441 Works

Pelleting Cork Powder and Grape Pomace Residues: Experiences and Results

J.I. Arranz Barriga, M.T. García-Cuevas, S. Román Suero, I. Montero Puertas, M. López León, S. Rojas Rodríguez & C.V. Rojas Moreno
In the regions of Extremadura (Spain) and Alentejo (Portugal) are located numerous cork industries which due to their activity produce large amounts of residues from the cork oak bark (Quercus suber). These by­products are usually disposed in garbage dumps without further use. Cork powder is one this type of wastes, which presents interesting thermal properties due to its high heating power. However, it shows some management problems as a result of its low bulk density...

Emissions from Bioenergy: Improved Accounting Options and New Policy Needs

D.N. Bird, A. Cowie, D. Frieden, L. Gustavsson, N. Pena, K. Pingoud, S. Rueter, R. Sathre, S. Soimakallio, A. Tuerk, S. Woess-Gallasch & G. Zanchi
A recent paper by Searchinger [1] highlighted that Annex-I nations do not count CO2 emissions due to combustion of biomass in their commitments. This is because it is assumed that emissions from use of biomass are accounted for in the land use sector, where they should appear as reductions in carbon stocks. However, if the biomass comes from a non-Annex I country, these reductions are not counted within the Kyoto Protocol. Indeed, even Annex I...

Relative Profitability of Short Rotation Crop Resources for Biofuels: Impacts of Biomass Yield and Technology of Densification. Softwood Residues and Miscanthus Applications.

J. Poustis
Bioenergy using wood and non-wood cellulosic fibers as an alternative energy source is getting a huge amount of attention. The autor analyzes the economics and feasibility of harvesting, handling transporting and integrating wood and non-wood cellulosic fibers from operations in order to match the various components of the fuel supply chain. Focussed to biomass energy, a simple sensitivity analysis was carried out at the Aquitaine Region ( Southern of France) with increasing biomass yield of...

A Novel Approach to Biomass Gasification in a Downdraft Gasifier

Y. Muilu, K. Pieniniemi, U.-P. Granö & U. Lassi
The purpose of the HighBio is to study input and output flows of the wood chips gasification process in pilot-scale gasifiers. Solid wood based biomass is used as a fuel in the gasification process. It is heated with the amount of air which is insufficient for total combustion in the gasifier, i.e. it gasifies the biomass to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen both 15-20 vol-% (synthesis gas). Pyrolysis equipment consists of the downdraft...

Preconditioning of Biomass through Fast Pyrolysis for Different Biofuels Applications: Outcomes of the Project Precond

F. Broust, G. Mauviel, A. Quignard, G. Boissonnet, A. Bensakhria, C. Bellot, M. Bourgogne, G. Martin & A.V. Bridgwater
This paper presents the main results of the French project PRECOND which aimed at evaluating the technical & economical viability of fast pyrolysis as biomass preconditioning route for the following utilizations: gasification and FT-synthesis into synthetic transport bio-fuels; petroleum co-refining into transport bio-fuels; combustion for CHP. First, the expected bio-oil specifications have been assessed according to the utilization. A bench scale fluidized bed, identified as the reference technology, was constructed and operated on different biomasses....

Thermogravimetric Analysis of Tunisian Agro-Industrial Wastes Pyrolysis

M. Mezghanni, M.A. Masmoudi, N. Grioui & K. Halouani
Pyrolysis of variety of Tunisian biomass residues: olive wood, olive pomace, almond shell and seaweed have been investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in isothermal and non­isothermal conditions. The TGA experiments were undertaken to investigate the kinetic of the thermal decomposition of biomass and study the effect of temperature, biomass type and heating rate on biochar yield.

Effectivity of Bioenergy Production Chain Development Policies: an Assessment for the Netherlands

H. Langeveld, R. Kalf & W. Elbersen
This paper evaluates policies for promotion of bioenergy production in the Netherlands, using a new theoretical framework. According to the framework, five conditions need to be met for successful bioenergy chain development: (i) availability of (proven) technology, (ii) access to information on technology performance, on inputs and outputs, (iii) access to feedstocks, financial means and markets, (iv) locations for new installations and (v) efficient lobby activities and public support. We evaluated nine practical bioenergy cases...

Biomass Pyrolysis in an Auger Reactor: Scaling up to a Mobile Plant

N. Puy, M.V. Navarro, R. Murillo, J.M. López, T. García, J. Rieradevall, J. Bartrolí & A.M. Mastral
Simulation processes have been carried out to assess the mass and energy balances of the pyrolysis process in an auger reactor pilot plant. Forest woodchips were fed into the reactor with 6.2% of moisture content. Previous experiments showed that the highest bio-oil yield (59%) was achieved at 773 K and applying solid residence times longer than 2 minutes. These conditions were modelled using Aspen HYSYS simulation software and results showed that the process was not...

