521 Works

Techno-Economic Analysis of a Novel Solution for Biomass and Waste Valorisation in Paper Mills

G. Fiorenza, F. Di Gennaro, D. Barisano, F. Reale & G. Braccio
Paper industry is an “energy intensive” sector, therefore an increasing fraction of energy requirements is currently fulfilled by self-production, the most common solution being represented by gas-fired CHP plants. Moreover, the growing use of recovered paper and board as the raw material requires rational solutions for the management of the refuse originated by the mechanical separation of gross impurities from the usable fibre. A preliminary assessment of a novel solution for biomass and waste valorisation...

Comparative Research of No-Food Cereals Combustion in Small Heating Appliances

D. Dell'Antonia, R. Gubiani & G. Pergher
The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable source as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify...

GIS-Based Evaluation of Cardoon (Cynara Cardunculus L. Var. Altilis DC.) Suitability in Apulia Region

G. De Mastro, N. Grassano, L. D'Andrea & A.D. Palumbo
The potential of land for energy crops is determined by an evaluation of biophysical and economical variables. From this respect, climate, soil and geomorphologic environmental components are the most important agro-ecological variables to conduct this kind of evaluation. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to identify the most suitable areas for cardoon crop production in the Apulia region. Environmental components such as climate (precipitation, temperature), soil (chemical and physical characteristics including...

Residuals from Edible Mushroom Production - New Enzyme Sources for an Enhanced Biogas Process Efficiency

U. Schimpf, K. Nielsen, P. Ho Thu, I. Dominikovic, N. Blachowski, P. Slomski & R. Schulz
Lignocellulose is a large energy source in plants and can be made partly accessible in biogas processes using enzyme preparations. To create a low-cost and high effective enzyme preparation with an extensive enzyme spectrum new enzyme sources are under investigation. This work aims to optimize the biogas and in particular the methane production of difficultly fermentable substrates using residues from edible mushroom production. The utili-zation of residues of food or agricultural industries plays a central...

An Experimental Study on the Use of Pyrolysis Oil in Diesel Engines for CHP Applications

B. Van De Beld, E. Holle & J. Florijn
The EC has set a target to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) in the European energy supply. The fuelling of pyrolysis oil in conventional diesel engines is challenging, but it could be an interesting option for CHP­units in the capacity range of 50 – 1,000 kWe. This application has been studied experimentally using a small, 1­cylinder test engine. Main modification of the engine concerns the fuel injection system, which has been...

The Role and Impact of Biomass Heating Support Policies

L. Kranzl, A. Müller, M. Hummel, V. Bürger, L. Beurskens, P.M. Connor, A. Giakoumi, M. Iatridis, K. Ericsson & J. Steinbach
Within the EU­27 biomass heating covers about 90% of all renewable energy sources in the heating sector (RES­H). According to the NREAPs of EU member states, biomass heating should further increase from 49 Mtoe (2005) to 87 Mtoe (2020). Yet, several questions are open regarding required support policies and the expected technological, economic and system change. In this paper we develop scenarios for the heating sector in selected EU­countries based on the models Invert/EE­Lab (for...

Further Perspectives of Biomass Gasification Including Carbon Capture (CC); Investigation of Suitable Technologies

S. Martini, M. Kleinhappl & J. Zeisler
Carbon capture (CC) in industrial processes is a promising strategy to reduce anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in short and middle term considerations. Not only in electricity production, also in other existing and new process chains, like syngas plants, polygeneration processes, biogas, iron and steel production, or cement industry CC­technologies can lead to ecological and procedural benefits. Within these concepts the gasification gives the chance of efficient utilisation of biomass including new perspectives of...

Reduction of NOx and PM1 Emissions from Automated Boilers by Advanced Air Staging

T. Hesch, F. Biedermann, T. Brunner & I. Obernberger
This paper presents the possible reduction potential of NOx and PM1 emissions by applying advanced air staging. Test runs with chipboard have been carried out with a 150kW pilot-scale furnace with moving grate technology. The influence of the air ratio in the primary combustion chamber, the temperature in the primary combustion chamber, the residence time in the primary combustion chamber, the type of the flue gas recirculation and the boiler load on NOx and PM1...

Biomass Mobilisation for Industrial-Scale Bioenergy Plants - Practical Approach for Establishing Real Biomass Supply Pathways in Austria

R. Ehrig, M. Wörgetter, C. Kristöfel, N. Ludwiczek, C. Pointner & C. Strasser
Biomass plays a major role in the achievement of the EU 20-20-20 targets for renewable energy. In order to reach these targets huge amounts of solid biomass, especially forestal biomass, have to be mobilised. The sourcing of these immense additionally needed biomass amounts will substantially influence the entire biomass based market. For bioenergy plant operators, raw material and logistics are major cost components. Industry needs appropriate quality standards for biomass resources, just-in-time and long-term supply...

