431 Works

Filtration Characteristics of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed and Fermented Biomass Suspensions

T. Kinnarinen & A. Häkkinen
Currently, there is a growing need for a deeper understanding of the solid¬liquid separation of biomass suspensions, not least because of the difficulties encountered in most applications. Biomasses are typically highly compressible, have a high water retention capacity and contain substances that may affect the solid¬liquid separation. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomasses to fermentable monosaccharides is commonly performed using various mixtures of enzymes. However, there always remains a certain solid residue suspended in the hydrolysate. For...

Domestic Biomass Based Heating in Germany, Determination of the Number of Single Fireplaces for Wood Fuels by an All-German Data Collection

T. Schröder, C. Viehmann, K. Bienert & H. Wazula
Due to the rising energy demand and related energy costs as well as environmental aspects thermal utilization of biomass, particularly of wood, becomes more relevant. Especially for the energy consumption in households, biomass burning is an established alternative to fossil fuel based technologies. In the course of growing environmental awareness, debates have been initiated about the particulate matter emission (PME) from small biomass combustion and their contribution to the ambient air quality. In spite of...

Studies on Production of High Quality Pulp from Veneer Waste of Populous Species

D. Dutt
Fiber length, diameter, cell wall thickness and lumen diameter of mixed veneer waste of populous species are 0.95 mm, 24.7 µm, 4.7 µm and 7.2 µm respectively. Lignin contents in out surface and inner core are 20.5 and 22.4% with holocellulose contents of 71.1 and 69.8% respectively. Bulk densities of veneer waste populous species at different grith classes i.e. 21¬30, 31¬45 and 46¬75 cm are 189, 193 and 218 kg/m3. Veneer waste obtained at different...

Evaluation of Common Reed Shredding Parameters

A. Kronbergs, E. Kronbergs & R. Rozinskis
Latvia has target in 2020 for renewable energy resources to be 40% in gross final consumption of energy. Common reeds (Phragmites Australis), as a natural energy crop material, in Latvia can be found in wetlands and on the shores of rivers, lakes and Baltic Sea. Mainly they are situated on shorelines of Latvian lakes. Most of these lakes are eutrophic and common reed stands often has invaded areas there. Therefore common reed usage for energy...

Treatment of Biomass Gasification Wastewater by Adsorption on Biomass Gasification Char

D. Castello, M. Iamarino, F. Nanna & G. Braccio
In this work, a novel approach to the treatment of biomass gasification wastewater, i.e. liquids deriving from wet gas cleaning operations, is explored. The proposed technology is based on adsorption on biomass gasification char, which is continuously produced by the plant itself. Samples of char were taken and characterized and then their adsorption isotherms were experimentally determined. Batch tests were conducted in a solid¬liquid contactor and a deterministic dynamic mathematical model was used for data...

S(P)EEDKITS - Rapid Deployable Kits as Seeds for Self-recovery, A FP7 EU-Research Project to Develop a Mobile, Rapid Deployable Small-Scale Biogas Plant to Improve the Hygene in Refugee Camps

M. Köttner, S. Volk & F. Werr
Some time ago relief organizations like the Red Cross have created Emergency Response Units (ERU) for conflict areas. These units are developed to be ready for operation within 72 hours. To prevent epidemics like cholera and typhus, which are very common in refugee camps, because of the low standards of hygiene, they decided to improve the system by adding a mobile biogas plant. This Upgrade should be up to reduce the pathogenic germs in human...

Evaluation of Lentil (L.culinaries) Rotation and Green Manure on Growth and Productivity of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) on a Clay Soil in Central Greece

E.L. Tigka, D.F. Beslemes, N.G. Danalatos & S. Tzortzios
The effect of three Lens culinaries treatments (incorporated, harvested before the sowing of the energy crop and mono-cropping) and two N dressing (N0=0 and N1=150 kg ha-1) on growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L) cultivar Tainung 2 were investigated on a silty clayey to loamy clayey soil located in central Greece (Sotirio), in 2008 and 2009. During the growing period, plant height, leaf area index and biomass productivity per plant component were...

Batch Pyrolysis Reactor: Design, Realization and Preliminary Testing on Selected Biomasses

P. Bartocci, K. Slopiecka, F. Testarmata, M. D'Amico, N. Moriconi & F. Fantozzi
The University of Perugia has developed IPRP (Integrated Pyrolysis Regenerated Plant) technology, based on a rotary kiln pyrolyser, of the capacity of 200 kg/h of chipped biomass, coupled with a 70 kWel gas turbine. Data obtained from a continuous test bench, of the capacity of 20 kg/h, and a batch plant (of the capacity of about 1 kg biomass) have been used to scale up the plant. The batch plant has been coupled with a...

