3,775 Works

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Alternative and Renewable Second Generation Solid Biofuels - Development and Validation

M. Sajdak, B. Micek & J. Hrabak
New analytical laboratory tools for the qualitative analysis of alternative and renewable solid biofuels were developed. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new rapid method for quantitative and qualitative analyses of solid biofuels obtained from a thermal treatment process. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) was applied in combination with a multivariate modelling procedure. The C&RT (classification and regression trees) methods were applied to develop and validate the classifier, which allowed for...

An Insight to India's Biomass Production and Biowaste Management: Scope and Challenges

D. Shrivastava, P. Joshi, N.B. Sarin, D. Claps & N. Sharma
Being a developing nation and having an agriculture based economy, India has a promising biomass resource. There is a huge scope for establishing bio based economy in India due to the availability of wide varieties and large quantities of biomass. In the current Pan India survey, to assess the availability of different types of biomass, was carried out. A survey was also conducted on the projects and programs financed on the biomass production and conversion...

Biomass Pyrolysis in an Auger Reactor: Scaling up to a Mobile Plant

N. Puy, M.V. Navarro, R. Murillo, J.M. López, T. García, J. Rieradevall, J. Bartrolí & A.M. Mastral
Simulation processes have been carried out to assess the mass and energy balances of the pyrolysis process in an auger reactor pilot plant. Forest woodchips were fed into the reactor with 6.2% of moisture content. Previous experiments showed that the highest bio-oil yield (59%) was achieved at 773 K and applying solid residence times longer than 2 minutes. These conditions were modelled using Aspen HYSYS simulation software and results showed that the process was not...

Acid hydrolysed Pine Sawdust as an Activated Carbon Low-Cost Substitute for Chromium(VI) Adsorption

D.K. Sidiras & D. Politi
Batch kinetics of Chromium (VI) adsorption on sulfuric acid treated pine sawdust was simulated, using untreated pine sawdust as control, in order to explore the potential use of this low-cost adsorbent for wastewater Chromium (VI) removal. A Severity Factor X was introduced to incorporate the effect of the pre-treatment time and the acid hydrolysis catalyst concentration on the pine sawdust adsorption properties. X is an explanatory variable for identifying biomass adsorption parameters as affected by...

Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Emissions of Gases and Particles

J.B. Illerup, B.B. Hansen, W. Lin, J. Nickelsen & K. Dam-Johansen
A collaboration project between the CHEC research Centre, at DTU Chemical Engineering, and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has been established during the last years and has led to development and marketing of wood stoves (Autopilot IHS) equipped with a digital control system. The improved performance has been verified by field tests in private homes. The main components of an Autopilot IHS wood stove are: a modern wood stove with three separate combustion air...

Production of Ethyl Esters by a Two-Stage Transesterification

D. Karonis, G. Anastopoulos & D. Chilari
The depletion of fossil reserves which is accompanied by environmental degradation provokes the study of biodiesel production. At present, biodiesel has gained attention as an alternative fuel, due to its characteristics: high biodegrability, renewability, also, the reduced regulated and unregulated emissions from the biodiesel use are worthy highlighting. The wide technique produced is by means of transesterification. The already commercial biodiesel is dependent on methanol utilization, something which is remarkably controversial, taking into consideration the...

Supply Logistics Modelling for Large-Scale Biomass Users

T. Ranta, O.-J. Korpinen, E. Jäppinen & M. Virkkunen
Satellite terminals are part of the supply logistics for large­scale biomass use. Since they are far from the end user, the long­distance transportation required relies on railway operation besides road transport by road to terminals in Finland. The paper discusses planning of terminal locations, space needs, biomass supply and handling at the terminals, and other aspects of the organisation of operations. In an example case, satellite terminal operations were planned for the Kontiomäki terminal, in...

Double-Pass Harvesting System on Giant Reed in South Italy

A. Assirelli, V. Civitarese, G. Caracciolo, M. Sannino, M. Crimaldi & S. Faugno
The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of two step harvesting system for giant reed. The biomass was shredded and dried in the field, in second time was baled and storage. First step was cutting and shredding with a specific shredder for biomass crops rear mounted in agricultural tractor and in the second time the Arundo biomass was harvested after more day of drying in the field with continuous monitoring of the...

Domestic Biomass Based Heating in Germany, Determination of the Number of Single Fireplaces for Wood Fuels by an All-German Data Collection

T. Schröder, C. Viehmann, K. Bienert & H. Wazula
Due to the rising energy demand and related energy costs as well as environmental aspects thermal utilization of biomass, particularly of wood, becomes more relevant. Especially for the energy consumption in households, biomass burning is an established alternative to fossil fuel based technologies. In the course of growing environmental awareness, debates have been initiated about the particulate matter emission (PME) from small biomass combustion and their contribution to the ambient air quality. In spite of...

