3,775 Works

Potential Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Using Biomass Combustion Ash

C. Asquer, G. Cappai, G. De Gioannis, A. Muntoni, A. Nieddu & M. Piredda
Biomass combustion generates solid residues (ash) and greenhouse gaseous emissions. Based on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics, biomass fly ash is an alkaline waste material that could potentially be employed as a substrate for mineral carbonation. In this paper, mineralogical sequestration of carbon dioxide by means of biomass fly ash carbonation was investigated by conducting experimental accelerated carbonation tests. Fly ash resulted to be a promising substrate for carbon dioxide sequestration, and the sequestration potential...

The Bio2energy Project: Bioenergy, Biofuels and Bioproducts from Municipal Solid Waste and Sludge

I. Pecorini, D. Bacchi, E. Albini, F. Baldi, G. Galoppi, P. Rossi, P. Paoli, L. Ferrari, E.A. Carnevale, M. Peruzzini, L. Lombardi & G. Ferrara
This paper presentsobjectives, actions and preliminary results of the Bio2Energy project. The project aims atimprovingthe efficiency of public utility facilities such as wastewater treatment plants. The increase of renewable energy obtained through the production of biohydrogen and biomethane from the co-digestion of food waste and wastewater sludge and the use of digestate as agricultural fertilizer are the main objectives that position the project within the circular economy concept. Preliminary results of hydrogen and methane generations...

Identification of Energy Hubs for the Exploitation of Residual Biomass in an Area of Western Sicily

S. Orlando, C. Greco, T. Tuttolomondo, C. Leto, I. Cammalleri & S. La Bella
Recent years have witnessed a marked reduction in financial incentives for renewable energy production in Italy as a consequence of the fact that the nation has already reached its energy policy targets for 2020, However, incentives still persist in certain sectors, such as those of specialized crops for biomass and residual biomass. In order to increase use-efficiency of biomass resources, careful study is needed of their characteristics, and their distribution within an area and over...

Kinetic Study of Supercritical Water Gasification in the Mixture of Glucose, Xylose, and Guaiacol

Y. Matsumura & N. Paksung
This study aims to elucidate the interaction of three model compounds of lignocellulosic biomass; glucose, xylose, and guaiacol; under sub- and supercritical conditions and to determine the kinetics of the reactions involved. The experiment was carried out in a tubular reactor in a range of temperatures of 350 to 450 °C, a pressure of 25 MPa, and varying residence times up to 40 s. A feedstock is a mixture of glucose, xylose, and guaiacol at...

Contributing to a Jatropha-Based Biorefinery: Seed Cake Valorisation for BioH2

R. Fragoso, S. Lewis Lopes, E. Duarte & P.A.S.S. Marques
Jatropha curcas L. seed cake (JSC), a solid residue remaining from seeds oil extraction, was used as substrate to fermentative hydrogen production by a strain of the bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Initially, runs were performed using the substrate (2.5gVSiJSC/LFermentation Medium) without pretreatment or submitted to autoclave conditions for 15 and 30min. The best bioH2 production yields (68.2mLH2/gVSiJSC and 169mLH2/LFM) were attained without pretreatment. In order to understand this behavior and aiming an improvement, by increasing the...

Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis in an Indirectly Heated Rotary Kiln: Primary Measures for Tar Reduction

L. Mendoza Geney, A. Gómez & S.L. Rincón Prat
An experimental study to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the reduction of tar generated during sewage sludge pyrolysis in a rotary kiln is presented. An indirectly heated rotary kiln at laboratory scale was used (4 kg/h). The influence of final temperature and residence time of the volatile phase in the rotary kiln on tar production were investigated. Product and energy distributions, as well as the composition of the generated tars were determined....

A Preliminary Analysis on the Potential Bioenergy Production from Agro-Forestry Crops and Residues in Angola

F. Cativa & A.L. Fernando
Angola’s biomass resources are substantial but the combustion of woodfuels using inefficient technologies and appliances can be deleterious to health and may result in wastage of wood resources. In this context, this work aimed to build an integrated system for monitoring vegetation condition of agro-forestry crops and residues. The characteristics of the different agroforest residues are accounted in the study and for the exploitation of this biomass, it was considered its use for heat production....

High Quality Fuel by Steam Explosion

T. Joronen, P. Björklung & M. Bolhàr-Nordenkampf
Sustainable biomass combustion provides ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Utilization of biomass can also reduce dependence of imported (fossil) fuel and provides local welfare. Standard white woody pellets are an alternative, but produce dust that increases fire hazard and risk for dust explosion. White wood pellets are also hydrophilic and adsorb/absorb easily water. Advanced biofuels can substitute fossil fuels in a financially feasible way. The steam explosion process, known from mechanical wood pulping, produces...