Ash Fusion Characteristics of the Blends of Reed and Wood Ashes

S. Link, Ü. Kask, T. Lausmaa, A. Paist, L. Kask & S. Arvelakis
The reed, waste wood, wood chips etc. are available for energy purposes in Estonia, while mainly utilized in fluidized bed boilers for heat production in district heating systems of smaller settlements. There is no correlation in the ash fusion characteristics of biomass blends. A task of a boiler operator is to avoid the impact of unwanted properties of the blends on ash fusion. This work characterises the ash fusion of the blends of reed and...

Strategies for Optimization of the Domestic Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel Chain, the European Project Recoil

O. Paraíba, T.D. Tsoutsos, S. Tournaki, D. Antunes, J. Lino & E. Manning
The energy potential of household used cooking oil (UCO) is practically unlimited. Its disposal, in some cases illegally, increases the cost and the energy consumption of domestic wastewater treatment, as well as the GHG emissions associated with its biodegradation (non-CO2 emissions). In this, it should be added the heavy environmental pollution load. The European initiative RecOil (Promotion of used cooking oil recycling for sustainable biodiesel production), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the...

Evaluation of Planting Season of Giant Reed (Arundo Donax L.) to Save Irrigation Water in Semi-Arid Mediterranean Conditions

S.L. Cosentino, V. Copani & G. Testa
The influence of transplanting time of Arundo donax L. in relation to vegetative clone plant propagation systems was studied for two subsequent growing seasons (2008-2011) at the Experimental farm of Catania University (Italy). A factorial experiment was carried out combining three times of transplanting (November 5th 2008, March 17th 2009, April 30th 2009), two clone propagation methods (rhizome cuttings and stem cuttings) at two soil water availability (irrigation only at the transplanting dates and irrigation...

Potential Growth of Switchgrass "Panicum Virgatum" as Affected by Irrigation and N-Fertilization in Central Greece

K.D. Giannoulis & N.G. Danalatos
The aim of the present paper was to assess the potential growth and biomass yield of the perennial energy crop Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as affected by irrigation and N-fertilization in its second year of establishment. For the purpose of the study, a factorial split plot field experiment in four blocks was established in Karditsa (west Thessaly) plain, central Greece, in which plant growth and crop productivity data were collected throughout the growing season of 2010....

Evaluation of Biomass Potential and its Mobilization for Energy Production in Crisis Situations

K. Vávrová, J. Weger, J. Bubeník, ŠEdivá, J., J. Knápek, VaŠÍČEk, J. & M. Valentová
The paper presents goals, methodologies and first results of research project "The analysis of potential of biomass utilisation as the domestic and strategic source to secure energy needs in critical situations" financed by the Czech Ministry of Interior. The main objective of the project is to evaluate potential of different domestic biomass sources (forest residues, straw, energy crops) and evaluate possibility of its mobilization to ensure the operation of power and heating sources in crisis...

Development of a Pre-Combustor for Small Scale Biomass Stirling Engine CHP Plants

G. Marinitsch, J. Bovin, A. Lund & C. Ebbesen
The Stirling engine biomass CHP technology enables the production of high value electricity and heat in an efficient way in applications below 300¬500 kWe electric power output. The pre combustor compromises the benefits of a direct combustion system, in terms of simplicity and an updraft gasification system, in terms of low dust emissions. The solution is developed for the utilization of dry fuels, such as pellets, which cannot be processed in an updraft gasifier. This...

A Gis-based Multi-Criteria Approach to Identify Suitable Locations for Biomass Energy-facilities. The Case Study of the Foggia Province

M. Monteleone & A.R.B. Cammerino
a wide set of multiple economic, social and environmental factors are generally involved in the choice of suitable locations for biomass energy plants. Feasible alternatives with respect to specific issues should be proposed and evaluated. The purpose of this work is to point out a methodology that, according to a specific set of criteria, identifies and delimits the most suitable geographic areas to be addressed as proper location of a bio-energy plant. A case study...

Biomass Gasification and Syngas Production for Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Gas Cleaning and Conditioning, and Performance Tests

J. Jewulski, M. Stepien, M. Blesznowski, K. Gallucci & D. Barisano
Performance tests have been completed with a SOFC unit fuelled with syngas produced from biomass gasification reactors, properly conditioned and cleaned. Three series of tests at bench and industrial scale have been completed. The results of the tests indicate that cleaned syngas, from both steam blown and oxygen/steam blown gasification reactors, is a feasible fuel for anode supported SOFC cell. Cell performance on cleaned syngas is comparable or better than SOFC cell performance fuelled with...

Energy Conversion of Cynara Biomass and Valorization of By-Products

J. Fernández, M.D. Curt, A. Bahillo, D. Santana, J.M. Toledo, M. López Granados, A. Heras, U. Ruiz-Rivas & J. Villa
The R+D+i Programme ‘Energy Conversion of Cynara Biomass and Valorization of By¬Products' (acronym: CARDENER¬CM) has been conducted since January 2010 in the frame of the call for project proposals launched by the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) for research groups with the support of the European Social Fund. The ultimate objective of the Programme is to assess the energy conversion potential of Cynara cardunculus L. for cultivation in the Region of Madrid, Spain. CARDENER¬CM covers...