Adaptions of Harvesting Methods and Concepts in order to Reduce Weeds on Agricultural Fields and to Gain Potentially a So Far Unexploited Biomass Feedstock

C. Glasner, C. Andreasen, C. Vieregge, A. Dikiy, J. Fenselau, Z. Bitarafan & E. Shumilina
Within the international project Sweedhart different measures and concepts are investigated to reduce weeds on agricultural fields without using herbicides. During harvesting three main fractions are produced – grain, chaff with weed seeds and straw. Conventional combine harvesters return the chaff and weed seeds to the fields and the seeds become a problem in future growth seasons. In Sweedhart, the effect of removing chaff from the field and utilize it energetically and/or materially is investigated....

Terminal Cost Analysis for Forest Fuel Supply in Finland

M. Virkkunen & J. Raitila
As forest fuel demand increases, new logistical solutions are needed. Most of the increase in use is expected to take place in large heat and power (CHP) production units which set special requirements for the supply as both procurement volumes and transport distances increase. Biomass fuel terminals broaden the spectrum of available supply options by offering cost-effective large-scale biomass storage and processing options for securing the fuel supply in all conditions. This study aimed to...

Optimization of Sensor Technology for Efficient Fermentation of Biogenic Residues and Waste in Biogas Plants

S. Junne, M. Fenske, C. Hälsig, A. Hörig, E. Kielhorn, P. Neubauer, S. Päßler, D. Pfeiffer, A. Richter, M. Schelter, W. Vonau, P. Zimmermann & J. Zösel
Biogas is one of the few renewable resources that can provide energy in a stable manner. However, so far the understanding of the detailed processes at industrial scale is rare. This is predominantly due to a lack of appropriate sensors and process control instrumentation in most conventional biogas plants. Two exemplary projects funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in the program for “Promoting Projects to Optimize...

The Bioliq® Process for Synthetic Chemicals and Fuels Production

N. Dahmen, T. Kolb, M. Neuberger, J. Sauer, D. Stapf & B. Zimmerlin
Ten years ago, the bioliq project was launched to demonstrate the production of synthetic biofuels from residual biomass and to provide a research platform. The bioliq process aims at the conversion of low grade residual biomass into synthetic fuels and chemicals. Central element of the bioliq project is the 2-5 MW pilot plant along the complete process chain: fast pyrolysis for pre-treatment of biomass to obtain an energy dense, liquid intermediate fuel, high pressure entrained...

Reduction of NOx and PM1 Emissions from Automated Boilers by Advanced Air Staging

T. Hesch, F. Biedermann, T. Brunner & I. Obernberger
This paper presents the possible reduction potential of NOx and PM1 emissions by applying advanced air staging. Test runs with chipboard have been carried out with a 150kW pilot-scale furnace with moving grate technology. The influence of the air ratio in the primary combustion chamber, the temperature in the primary combustion chamber, the residence time in the primary combustion chamber, the type of the flue gas recirculation and the boiler load on NOx and PM1...

Fate of Minerals in the Fast Pyrolysis Process

E.J. Leijenhorst, L. Van De Beld, E. Meers & W. Prins
The distribution of minerals between the products of biomass fast pyrolysis is important with respect to the sustainability of the chain as well as for downstream applications. In case biomass residues from agricultural origin are for example used for renewable energy production, it is important the nutritional value of the minerals can be recovered and recycled to the original environment. For most pyrolysis oil applications it is disadvantageous if high mineral concentrations are present in...

Studies on Production of High Quality Pulp from Veneer Waste of Populous Species

D. Dutt
Fiber length, diameter, cell wall thickness and lumen diameter of mixed veneer waste of populous species are 0.95 mm, 24.7 µm, 4.7 µm and 7.2 µm respectively. Lignin contents in out surface and inner core are 20.5 and 22.4% with holocellulose contents of 71.1 and 69.8% respectively. Bulk densities of veneer waste populous species at different grith classes i.e. 21¬30, 31¬45 and 46¬75 cm are 189, 193 and 218 kg/m3. Veneer waste obtained at different...

Sewage Sludge and Pinewood Sawdust Co-Pyrolysis in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor

J. Alvarez, M. Amutio, G. Lopez, M. Artetxe, A. Erkiaga, I. Barbarias, A. Arregi & M. Olazar
Co-pyrolysis of both feedstock (a mixture of 50 wt. % of sewage sludge and 50 wt. % of pinewood sawdust) has been carried out at 500 ºC in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor (CSBR), which has been proven to be suitable for the individual valorisation of each material, attaining high bio-oil yields (48 wt. % for sewage sludge and 75 wt. % for pinewood). Significant synergetic effects have been observed in both the previous thermogravimetric...

Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics and Functional Analysis of JCCBF Gene from Jatropha Curcas L.

S.S. Wang, H.B. Wang, F.F. Deng, Z.R. Zou & M. Gong
The C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREBs) are a group of conserved transcription factors, with fundamental roles in response and adaptation to cold stress in plants, especially chilling-tolerant and herbal species. However, the information on CBFs in chilling-sensitive woody plants is relatively limited. Previously, we performed the global transcriptome sequencing of chilling-treated Jatropha curcas L., an important chilling-sensitive bioenergy woody crop. A novel CBF-like gene, designated JcCBF, was isolated, which contains AP2/EREBPmotifknown to exist...

Dehydration Process of Windrowed MRC Poplar Stems

V. Civitarese, L. Pari, A. Acampora, A. Suardi, M. Barontini, F. Gallucci, A. Scarfone, A. Del Giudice & E. Santangelo
The two phases harvesting methodology allows to manage and schedule the chipping operations as in function of moisture content of the stored biomass. In this study we evaluated the loss of moisture of medium rotation forestry plantations, considering four different times of cut. The results obtained have shown the possibility to reach, during the first days of June, humidity levels between 36 and 45% by felling down the plants between December and mid March.

Determination of Gasification Rate for Supercritical Water Gasification of Shochu (Japanese Distilled Liquor) Residue

Y. Akeyama, S. Inoue, Y. Matsumura, T. Inoue, Y. Kawai, H. Kubota & T. Noguchi
Supercritical water gasification is gasification of biomass in hot compressed water whose temperature and pressure are above critical values of water and shochu (Japanese distilled liquor) residue is expected to be promising feedstock for this technology. However, its gasification characteristics in supercritical water has not been determined yet. In this study, shochu residue was gasified in supercritical water using a laboratory scale continuous reactor, and reaction rate equation was derived in the form of Arrhenius...

Combining Harvest Date and Cutting Height to Optimize the Sustainability of Miscanthus Production for Energy in the Mediterranean Region

A.L. Fernando
Miscanthus is a perennial energy grass and achieves high productivity under high summer temperatures, in the Mediterranean. Considering its sustainable production, the aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest date and cutting height on the yields and biomass quality of Miscanthus for energy purposes. In this context, Miscanthus biomass from field studies in Portugal were sampled at three different harvest dates: September, November and January. For each harvest date, stems were...

Increasing Energy Efficiency of an Agro-Industrial Integrated Process through Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Slaughterhouse Waste Water and Farm Manure

A.R. Wächter, I. Ionel, T.V. Vintila & D. Vaida
This work is a case study of an agro-industrial company from Arad County, Romania. This company applies an integrated farming and processing approached by (near) closed loop cycle of bio-resources: (1) agricultural farming, (2) animal breeding (cattle and pigs), (3) food production (meat and milk products), (4) marketing finished agro (bio) products. The single link missing to close this cycle is conversion of organic wastes into energy and fertilizer. We propose application of anaerobic digestion...

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Formation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons (BTX/PAH) as Soot Precursors from Biomass Pyrolysis Products

R. Mehrabian, A. Shiehnejadhesar, H. Bahramian, A. Anca-Couce, P. Sommersacher, C. Hochenauer & R. Scharler
In this work a novel reaction mechanism for gas phase reactions has been developed to predict the formation of aromatic compounds from the pyrolysis products of woody biomass particles. The aromatic compounds are important for being main soot precursors as well as their toxic properties. The developed gas phase mechanism is validated with experimental data from literature as well as experimental data performed with a single particle reactor for three different pyrolysis temperatures, namely 550,...

An Investigation into the Ash Deposition Behaviour of Pulverised Olive Residue and Palm Kernel Expeller Combusted in a Drop Tube Furnace

T. Bennet, H. Liu & C. Eastwick
There is increasing interest in the use of low cost biomass fuels for combustion, and in the differences in the effects that the fuels have in terms of ash deposition, leading to slagging and fouling and corrosion. The objective of the present study is to examine ash deposition of pulverised olive residue and palm kernel expeller onto stainless steel grade 316, when combusted in a laboratory drop tube furnace. Relation of these results to those...

Maize and Sunflower Productivity as Affected by Crop Rotation with Pisum Sativum in Central Greece

E. Skoufogianni & N.G. Danalatos
Rotation with winter cover crops is a fundamental practice for sustainable agricultural systems. Cover crops can have significant positive effects on soil health and are an important tool for soil organic matter management. In this research a double cropping system is based on a winter (field pea-Pisum sativum L.) and two bio-energy summer crops (Helianthus annuus L. and Zea mays L.) harvested in the same year, for bio-energy production. Two field experiments were carried out...

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