Effect of Feedstock Heating Rate on Supercritical Water Gasification of Glucose and Guaiacol Mixture

Y. Matsumura, S. Inoue, O. Farobi, P. Changsuwan, T. Inoue, Y. Kawai, T. Noguchi & H. Tanigawa
Supercritical water gasification is gasification of biomass in hot compressed water whose temperature and pressure are above critical values of water. Effect of heating rate is known to affect the gasification efficiency, which is not usual for conventional gasification. In this study, heating rate was changed by changing the length of preheater and mixture of glucose and guaiacol was gasified in supercritial water. Glucose is known to produce char by ionic reaction, and guaiacol is...

Vacuum Technology for Woodchips Drying

V. Marek
Production and processing of biomass operates with materialswithmany structures and qualities. Basic identification of mechanical properties is defined by structure and humidity. This article focuses on wooden biomass, especially on woodchips. Properties of wooden chips depend on thekind of wood, shape of the chips and humidity. All technological applications of woodchips deal with the humidity of the input material. Pelleting, briquetting and also combustion of wooden chips solves problems of high humidity of the input...

From Green Forest to Green Commodity Chemicals - Experiences from Cross-Sector Collaboration and Consequences for Implementation

J.M. Joelsson, M. Warneryd, Y. Alwarsdotter, J. Brücher & L. Heuts
The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding for the challenges and opportunities inherent to the cross-sectoral development of the bioeconomy. It takes the project “Forest Chemistry” as a case study, which was a collaboration project between Swedish forest industry and petrochemical industry clusters with the goal to develop forest based value chains for production of commodity chemicals. The project considered forest-based production of methanol, ethylene, propylene and butanol. We discuss the project...

Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Gasification Process: the Results of the EU UNIfHY Project

D. Barisano, E. Bocci, P.U. Foscolo, S. Heidenreich, M. Rep, C. Courson, L. Sentis, A. Di Carlo, S. Rapagna & G. Braccio
This paper quotes an overview of the UNIfHY project results regarding pure hydrogen production from biomass gasification. Tests with different gasification agents (steam/air/oxygen) and at different temperatures showed syngas yield from 1.1 to 1.7 Nm3dry/kg of dry biomass, hydrogen content from 20 to 40%-v dry, tars, particulate in the range of 10-20 g/Nm3dry, sulphur and chlorine compounds in the range of 50-90 ppmv, ammonia up to 1600 ppmv. Candle filters showed particulate removal efficiency higher...

Municipal Waste Heating Value Modelling Using Computational and Mathematical Techniques

R. Drudi, G.C. Antonio, J.T.C.L. Toneli, G. Martins & K.C.R. Drudi
Waste-to-Energy (WtE) processes are widely used to convert solid waste into energy.A WtE plant can contribute to diversify the energy mix and increment the energy supply security of a country. Predict the amount of energy – the heating value - that can be obtained from the waste used as fuel is necessary for the proper operation of a WtE plant. Work with MSW, both in the landfill as in the laboratory, is an unhealthy activity,...

Experimental and Numerical Calculations of Two Stage Combustion Process of Syngas Fuels with High Content of Ammonia

P. Czyzewski, R. Slefarski, J. Jojka & R. Jankowski
Current energy policy led by European Commission places special emphasis on reducing greenhouse and toxic gases emission from the energy sector. Gasification of biomass technology seems to be able to meet these targets. Essential problem facing introduction of this technology to industry is contamination of the synthetic gases produced during gasification such as biomass tar and ammonia. Modified setup of HiTAC technology, called Two Stage Combustion showed the ability to reduce these contaminants. The paper...

Fast Pyrolysis of Pine Wood at Pre-Industrial Scale: Yields and Products Chemical-Physical Characterisation

A. Pistis, C. Tugulu, F. Floris, C. Asquer & E.A. Scano
Pyrolysis is one of the technologies proposed to convert biomass into valuable products, which have applications in the energy, environmental and industrial sectors. Process conditions targeted at the production of gaseous, liquid or carbonaceous outputs could be applied. However, at present the attention is mainly pointed at the liquid and solid products that are peculiar to the pyrolysis process. Nonetheless, nowadays industrial-scale pyrolysis plants are still few, so that experiences at pre-industrial scale are needed...

Sapropel and Lime as Binders for Development of Composite Materials

V. Obuka, M. Sinka, V. Nikolajeva, S. Kostjukova, L. Lazdina & M. Klavins
The aim of this paper is to study possibilities to obtain composite materials using organic rich lake sediments (further – sapropel) and lime as binders and hemp shives, wood fibre, and wood sanding dust as fillers. The mechanical and thermal properties of the obtained composite materials are investigated and compared to similar composites, such as lime-hemp concrete (LHC) and magnesium oxychloride hemp composite (MHC). Because of the high amount of organic content these materials are...

