3,775 Works

Biomass for Farming Use from Orchard Pruning and Src in Sicily

D. Coaloa & G. Facciotto
In Italy the consumption of woody biomass for energy has reached very high levels and far exceeds the domestic production of both forests and dedicated tree crops. Fuelwood imports exceed 25% of total consumption. A large domestic resource, not yet exploited, is represented by the residues and waste of agricultural productions and forestry utilizations. The energy policies encourage especially the production of energy from waste and residues of agricultural crops and forestry utilisations. In this...

Producing Advanced Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oils by Ex-Situ Catalytic Vapour Reforming

S. Conrad, T. Schulzke & V. Heil
The BioMates technology aims to convert residues and 2nd generation biomass like straw and miscan-thus into high-quality bio-based intermediates (the “BioMates”), of compatible properties with conventional refinery conversion units, allowing their direct and risk-free integration to any refinery towards the production of hybrid fuels. The quality of primary liquid product from ablative fast pyrolysis need further upgrading by mild hydrotreatment due to high oxygen content in organic compounds. To reduce the necessary hydrogen amount for...

Prediction and Control of Biofuels Quality Using a Mathematical Modelling of Densification Process

P. Križan, M. Matúš, M. Svátek, L. Šooš & J. Beniak
The densification of biomass is a mass and energy treatment process for raw materials that possess low bulk densities. During the biomass densification can be recognized various technological variables and also material parameters which significantly influences the final solid biofuels quality. The quality of biofuels is determined by the end-user’s requirements on the heating system and the handling properties. In general, the biofuels quality depends on the properties of the raw material (feedstock) – in...

Explosive Decompression Pretreatment - Nitrogen or Flue Gas?

M. Raud, V. Rooni & T. Kikas
Pretreatment is the most expensive and energy-consuming step in the overall second generation bioethanol production process and therefore, it is vital to study and optimize it to gain maximum glucose and ethanol yields. The aim of this paper was to investigate chemical and physical changes in biomass during the explosive decompression pretreatment method with two different gases – N2 and synthetic flue gas, which is a mixture of N2 and CO2. Both used methods are...

Assessment of Organic Micropollutants (PCDD/FS and PCBS) from Biomass Combustion in a Small CHP Facility

F. Gallucci, L. Pari, L. Longo, M. Carnevale, E. Santangelo, A. Colantoni, V. Paolini, E. Guerriero & A. Tonolo
Biomass combustion is a process widely used for heat and power generation through use of different types of plants provided with systems for flue gas cleaning in order to ensure a low environmental impact. Emissions from biomass combustion concern different types of compounds, from CO2, CO, SOX, NOX, particulate matter (PM) to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Obviously, emissions are linked to the biomass characteristics and to the operating parameters of combustion facility. The aim of...

Study on Bed Agglomeration, Fouling and Slagging Remedies in Biomass Fired BFB Combustors Based on Laboratory Tests and Long Term Operational Experiences

J. Zuwała, J. Lasek & K. Głód
Generation of near CO2 free energy (electricity and heat) in existing large scale co-generation units can be achieved by partial substitution of fossil fuels with biomass commonly regarded as CO2-neutral fuel. Fluidized bed boilers are often the technology of choice to combust biomass fuels while bubbling fluidized bed boilers (BFB) are most advantageous for large-scale applications, including utility boilers. During the recent years public subsidies supporting renewable fuels increased the opportunities and thus the demand...

Technical-Economic Evaluation of a Small Liquefaction Plant for Bio-LNG Production

G. Pasini, A. Baccioli, E. Palmerini, E. Motolese, M. Antonelli & S. Frigo
Lately, an increased attention has been dedicated to the study and development of suitable processes for small-scale bio liquefied natural gas (bio-LNG) production plants (from 5 to 500 tons of LNG per day) to improve the profitability of small gas fields and biogas plants with anaerobic digestion processes and landfills. In this paper, a technical-economic evaluation of a small bio-LNG production plant (10t/day of raw biogas processed) has been conducted. The basic plant configuration consists...

Continuous Vacuum Technology for Drying Woodchips

V. Marek
This article is focused on processing of wooden biomass, especially woodchips. Production and processing of wooden biomass involve working with material of many different structures and qualities. Basic mechanical properties are defined by structure and humidity. Technological application of woodchips deals with the humidity of the input material. Pelleting, briquetting and also combustion of woodchips solve the high humidity of the input material. Drying in a vacuum is an effective way of processing wood. Conventional...

