364 Works

A Web Tool for Developing Feasibility Analysis of Biomass Plants

V. Cigolotti, N. Colonna, P. Regina, A. Moreno, S. Scarfogliero, M.R. Mastrullo & F. Reale
In this work it is described a web software tool to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of biomass plants in the Italian context, by providing users a web guided decision support system. A.I.D.A. (Advanced and Innovative tool for Developing feasibility Analysis of biomass plants) project has been supported by ENEA (National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) under an agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development, and it has been carried...

Emissions Mitigation from Biomass Co-firing with Coal in Fluidized Bed

D. Cebrucean, V. Cebrucean & I. Ionel
Biomass co­firing in fluidized bed represents among other technologies one of the most cost effective and efficient means of producing bio­energy and reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass fuels are considered environmentally friendly energy sources for several reasons: (i) there is no net increase in CO2 as a result of biomass combustion; (ii) the emissions of SO2 can be reduced by co­firing since most biomass fuels have significantly lower sulfur content compared to...

Integration of Energy Crops in PV-Systems - Increase of Land Utilization Ratio of Free Field Photovoltaic Systems by Integrating Energy Crops

J. Götzel, A. Peterhansl & G. Becker
Renewable energies will be very important for the energy supply in the future. Next to wind power, water power and geothermal power, the potential of photovoltaic (pv) and biomass is very high. Especially in Germany they are counted to the most important renewable energies. The present work deals with the possibility to grow energy crops on free field photovoltaic systems. By fermenting the energy crop to biogas, it is possible to generate additional electrical energy....

Production of Ethyl Esters by a Two-Stage Transesterification

D. Karonis, G. Anastopoulos & D. Chilari
The depletion of fossil reserves which is accompanied by environmental degradation provokes the study of biodiesel production. At present, biodiesel has gained attention as an alternative fuel, due to its characteristics: high biodegrability, renewability, also, the reduced regulated and unregulated emissions from the biodiesel use are worthy highlighting. The wide technique produced is by means of transesterification. The already commercial biodiesel is dependent on methanol utilization, something which is remarkably controversial, taking into consideration the...

Optimization of Sensor Technology for Efficient Fermentation of Biogenic Residues and Waste in Biogas Plants

S. Junne, M. Fenske, C. Hälsig, A. Hörig, E. Kielhorn, P. Neubauer, S. Päßler, D. Pfeiffer, A. Richter, M. Schelter, W. Vonau, P. Zimmermann & J. Zösel
Biogas is one of the few renewable resources that can provide energy in a stable manner. However, so far the understanding of the detailed processes at industrial scale is rare. This is predominantly due to a lack of appropriate sensors and process control instrumentation in most conventional biogas plants. Two exemplary projects funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) in the program for “Promoting Projects to Optimize...

Gasification of Microalgae in Supercritical Water, First Experimental Results

N. Boukis, A. Möbius, S. Hindersin & M. Kerner
Microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus) produced in flat panel photobioreactors were converted via supercritical water gasification at 650°C, 28 MPa and a residence time of 3 minutes. The long term aim is to gain a higher process efficiency through recycling of byproducts of supercritical water gasification and waste water during the cultivation of microalgae. The first step of the project, the general feasibility of conversion of microalgae via supercritical water gasification to a hydrogen-rich combustible gas is...

Development of an Agricultural Model for Biorefineries Sustainability Optimization

O. Cavalett, M.F. Chagas, T.F. Cardoso, H.C.J. Franco, T.L. Junqueira, L.G. Pavanello, C.D.F. Jesus, B.S. Moraes & A. Bonomi
This paper presents an agricultural model that is used for integrated sustainability optimization of bioenergy chain. This study aims at showing the importance of using an integrated framework tool to assess technical and economic impacts of different biorefinery alternatives considering the full production chain. A case study based on the sugarcane biorefinery is introduced. Three optimization strategies for the current sugarcane biorefinery system in Brazil were evaluated: recovery of sugarcane straw for production of second...

Agrol Gasification in a 100 KWth Steam-Oxygen Blown Circulating Fluidized Bed Gasifier: Modeling and Experimental Validation

X. Meng, W. De Jong & A.H.M. Verkooijen
This paper presents the modeling and experimental study of Agrol gasification in a 100kWth steam­O2 blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier at the TU Delft. Different types of models, which are an equilibrium model (EM) and a kinetic model (KM) set up in Aspen PlusTM, and an own code fluidization model (FM), have been developed to simulate the CFB gasifier with an emphasis on the product gas distribution and equilibrium analysis of water­gas shift (WGS)...

INSA Indicator System Sustainable Agriculture

A.K. Lutzenberger, C. Buettner, N. Eichhoff, J. Enger, M. Erbs, K. Fichte, J. Gruen, C. Hillebrecht, J. Ingenillem, L. Klein, N. Meyer, W. Pitz, M. Puetzstueck, A. Schaeffler & S. Schwellinger
The project’s aim is the development of an indicator system called the Indicator System Sustainable Agriculture (INSA), featuring a set of 34 indicators. The system will be used to represent the level of sustainability of the agricultural region of North-East Lower Saxony, thereby showing where the possibilities for improvement for individual farms lie. It will also render the degree of sustainability of the agricultural sector representable and comparable not only at farm level but also...