Investigation of Heavy Metal Removal from Ashes from the Gasification of Composted Sewage Sludge and Greenery Waste by Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculations and Lab-Scale Tests

H. Hirt, T. Brunner & I. Obernberger
Within the EU FP7¬project ENERCOM the polygeneration of heat, electricity, compost and pellets based on sewage sludge, greenery waste and biomass residues is demonstrated. One aspect of ENERCOM is that ashes from gasification of the input materials should be added to compost in order to recycle P and other relevant plant nutrients contained in the sewage sludge. Due to the high heavy metal contents of sewage sludge and consequently of the ashes from the gasification...

Bioethanol Production from Arundo Donax Hydrolysate Using Co-Culture of Pichia Stipitis and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor

P. De Canio, I. De Bari, F. Liuzzi, A. Capece & P. Romano
An efficient production of ethanol from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates requires the use of microorganisms capable to convert both glucose and xylose sugars with high yields. One approach to achieve this target is the use of yeast co¬cultures, formed by Pichia stipitis, renamed Scheffersomyces stipitis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species, which are characterized by different metabolic activities. In this context, numerous parameters, such as temperature, pH and oxygen requirements are critical factors in the fermentation process and, among...

Successful Field Testing of an Inverted Brayton Cycle Turbine with Lean Waste Gas

M.R. Schmid, M. Voegeli & M.A. Sattler
Land fill sites emit enormous amounts of GHG. Most of these gases are neither burnable nor usable for power production with conventional technology. Waste heat from industrial processes as well as from flaring systems is often unused due to economic reasons and the complexity of conventional thermodynamic systems. For both, Aactor !GT, an inverted brayton cycle microturbine might be a solution to the economically efficient access to these energy potentials. Between 2006 and now, landfill...

Prediction of Biomass Ash Melting Behaviour - Correlation Between the Data Obtained from Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculations and Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA)

N. Evic, T. Brunner & I. Obernberger
The objectives of the present study were to: (a) develop an appropriate estimation method for assessing the characteristic ash melting temperatures of different biomass fuels by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TEC) based on ash analysis data, (b) estimate the correlation between the results obtained from TEC and the experimentally received data for the melting temperatures using a TGA/DSC-method (thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry) and, (c) evaluate the applicability of the TEC and DSC methods as...

Thermodynamic Simulation and Experimental Tests of Diesel Engine Using Different Blends of Diesel Oil and Biodiesel

C.R. Pereira Belchior, G.C. De Souza Junior & J.P. Vargas Machuca Bueno
In the present energy scenario, there is an increase in blends of diesel oil and biodiesel research as alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. In Brazil, the soy bean and the palm oil biodiesels are been produced for this purpose. When those fuel blends are used as a substitute for diesel oil, it's highly essential to understand the parameters that affect the operational phases of the engine and results in performance modification and emissions. The...

Microbial Biodiesel Production - Screening of Different Crops and Agricultural Crop Residues for their Suitability Based on the Sugar Content and C/N-Ratio

B. Mast, N. Zöhrens, S. Graeff-Hönninger, N. Merkt, R. Hernandez, W.T. French & W. Claupein
In Germany and Europe biodiesel is one of the most important biofuels; currently 1st generation biodiesel is usually produced from oil extracted from rapeseed and sunflower. However, future 2nd generation biofuels have to be characterized by a lower competition to food production, improved energy balance and land use efficiency. The production of biodiesel from lignocellulosic biomass converted to lipids by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising approach. Oleaginous microorganisms are able to convert high amounts of...

Location Optimization of Decentralized, Medium-Sized Bioenergy Developments through Spatial Modeling - A Case Study in Scotland

T. Kurka, D. Blackwood & C. Jefferies
This paper presents a transferable and adaptable GIS-based approach for location optimization of medium scale CHP bioenergy plants. Location optimization of bioenergy plants is of particular importance in planning decentralized bioenergy generation, as both biofuel supplies and heat demand have to be considered in location selection when heat and electricity wants to be utilized. GIS modeling and location suitability analysis for a case study area comprised of developing a scoring model to obtain suitability scores...

Analysis of Poplar SRC Commercial Plantations in Veneto Region (Italy)

G. Facciotto, S. Bergante, P. Tirroni & R. Zampieri
Veneto Region (Italy) financed the establishment of Short Rotation Coppices (SRC) with the Regional Law 14/2003. A total surface of 1295 ha has been established, mainly with poplar clones. Data on these crops were collected through a free questionnaire send to farmers; 219 responses were obtained. The plantation under investigation were established using two poplar clones 'Pegaso' and 'Sirio'. In the first rotation the average production of 'Pegaso' and 'Sirio' SRC are respectively 5.8 and...

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