet pulp (SBP) were assessed in relation to the biogas and methane production, foaming potential, and dewaterability of the digestate. Experiments were carried out in 4­litre working volume digesters. Four digesters were operated mesophilically (37oC ± 0.5) and four thermophilically (55oC +/­0.5) over a period of three hydraulic retention times (HRT). Pairs of digesters were fed daily on SBP ­1 ­1 without dilution to give organic loading rates (OLR)...

Application of Retention Indices for Identifying Tar Compounds

S. Osipovs & A. Viksna
The articles focuses on a technique of identifying unknown compounds, i.e. use of a relative retention time. Our research concerns Kovats and Lee retention indices for the 54 tar components identified in the syngas. The calculated Kovats retention indices were compared with the literature data obtained in capillary columns with three different stationary phases. The Kovats retention indices obtained using polar stationary phases considerably differ from those obtained using non­polar ones. But in our research...

Effect of Temperature Modulation and Different Inoculation Strategies during the SSF of Pretreated Arundo Donax

I. De Bari, F. Liuzzi, A. Ambrico & M. Trupo
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has been considered the most convenient process strategy for the conversion of biomass sugars into bioethanol. During SSF, temperatures typically lower than 40°C favor both hydrolysis and fermentation. However, the latest enzymatic commercial mixtures with improved performances have optimal working temperatures in the range 45-50°C. In order to conjugate this temperature requirement with the optimal conditions for fermentation, temperature modulation during the process could offer the advantage of discontinuously accelerating...

Experimental Analysis of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Coupled with Biomass Gasification

R. Gadsbøll, J. Thomsen, C. Bang-Møller, C. Nygaard, A. Tomaszewski, J. Ahrenfeldt & U. Henriksen
Thermal gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies represent an interesting combination for power generation, as high fuel flexibility and high electric efficiencies are expected. The TwoStage gasifier is a high-efficient downdraft gasifier fueled by wood chips that produces a very clean product gas with virtually no tar. This study operated an 800 We SOFC stack with product gas from the TwoStage gasifier for a total of 145 hours. Only minimal gas conditioning was...

Integrated Utilisation Pathways for Biogenic Carbon Dioxide in Biomass Driven Industry Sectors

S. Kouri, M. Hurskainen, J. Kärki, E. Tsupari, E. Alakangas & C. Bajamundi
The climate change forces us to shift from fossil to renewable resources. Integrated utilisation of biogenic CO2 is a promising way to produce sustainable raw materials and fuels. CO2 capture and utilisation (CCU) enables sustainable routes for carbon-based products and guiding the development to utilising especially biogenic instead of fossil CO2 directs the investments towards sustainable targets in the long term. Integrated CCU options benefit from a local CO2 source – substantially reducing the CO2...

Ash Fusion Characteristics of the Blends of Reed and Wood Ashes

S. Link, Ü. Kask, T. Lausmaa, A. Paist, L. Kask & S. Arvelakis
The reed, waste wood, wood chips etc. are available for energy purposes in Estonia, while mainly utilized in fluidized bed boilers for heat production in district heating systems of smaller settlements. There is no correlation in the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends. A task of a boiler operator is to avoid the impact of unwanted properties of the blends on ash fusion. This work characterises the ash fusion of the blends of reed and...

Physical and Thermal Properties of Briquette Fuel from Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw Using Vinasse as a Binder

RÍOs, J.M.G., D.S. Rodrigues, A.R. Santana, C.A. Silva, K.B.B. Marana, G.C. Antonio & J.T.C.L. Toneli
The physical and thermal properties of briquettes composed by straw, bagasse and vinasse as residues from sugarcane industry were determined by varying the proportions according to central compose experimental design 2³ with three central points, considering temperature, moisture and the percentage of bagasse composition in the briquettes as independent variables. The characterization was performed according to the proximate and ultimate analysis in order to quantify the components in these residues. It was also determined the...

Socio-economic Effects of Biomass Supply Chain: Case Studies from Logist’EC Project

C. De La Rúa, Y. Lechón, F. Morandi, H. Østergård, J. Wohlfahrt, A. Perrin, B. Gabrielle, T. Bjørkvoll, T. Flatberg & S. Damman
The European policies have been designed over the last decade to face the challenge of climate change. Several measures have been put in place to accelerate the development and deployment of cost-effective low carbon technologies. The domestic nature and its potential availability in Europe make biomass a relevant resource to be considered. The Logistics for Energy Crops Biomass (LogistEC) project aims to develop new or improve technologies of biomass logistics chain. The sustainability of different...

Recycling and Energy Recovery from Incontinence Waste (Inkocycle): Anaerobic Treatment of Adults Diapers

S. Herbert, J. Heynemann, T. Luthardt-Behle, U. Theilen & H. Weigand
Due to the demographic change in Europe, the amount of incontinence waste is expected to increase drastically. In Germany, this waste stream is estimated as 200,000 metric tonnes per year. This study focused on the optimized energy recovery from incontinence waste using a combined approach of anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organics fraction followed by incineration of the digestate as refuse derived fuel (RDF). In a two years pilot test the AD resulted in 238...

Experimental and Mechanism Study on NO Reduction by Phenol as a Typical Tar Produced in Updraft Biomass Gasification

R.H. Yin, R.Z. Zhang, C.Y. Liu & Y.H. Luo
Gasification is one of the most promising ways for the utilization of the abundant biomass resource in China. However, corrosion and blockage caused by tar produced in the process seriously inhibit the development of the technology. Fortunately, tar has been found to have a positive effect on NO reduction in the previous work. Thus, a technical routine of gasification syngas reburning was chosen which can solve both tar and NO problems. In this work, a...