Understanding Effect of Sugar Composition on Growth Kinetics: Fermentation of Glucose and Xylose by Clostridium Acetobutylicum ATCC 824

C. Birgen, S. Markussen, H.A. Preisig, B. Wittgens, A. Wentzel, U. Sarkar, S. Saha & S. Baksi
Low yield is one of the major challenges for fermentation of biomass-derived sugars, which is a mixture of C5 and C6 sugars; because current methodologies mainly focus on fermentation of C6 sugars while discarding rest of the feedstock. Therefore, our objective is twofold: i) understanding how C5 and C6 sugars are utilized and the interactions between them, and ii) investigating the effect of different sugar compositions on growth kinetics. We chose xylose as a representative...

Monitoring of Fugitive Methane Emissions from Biogas Plants

T. Reinelt & J. Liebetrau
Biogas plants produce methane to supply carbon-neutral energy using agricultural residues, biowaste and/or energy crops. However, the storage, transport and combustion of methane within these gas-producing plants cannot be considered as an emission-free process. The emission monitoring of biogas plants is a complex challenge due to several possible single sources, which either are locally unknown and/or have a time-variant emission characteristic. In general, there are two measurement approaches. The on-site approach investigates the single emission...

Microalgal Species Prospecting from Different Ecological Habitats in Algeria

L. Hamel, D. Khelifi & D. Grzebyk
There are hundreds of thousands to millions of microalgal species, most of which have not been isolated or characterized. Organisms isolated from extreme environments (extremophiles) often possess unique physiological responses that enable their survival in stressful conditions such as extreme light, temperatures or pH, nutrient limitation or high salinity. Algeria hosts the largest desert in the world, with a surface of 450000 km2 and is submitted to a large range of climatic environments from Saharan...

Conceptual Description of an Integrated Biomass Logistics Centre (IBLC)

B. Annevelink, B. Van Gogh, F.S. Nogués, S. Espatolero, T. De La Cruz, D. Luzzini, M. Karampinis, M. Kougioumtzis & J. Olsson
The main goal of the AGROinLOG project is the demonstration of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLCs) for food and non-food products, evaluating their technical, environmental and economic feasibility. Applying IBLCs in existing agro-industries can have a positive impact on the final product price, giving a clear competitive strength to these agro-industries in comparison with a new biomass supply business that is built from scratch. The main challenges are being able to integrate logistics, harvesting and...

Depolymerization of Lignin: Product Characterization and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Potential

J.L. Sánchez, J. Salafranca, S. Moles, J.F. Palomo, MartÍNez, C., N. Gil-Lalaguna, C. Dueso & A. Gonzalo
Soda black liquor produced from semichemical pulping of barley straw has been depolymerized at different temperatures (250 to 325 ºC), time (1 to 3 h) and initial solids content (7 to 14 %) and the liquid product has been added to biodiesel in order to test its antioxidant potential. The depolymerization products have been analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Regarding the molecular weight distribution, temperature...

Influence of Outdoor Storage of Shrub Biomass on Emissions and Slagging During its Combustion

E. Borjabad, I. Mediavilla, A. Pascual, GarcÍA, S., M.J. Fernández, J.E. Carrasco, L.S. Esteban & R. Ramos
LIFE+ ENERBIOSCRUB project aims to reduce the risk of forest fires by obtaining sustainable solid biofuels from shrublands of high flammability risk. In the context of the project, the objective of this work is to study the influence of outdoor storage of biomass of broom (Genista cinerascens) and rockrose (Cistus laurifolius) on the behaviour of these biofuels during combustion. Both kinds of biomass were pelletized just-harvested and after one-year outdoor storage. Combustion tests were carried...

Biomass Residues as Electricity Generation Source in Low HDI Regions of Brazil

S. Teixeira Coelho & A. Sanches-Pereira
Currently, there are 1.3 billion people with no access to electricity worldwide. Almost 1 million of those are in the Brazilian Amazon region. Yet, electricity access to allow basic needs is not enough to ensure a sustainable development. Hence, it is important to understand linkages among poverty alleviation, energy access, and carbon footprint of future energy consumption patterns. The paper focuses on municipalities with the lowest HDI so as to increase energy access for households...

Prediction of Lower Heating Value of Wastes of Santo Andre Using Multivariate Regression

K.C.R. Drudi, R. Drudi, G. Martins, G.C. Antonio & J.T.C.L. Toneli
The growth of the world population triggers the increase of production of solid waste. In Brazil, the situation is even more serious, because, besides the fact that the Brazilian population produces a high quantity of waste, the final destination for them is inappropriate. In this context, energy recovery by thermochemical processes can be a good option, reducing the waste volume for final disposal and recovering useful energy. The adequate design and operation of a waste...

The Challenge of Lignin as a Chemical Resource

J. Schuler, U. Hornung & J. Sauer
Bio based platform chemicals can be provided through lignin, especially aromatic compounds. Lignin is a 3D- macromolecule which contains phenolic structures and a variety of functional groups. The ecological point of view of the exchange of crude oil production strains with biomass like lignin should be held high. Nevertheless, on the one hand lignin is a natural molecule which is built to resists environmental influences, so the use as a starting material held a lot...

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