Wood Pellets Market in Serbia - Production and Opportunities for Utilization

D. Stojiljkovic & N. Manić
Biomass is a significant renewable energy potential in Serbia. Regarding the significant energy potential of biomass and the obligations, Serbia adopted Biomass Action Plan (BAP) in 2010. BAP defines strategies of biomass utilization, as well as, the problems in biomass utilization and activities to overcome them. Based on previously implemented studies, BAP defined the most promising opportunities for biomass utilization, which include among other production and utilization of pellets. The estimation is that annual pellet...

Pre-Treatment of Gorse (Ulex Sp.) to Improve its Qualities as Fuel

L.A.C. Tarelho, J.P.R. Pinho, M.A.C. Duarte, D.F.R. Silva & J.J.F. Silva
Pre-treatment of forest biomass from gorse shrub (Ulex sp.) was done to improve its properties as solid fuel. Gorse fronds were divided into brown and green parts, both arranged in bundles. The bundles of brown parts and green parts was subjected to: i) air drying at room conditions, and ii) leaching with distilled water, followed by air drying at room conditions. Samples from both sets of bundles were characterised for: i) proximate and ultimate analysis,...

Evaluation of Nitrogen Fertilization and Genotype Effects on Lodging of Miscanthus and Switchgrass

R.I. Nazli & I. Lewandowski
Energy grasses for use as solid fuels are harvested after winter, i.e. in early spring. But in regions with early snow, lodging is a major risk leading to quality and yield losses. Visual lodging assessment was conducted to evaluate genotypic effects and effects of nitrogen fertilization on lodging susceptibility of miscanthus and switchgrass after heavy snowfall. In a comparison of 15 miscanthus genotypes, strong differences in lodging behaviour were observed. All M. x sinensis genotypes...

Extraction of Lignin from Lignocellulosic Biomass Residue with Atmospheric Acetic Acid Pulping and Estimation of Chemical Nature of the Lignin

K. Ito, Y. Yagisawa, A. Ito, T. Takahashi & J. Kobayashi
One of the important issues in bio-ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the effective usage of sacchararification residue. The sacchararification residue includes lignin, which is contained a variety of functional groups. It is possible to apply the lignin as raw martial for chemical agents and plastics, thus there is a need for an effective extraction technique of lignin from the sacchararification residue. In this study, enzymatic sacchararification residue was applied to the extraction technique that...

N-Loss Enhanced by Removal of Crop Residues from Cotton, Maize and Tomato Fields for Biofuel Production

D. Bartzialis, S.V. Archontoulis, P. Tziamali & N.G. Danalatos
Crop residues normally comprise an important source of biomass. An important issue is whether and to what extent the use of crop residues is sustainable with respect to the nutrient removal from the field. Another important issue comprises the moisture content of the crop residues for further industrial processing. On the other hand, in central Greece there are some 400.000 ha (irrigated cropland) with important cash crops like cotton, maize, and industrial tomato that produce...

Combustion Behaviour of Oat and Triticale Straws in Comparison with Wheat Straw

I. Mediavilla, E. Borjabad, R. Ramos, M.J. Fernández & J.E. Carrasco
The main objective of this work is to show the behaviour during combustion of oat and triticale straw compared to wheat straw, related to emissions and differences in slagging and fouling of boiler components, working under similar conditions. Several combustion tests have been carried out in a 500 kWth moving grate boiler as preliminary tests before using these biomass straws in a 25 MWe power generation plant. Three combustion tests with a stationary period of...

LCA of Forest Chips Versus Diesel Boilers in the Mediterranean Region

B. Esteban, G. Baquero, R. Puig, J-R. Riba & A. Rius
Obtaining energy from forest chips is a technology widely used in many regions. There are currently many studies and applications on the use of forest biomass [1,2], mainly promoted by policies aimed to reduce greenhouse gases. The forests of the Mediterranean area are characterized by a mountain relief. This orography makes difficult the selective biomass extraction from the forest. Thus, the biomass is accumulated in the forest and becomes a serious danger for wildfires. Forest...