Acid hydrolysed Pine Sawdust as an Activated Carbon Low-Cost Substitute for Chromium(VI) Adsorption

D.K. Sidiras & D. Politi
Batch kinetics of Chromium (VI) adsorption on sulfuric acid treated pine sawdust was simulated, using untreated pine sawdust as control, in order to explore the potential use of this low-cost adsorbent for wastewater Chromium (VI) removal. A Severity Factor X was introduced to incorporate the effect of the pre-treatment time and the acid hydrolysis catalyst concentration on the pine sawdust adsorption properties. X is an explanatory variable for identifying biomass adsorption parameters as affected by...

Maize and Sunflower Productivity as Affected by Crop Rotation with Pisum Sativum in Central Greece

E. Skoufogianni & N.G. Danalatos
Rotation with winter cover crops is a fundamental practice for sustainable agricultural systems. Cover crops can have significant positive effects on soil health and are an important tool for soil organic matter management. In this research a double cropping system is based on a winter (field pea-Pisum sativum L.) and two bio-energy summer crops (Helianthus annuus L. and Zea mays L.) harvested in the same year, for bio-energy production. Two field experiments were carried out...

LCA of Biorefinery Systems: Environmental Impacts, Biogenic C Flows, Allocation Issues and Biodiversity Implications of a Norwegian Wood-Based Concept

F. Cherubini, O. Michelsen & A.H. Strømman
Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of fossil energy which, combined with diminishing fossil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. There is clear scientific evidence that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), arising from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change as a result of human activities, are perturbing the Earth’s climate. Alternative solutions based on renewable energy and...

Industrial Demonstration of Second Generation Bioethanol Production in Italy: The BIOLYFE Project

D. Chiaramonti, A. Giovannini, A. Frattini & L. Oriani
Market opportunities for second generation biofuels in Italy are considerable, given the 2008 diesel and gasoline consumption of 26 Mt and 11 Mt respectively, and therefore the need for biofuels (5.75 % in 2010 and 10 % in 2020) is large as well. The production of first generation biofuels in sufficient amount to meet these targets would therefore require more than 27 % of Italian agricultural land in 2020 or, in a more realistic approach,...

Supercritical Water Gasification of Layer Poultry Manure, Swine Manure and Cattle Manure with Pilot Scale Plant

A. Nakamura, Y. Shimizu, Y. Matsumura, T. Minowa, Y. Noda & Y. Kawai
To verify the possibility of applicability of the proposed Supercritical Water Gacification (SCWG) process, where fine activated carbon catalyst is suspended in the feedstock to the swine manure and the cattle manure, and compare the result with layer poultry manure, SCWG has been conducted for these manures, using a pilot scale continuous supercritical water gasification plant (treating scale: 1 t-wet/d). In the gasification of layer poultry manure, complete gasification was achieved. On the other hand,...

Quantification of Aromatic Tars by Solid Phase Adsorption and Thermal Desorption GC/MS

E. Masson, P. Girods & A. Dufour
The Tar Measurement Standard (TMS) guideline has been developed in order to provide a normalised procedure for biomass gasifiers tar analysis, allowing a more effective comparison of tar concentrations. It is currently a very reliable method for the sampling and analysis of tar compounds. However, the TMS requires a long sampling time to quantify tar at low concentration ranges (< 0.1g/Nm3). A Solid Phase Adsorption (SPA) sampling method followed by Thermal Desorption (TD) has been...

Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis - First Results of a 3 Mw Pilot Plant

S. Kern, M. Halwachs, T. Pröll, G. Kampichler & H. Hofbauer
A pyrolysis process can be used to split up the biomass in a volatile fraction poor in undesired substances (Cl, N, S, Na and K) and a char fraction where these substances are concentrated. In this way cheap biomass can be used for co­firing in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems. The aim of the project is the development and demonstration of a biomass pretreatment process based...

Database Application to characterize the Spanish Agrarian Counties with respect to their Productivity Potential of Lignocellulosic Biomass from dedicated Energy Crops

J. Sánchez, B. Esteban, M. Checa, L. Romero, F. Mosquera, M.D. Curt & J. Fernández
The aim of this work is to develop a database application led to present part of the Spanish Strategic Project ‘PSE­On cultivos’ results. This application consists of a NUTs4 database that, by means of an excel datasheet, works as an Agrarian County identifying tool. It provides the user with useful information about any Spanish NUTs4 (municipality) regarding geographic, climatic, soil and agricultural data as well as the agro­energy potential for the production of lignocellulosic biomass...

Catalytic Activity of Alkaline Minerals in the Pyrolytic Conversion of Biomass. Preliminary Results

M. Hernández, J. Sánchez-Caba, G.D. Fowler, S.J. Goodman, J. Pérez-Pariente, E. Sastre, C. Márquez-Álvarez & G. San Miguel
Biomass pyrolysis oils have poor fuel properties owing to the high concentration of oxygenated species. The catalytic conversion of pyrolysis oils over acid solids has been investigated in numerous papers. This work presents some preliminary results describing the potential of alkaline minerals in the thermal degradation of biomass. Pine wood and oils derived from the thermal degradation of this biomass were initially characterised for their chemical, thermal and fuel properties. Four natural minerals known for...