Solid Superacidic and Superbasic Catalysts for Enhanced Biodiesel Production throughSequential Esterification and Transesterification

C.L. Chiang, K.S. Lin, C.W. Shu, J.C.S. Wu, K.C.W. Wu & Y.T. Huang
Soybean oil containing free fatty acids (FFA, palmitic acid, 5.0 wt%) was converted to biodiesel by a two-step process in a catalytic fixed-bed batch reactor using three different catalysts. The solid superacidic SO42-/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared with 0.1-1.5 M H2SO4 and calcined at 300-700 .C. In addition, two solid superbasic catalysts, KF/CaO–Fe3O4 and Na/NaOH/Al2O3, were synthesized with 5-25 wt% KF loading and 10-25 wt% NaOH, respectively, then calcined at 200-700 .C. The efficiency of FFA...

Strategies for Optimization of the Domestic Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel Chain, the European Project Recoil

O. Paraíba, T.D. Tsoutsos, S. Tournaki, D. Antunes, J. Lino & E. Manning
The energy potential of household used cooking oil (UCO) is practically unlimited. Its disposal, in some cases illegally, increases the cost and the energy consumption of domestic wastewater treatment, as well as the GHG emissions associated with its biodegradation (non-CO2 emissions). In this, it should be added the heavy environmental pollution load. The European initiative RecOil (Promotion of used cooking oil recycling for sustainable biodiesel production), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the...

Evaluation of Planting Season of Giant Reed (Arundo Donax L.) to Save Irrigation Water in Semi-Arid Mediterranean Conditions

S.L. Cosentino, V. Copani & G. Testa
The influence of transplanting time of Arundo donax L. in relation to vegetative clone plant propagation systems was studied for two subsequent growing seasons (2008-2011) at the Experimental farm of Catania University (Italy). A factorial experiment was carried out combining three times of transplanting (November 5th 2008, March 17th 2009, April 30th 2009), two clone propagation methods (rhizome cuttings and stem cuttings) at two soil water availability (irrigation only at the transplanting dates and irrigation...

Characterization and Kinetic Study of Energy Crops and Biomass of Microalgae Indigenous in Southern Europe for Biogas

A.I. Parralejo, L. Royano, J. González & J.F. González
Sweet sorghum and triticale are considered energy crops with lower water requirements to growth and as good substrates to anaerobic co-digestion with microalgae biomass, together they make an optimal nutrient balance. Corn stover is a biomass residue in Southern Europe and it has excellent properties as co-substrate in anaerobic co-digestion. Two anaerobic co-digestion experiments in semi-continuous regime were investigated with four (experiment 1) and five (experiment 2) substrates for different Organic Load Rate (OLR). Previously,...

Experimental Study of Wood Char Gasification Kinetics in Fluidized Beds

R. Reschmeier & J. Karl
Steam gasification is an efficient way for energy recovery from solid biomass fuels. For designing new plants it is necessary to use kinetic data for the gasification of the char remaining back after pyrolysis, because the char gasification is usually slower than pyrolysis and thus the limiting step in designing gasifiers. The objective of this work is to determine “apparent” kinetic constants for wood char gasification in bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers. In order to obtain...

Suspensions of Flash Pyrolysed Biomass: Systematic Examination of Stirring

T. Nicoleit, A.C. Herzog, K. Raffelt, N. Dahmen & J. Sauer
The purpose of Karlsruhe’s bioliq®-project is the conversion of biomass into synthetic chemicals and fuels (also referred to as BtL, biomass to liquids). The lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate composed of pyrolysis condensates and solid char powder. Both products are mixed to a suspension (the so called bio-slurry or Syncrude) to be suitable for long storage periods and economic transport over long distances....

Lipid Production Capacity of Three Different Oleaginous Yeast Strains under Various Incubation Conditions

D. Steindl, K. Krennhuber, A. Jäger & H. Kahr
Three oleaginous yeast strains (R. glutinis, T. fermentans, Y. lipolytica) were compared to each other at various incubation conditions to determine the most promising strain and the associated growth conditions. Different pH values and molar carbon-to-nitrogen ratios in combination with varying glucose concentrations and the addition of nutrient salts were tested. Results show that Y. lipolytica is the most promising yeast among all tested strains. The highest lipid concentration was 6.99 g L-1 at a...

Transforming Polysaccharide Biomass into Thermoplastic Materials for Value-Added Applications

J.H. Wang & B. Shi
This paper describes the research on converting a low-cost polysaccharide biomass into thermoplastic materials intended for high-value, water-dispersible thin film applications. Thermoplastic starch made from native starch is water sensitive but not water dispersible. This research focused on the converting modified starches such as starch esters, pregelatinized Tapioca dextrin, and hydroxyalkylated starch into thermoplastic bioplastics. The rheology of TPMS was found to depend on the type of modified starch, the type of plasticizers, and the...

PM emissions from old and Modern Biomass Combustion Systems and their Health effects

J. Kelz, T. Brunner, I. Obernberger, P. Jalava & M.-R. Hirvonen
In this paper the results of a project focusing on the determination as well as chemical and toxicological characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant biomass based residential heating systems performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH are presented. Seven modern state-of-the-art as well as old technology boilers and stoves have been investigated within test stand measurement campaigns. Whole day operation cycles simulating real life operation conditions were therefore simulated. Gaseous as well as particulate...

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