1D Model for Investigation of Energy Consumption and Wear in Die Designs Used for Biomass Pelleting

S.K. Nielsen, M. Mandø & A.B. Rosenørn
This paper presents a model for simulating the physical processes occurring in wood pellet die. A 1D model of a press channel has been set up, which is capable of simulating the e.ect of di.erent press channel designs. The energy consumed in the press channel is divided into two contributions; compression and friction, from where the total energy consumption is evaluated together with the .nal density of the pellet. The model is validated by experimental...

Yield Reduction from Weed Competition in a Mature Crop of Giant Reed

J. Cano-Ruiz, M.D. Curt, P.L. Aguado & P.V. Mauri
There is little knowledge on the effect of weeds on recently developed crops, such as the giant reed (Arundo donax L.) crop. Literature data show that weeds are detrimental in the first and the second growing cycle of this crop but it is not known if this effect extends to the following years. The present work is a follow-up study of a published research on the effect of three weeding treatments on giant reed. Results...

Waste-to-Fuel Technology in Albania - Development System to Support an Active Drilling Industry

B.B. Hoxha, D. Dervishi, K. Sweeney & E. Bahja
Albania has historically been known to have an active but challenging drilling activity that demands the most innovative technology to develop, predominantly, medium-heavy oil reservoirs. Although recent efforts have been made by the government to stimulate and expand the largest onshore European oilfield, technical and economical obstacles are prevalent. These obstacles make it difficult to fully develop reliable and profitable hydrocarbon bearing zones in a downturn economy, especially since Albanian oil can be costly to...

Assessment of Syngas Produced from Gasification of Olive Tree Pruning in a Downdraft Reactor

F. Gallucci, L. Longo, E. Santangelo, E. Guerriero, V. Paolini, M. Carnevale, A. Colantoni & A. Tonolo
Gasification of biomass is a widely used technique for renewable energy production from agricultural residues that allows both to reduce the environmental impacts of agroforestry sector and to obtain products such as syngas and biochar. The aim of this work is to assess the energy characteristics of syngas obtained from gasification, with air, of olive tree prunings through a downdraft fixed bed reactor. Results showed that the composition of syngas is strongly influenced by the...

Kosovo Case Study: Lignite Coal - Energy of the Past, Coalbed Methane Extraction - Energy of the Future

B.B. Hoxha, K. Sweeney, H. Kurti, D. Dulaj & A. Papa
Kosovo’s largest energy asset, lignite coal, is also its primary detrimental reason to health and environmental issues. Ever since the Dardanian country declared independence in 2008, and even prior, Kosovo has experienced serious problems relating to air quality, municipal waste management, and water pollution. Lignite coal, is the dirtiest, and least efficient, out of all in the coal category. Subsequently, the ‘unconventional resource’ needs revitalization with new mining techniques, such as coalbed methane extraction (CBM)...

The Importance of Quantifying Soil Carbon Storage at the Outset of Perennial Energy Crops: a Case Study

E. Ceotto
A proper quantification of the soil carbon storage for perennial energy crop is often awkward. On the one hand, many years are required to observe substantial SOC accrual. On the other hand, in several cases multi-year experiments did not account for measurements of SOC collected at the outset. This usually leads the authors to compare the current SOC of a given perennial bioenergy crop, after several years from planting, with a nearby arable soil. A...

Giant Reed and Milk Thistle Sugar Yield after Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Comparison with Standard Wheat Straw

S. Cianchetta, E. Ceotto & S. Galletti
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of an alkaline pre-treatment on the saccharification yield of two emerging lignocellulosic species of the Mediterranean area, giant reed and milk thistle compared to standard wheat straw, after hydrolysis with a complete enzyme blend. The pre-treatment (NaOH 6 and 12% w/w dry biomass, 120 °C, 20 min) increased sugar yields by 2-4 folds compared to control (NaOH 0%), depending on the NaOH dose and on the species. With...

Development of Chromogenic True-to-Nature Biomass Substrates for Bioconversion Process Optimization

S.K. Kračun
High-quality analysis of pretreatment outcome, cost-effective enzymatic hydrolysis and discovery of new efficient enzymes are needed in order to obtain commercially viable production methods for 2G bioethanol. GlycoSpot has already demonstrated that multi-colored chromogenic polysaccharide and protein substrates can be used in cheap, convenient and high-throughput multiplexed assays. In addition, we have produced substrates out of biomass materials in which the complexity of plant cell walls is partially maintained. These substrates can be used to...