Application of Retention Indices for Identifying Tar Compounds

S. Osipovs & A. Viksna
The articles focuses on a technique of identifying unknown compounds, i.e. use of a relative retention time. Our research concerns Kovats and Lee retention indices for the 54 tar components identified in the syngas. The calculated Kovats retention indices were compared with the literature data obtained in capillary columns with three different stationary phases. The Kovats retention indices obtained using polar stationary phases considerably differ from those obtained using non­polar ones. But in our research...

Transforming Polysaccharide Biomass into Thermoplastic Materials for Value-Added Applications

J.H. Wang & B. Shi
This paper describes the research on converting a low-cost polysaccharide biomass into thermoplastic materials intended for high-value, water-dispersible thin film applications. Thermoplastic starch made from native starch is water sensitive but not water dispersible. This research focused on the converting modified starches such as starch esters, pregelatinized Tapioca dextrin, and hydroxyalkylated starch into thermoplastic bioplastics. The rheology of TPMS was found to depend on the type of modified starch, the type of plasticizers, and the...

PM emissions from old and Modern Biomass Combustion Systems and their Health effects

J. Kelz, T. Brunner, I. Obernberger, P. Jalava & M.-R. Hirvonen
In this paper the results of a project focusing on the determination as well as chemical and toxicological characterisation of PM emissions from the most relevant biomass based residential heating systems performed at the BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH are presented. Seven modern state-of-the-art as well as old technology boilers and stoves have been investigated within test stand measurement campaigns. Whole day operation cycles simulating real life operation conditions were therefore simulated. Gaseous as well as particulate...

Soil Organic Carbon Enrichment and Carbon Sequestration from Residual Biomass through Pyrolysis and Bio-Char Application to Soils: Preliminary Assessment in the Ravenna Province Countryside

L. Benini & C. Torri
Ravenna province is characterized by a large amount of available agricultural residues (4.10 ·105 tons usually not managed or mulched) that could be used for energy production in order to reduce GHGs emission of the area. Nevertheless, when the biomass is removed from the system, soil organic carbon depletion could play an important role in GHGs emission and, in some case, can impair the benefits from energetic use of agricultural residue. For this reason three...

Oil Production by the Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis sp. F&M-M24

P. Bondioli, L. Della Bella, G. Rivolta, D. Casini, M. Prussi, D. Chiaramonti, G. Chini Zittelli, N. Bassi, L. Rodolfi & M.R. Tredici
The marine microalga Nannochloropsis sp. has been cultivated outdoors in a 600-L “Green Wall Panel” and the quality and quantity of the produced fat evaluated in view of biodiesel production. Lipid extracts were characterized in terms of lipid distribution between neutral and polar lipids as well as phospholipids. The results obtained by analyzing two samples of Nannochloropsis sp. grown in normal feeding conditions or in nitrogen deprived medium are reported. Some considerations about the design...

Good Use of Biomass for a Level Playing Field

K.W. Kwant, G. Bergsma, C.N. Hamelinck & J. Sanders
The Energy Transition in the Netherlands and the Biobased Economy aim at an increased utilisation of renewable biomass resources for products, chemicals, fuels, power and heat on a sustainable basis. National guidelines have been developed to compare the different uses of biomass and to create a level playing field between options. Criteria for good use of biomass were identified and a methodology to assess the biomass application was developed. The scores of these applications to...

Complementary Use of Long and Short Hemp Fibres and Shives for Textile and Second Generation Biofuels

A. Zatta, S. Vecchi, R. Gobbo & A. Monti
Hemp is a multifunctional crop widely known to provide good quality fibres for textile industry and bio-composites (e.g. interior carpeting of cars door). Machines for processing hemp fibres are lacking or absent, nonetheless recent studies [1] showed that one metre long cut stems can be easily utilized within a flax scutching line, thus making hemp a likely competing fibre crop in the near future. In fact, along with long fibres, a relevant amount of short...

Catalytic Treatment of Pyrolysis Vapours in a Dual Fixed-Bed Reactor

B.B. Uzun, A.E. Putun & E. Putun
In the present study, the aim is to choice of appropriate catalyst and operation conditions for maximizing the bio-oil yields. The upgrading of the rapid pyrolysis vapors was carried out with various catalysts (Clinoptilolite (NZ), ZSM-5, H-Y) under different conditions in a dual reactor. Both natural and synthetic zeolites were investigated for upgrading of pyrolysis vapors with various catalyst/feed ratios (C/F) when the second stage held at 400oC. The catalytic treatment with synthetic zeolites provided...

Registration Year

  • 2010
    441

Resource Types

  • Text
    441