Behaviour of Poplar Stored Outdoors as Chips or Stems

P. Pérez, R. Barro, P. Ciria, L.S. Esteban & J.E. Carrasco
The objective of this work is to compare the behaviour of poplar biomass cultivated on short rotation conditions when it is stored outdoors as chips or stems. Two piles, one constituted by chips and the other one by stems were set at the CEDER­CIEMAT facilities in Soria (Central­Northern Spain), a region characterized by a continental mediterranean climate. Weather conditions were monitored during the entire period of the storage. Parameters affecting biofuel properties were controlled for...

Comparison of Two Methods of Sampling and Analyzing Tars During AER Biomass Gasification

N. Armbrust, N. Poboss, T. Eder, M. Zieba & G. Scheffknecht
The tar content of product gas is one of the major problems of biomass gasification. In this work, two methods for sampling and analyzing tars were compared: The wet chemical method according to the tar protocol and a solid phase adsorption (SPA) method with Tenax® TA followed by thermal desorption. Both methods are analyzed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility and usefulness...

Bio-oil Upgrading Using Nanomaterials (CNTs). Step 1- Characterisation of Biomass-based Pyrolysis Product

A. Artigues, N. Puy, E. Fábregas & J. Bartrolí
This study is part of a larger project whose goal is to develop a novel bio­oil upgrading process based on catalytic activity of (bio)nanomaterials (modified carbon nanotubes, CNTs) to obtain an upgraded bio­oil which is meant to be used as second­generation biofuel in the transportation sector, although it can also be used to produce heat and power and as a chemical platform in a future biorefinery scenario. The first step of that project, which results...

A Review of the Ecological Impacts of Cultivation of Macro-Algae for Bioenergy

P. Thornley & B. Jones
There is increasing global interest in the prospects of using algae as a source of biomass for energy. One option is utilization of fast­growing kelp or macro­algae that can be either cultivated at sea or harvested from naturally occurring wild sources. This is attractive from a potential energy resource perspective as it allows us to escape the limitations and constraints of terrestrial cultivation. However, experience with terrestrial biofuel systems has shown that it is important...

Gasification Tests of Pelletized Biomass in a Downdraft Gasifier

M. Simone, F. Barontini, C. Nicolella & L. Tognotti
Downdraft gasifiers are recognized as the most suitable gasification technology on a small scale due to the very low tar content of the syngas and the high fuel conversion. However some technological issues limit the reliability and diffusion of this technology, in particular tight feedstock specifications such as low moisture content and narrow size distribution. These specifications are hardly met by biomass residues from agriculture and agro­industries, which therefore need to be conditioned before being...

Combined Methanol and CHP Energy Production Derived from Biomass Wastes with Reduced Carbon

R.S. Kempegowda, P.V. Pannir Selvam, Ø. Skreiberg & K.-Q. Tran
This paper presents process synthesis and economics of combined methanol and CHP (combined heat and power) energy production from crude biooil, waste glycerol produced in biodiesel factories and biomass wastes using integrated reactor design for hydrogen rich syngas. This new process consists of three process steps: a) Pyrolysis of organic waste material for producing biooil, char and pyrogas, (b) Steam assisted hydrogasification of the crude glycerol wastes, biooil mixed with pyrogas for hydrogen rich gas...

Orchard Residue Valorization by Wood Chipper

G. Picchi
Within the general class of agricultural woody residues, orchard stumps play a particular role. In spite of a very important potential contribution for biomass procurement, their management is particularly difficult. Generally tree stumps are comminuted using wood crushers, but such machines are not mobile and result uneconomic to use when the material is not concentrated in great heaps. Furthermore because of its size, biomass produced by crushers can be used only in big power plants...

Current Status and Future of Co-firing in Five EU Countries: Effect of Support Schemes, Sustainability Criteria and Biomass Markets

E. Karampinis, P. Grammelis & E. Kakaras
Co-firing biomass with coal is widely considered as one of the most cost-effective and efficient methods of minimizing the GHG emissions of the electricity sector. Up to now, co-firing has been demonstrated at a number of power plants in Europe and abroad and significant operational experience and technical expertise has been accumulated. However, apart from technical issues, the adoption of co-firing for an existing power plant is a decision that relies heavily on the legislative...

The Possibility of Using CHP in Sawmills in Serbia

M. Furtula, M. Mandić & G. Danon
Sawmills in Serbia have at their disposal surplus of wood residues left after fulfill demands for thermal energy for process heating, such as drying, steaming, heating facilities, etc. This surplus depends on the quantity of wood dried, which type of wood is processed and which technology is used. Wood residues may be utilized for electric energy production, and for this kind of production there are respective incentives in accordance with Ordinance brought by Serbian Government....

Registration Year

  • 2011
    521

Resource Types

  • Text
    521