Gasification and Wine Industry: Report on the Use Vine Pruning as Fuel in Small-scale Gasifiers

G. Allesina, S. Pedrazzi, M. Puglia, N. Morselli, F. Allegretti & P. Tartarini
Ten different types of vine prunings were tested in a small-scale commercial gasifier produced by the All Power Labs. The specific consumption of the wood biomass power plant was measured for each type of biomass showing results from 0.92 to 1.32 kg/kWh. Syngas analyses and HHV calculation showed results higher than the reference calculated value from the gasification of typical wood biomass. On the other hand, the feeding operations resulted more complicated, here vine prunings...

Biochar Application on the Energy Grass Giant Reed: Yield and Nitrogen Uptake

E. Ceotto, F. Ginaldi, G.A. Cappelli & S. Cianchetta
Despite biochar has been widely investigated in recent years, there have been no studies done on biochar application on the energy grass giant reed. To tackle this research question, a field experiment was undertaken in 2016, and it is still on going, in the low Po Valley, Northern Italy. Treatments were: i) unfertilized control (Control); ii) mulching biochar 40 Mg ha-1, (Biochar1); iii) mulching biochar 80 Mg ha-1, (Biochar2); iv) 250 kg N ha-1 as...

Summer Harvests Greatly Increase the Nitrogen Uptake of the Energy Grass Giant Reed

E. Ceotto, S. Cianchetta & S. Galletti
Little is known about the nitrogen (N) dynamic and the N uptake of giant reed managed with double harvest strategy. To investigate this issue, a field experiment was undertaken in 2015, and it is still on going, in the low Po Valley, Northern Italy. Treatments were: i) H1: double harvest, first time at the end of June + second time at the end of September; ii) H2: double harvest, first time at the end of...

Biomass Supply Chains Development in Rural Areas: How to Take Public Stakeholders' Needs and Expectations into Account?

L. Godard, M. Delesalle & H.W. Zub-Preudhomme
The “Demonstrating Sites Network” project aims to contribute to developing biomass supply chains in rural areas of Northern France and to promoting their territorial integration. To do so, project partners are building a consulting procedure which will allow them to guide industrialists willing to develop a local bioeconomy project and who are looking for biomass supply. To collect the elements needed to build the procedure, three case studies have been followed. From these case studies,...

Chemically Enhanced Char for Syngas Filtering Purposes

S. Pedrazzi, G. Allesina, L. Sebastianelli, M. Puglia, N. Morselli & P. Tartarini
This paper investigates the performance of gasification char as syngas filter medium. Char obtained from a small-scale downdraft gasifier was analyzed and chemically enhanced through an acid treatment using a sulfuric acid solution in a thermostatic bath at 40 °C. The treated char presents a higher BET value of 465.9557 m2/g in comparison with the untreated sample which has a BET value of 394.4430 m2/g. However, the treated sample has a low metallic cations content...

Experimental and Numerical Approach to Improve the Performance of a Small CHP Wood Gasification Plant

S. Frigo, R. Gabbrielli, M.G. Gallo, F. Sansone & M. Seggiani
Currently, biomass gasification for small scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants (< 500 kWe) is attracting increasing interest as a way to provide remote and/or rural districts with electrical-thermal power, also creating a sustainable economy on the territory. In this context, downdraft gasification technology, coupled with reciprocating internal combustion engine (RICE), is characterized by higher conversion efficiencies in comparison with other technologies. However, the exploitation of a syngas from biomass gasification into a RICE...

Improvement of Forest Chip Quality and Supply Chain Performance by Means of a Continuous Quality Measurement System

T. Ranta, O-J. Korpinen & M. Aalto
The quality of forest chips is mainly determined according to the energy content (moisture content), the impurities (ash content) and the particle size distribution. This paper examines the benefits that the continuous quality measurement of forest chips provides for power plant function and the management of supply chain operations. Continuous quality measurement is based on x-ray scanning of the moving forest fuel stream, measuring moisture content and impurities such as stones and other foreign matter....

Possibilities of Producing Energy from Horse Manure by Burning

R. Tanskanen, H. Soininen & J.-P. Lemponen
The project studied the potential of horse manure for energy production in the South Savo region (Finland). In the study, two different types of horse manure pellets were produced from wood and peat based horse manure litter batches. The horse manure pellets were then mixed with traditional wood pellets in mixtures of 5 and 10 per cent. The combustion of the pellet mixtures were made using small 20 kWh pellet boiler (Ariterm Biomatic +20). In...

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