A Technical, Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Challenging Biomass Feedstocks in France for Combined Heat and Power (Chp) Gasification

L. Dieckhoff & O. Authier
Reducing costs of biomass feedstocks is a key factor to ensure economic efficiency of biomass CHP gasification plants. A study has been carried out within the French project GAMECO to evaluate the technical, economic and environmental impact of the supply chains of a few challenging biomass feedstocks identified as offering lower costs than conventional biomass in France and being promising for fluidized bed gasification. The investigated feedstocks consist of agricultural residues, by­products from the wood...

Bio2g - A Full-scale Reference Plant for Production of Bio-Sng (Biomethane) Based on Thermal Gasification of Biomass in Sweden

B. Fredriksson Möller, K. Ståhl & A. Molin
E.ON Sverige is planning for a 200 MWgas bio­SNG (1,6 TWh/year) plant in southern Sweden based on thermal gasification of forest residues and other biomasses. The project is called Bio2G and has been developed during the past five years. Bio­SNG (biomethane) is a unique product which has a great potential on all fuel markets. It can be used as a transport fuel, for combined heat & power production, for domestic heating purposes as well as...

Investigation of Performance Parameters of Small Capacity Wood Boiler

T. Vonzodas, N. Pedisius & M. Valantinavičius
In all the European countries, as well in Lithuania, the residential heating with biofuel is applied using a variety of heating equipment: water-heating boilers, stoves, open and closed fireplaces and air heater. However, most of the devices are technically obsolete, but not being used for biofuels or just not properly equipped, so the heating system with the following devices do not perform and significantly increase environmental pollution. The investigation on performance parameters of boilers operating...

Renewable Packaging Materials and Chemicals from Biomass -Techno-Economics of Methanol-To-Olefins Route

I. Hannula, L. Sorsamäki, V. Arpiainen & A. Harlin
This work presents a techno-economic analysis of the production of light olefins, mainly ethene and propene, from lignocellulosic feedstocks. We examine a two-step approach where methanol is first produced from forest residues via gasification in the vicinity of affordable biomass resources followed by subsequent conversion to olefins in a methanol-to-olefins (MTO) plant coupled to a petroleum refinery. We also propose to integrate the MTO process with an existing ethene plant to substantially reduce the capital...

Characterization of the Products from Intermediate Pyrolysis of Miscanthus and Wood Pellets: Internal Combustion Engine Application

M. Saghir, S. Siddiqui, U. Wirtz & A. Hornung
This review presents the summary of new studies on intermediate pyrolysis of biomass to produce renewable fuels in the form of bio­oil, biochar and syn­gas. Two biomass species, namely wood and miscanthus pellets, were subjected to intermediate pyrolysis conditions to obtain liquid, gas and solid products. The characteristics of the liquid products from pyrolysis were examined, and some methods, such as catalytic upgrading were considered to improve the physical and chemical properties of the liquids...

Bio-SNG Production via Gasification - Process Integration Aspects for Improving Process Performance

S. Heyne, H. Thunman, M. Seemann & S. Harvey
This paper presents results from a comprehensive process integration study of different process alternatives for Bio-SNG production based on biomass gasification. The influence of the different conversion steps in the process chain – drying, gasification, gas cleaning, methanation, and gas upgrade – on the overall process performance is investigated. Process bottlenecks as well as heat and material integration aspects are highlighted. Using future energy market scenarios, the energetic, economic, and carbon footprint performance of different...

Comparison of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Sugar Beet Pulp: Digestion, Performance, Dewaterability, and Foam Control

S. Suhartini, S. Heaven & C.J. Banks
Thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of sugar beet pulp (SBP) were assessed in relation to the biogas and methane production, foaming potential, and dewaterability of the digestate. Experiments were carried out in 4­litre working volume digesters. Four digesters were operated mesophilically (37oC ± 0.5) and four thermophilically (55oC +/­0.5) over a period of three hydraulic retention times (HRT). Pairs of digesters were fed daily on SBP ­1 ­1 without dilution to give organic loading rates (OLR)...

Effect of Temperature Modulation and Different Inoculation Strategies during the SSF of Pretreated Arundo Donax

I. De Bari, F. Liuzzi, A. Ambrico & M. Trupo
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has been considered the most convenient process strategy for the conversion of biomass sugars into bioethanol. During SSF, temperatures typically lower than 40°C favor both hydrolysis and fermentation. However, the latest enzymatic commercial mixtures with improved performances have optimal working temperatures in the range 45-50°C. In order to conjugate this temperature requirement with the optimal conditions for fermentation, temperature modulation during the process could offer the advantage of discontinuously accelerating...

Experimental and Mechanism Study on NO Reduction by Phenol as a Typical Tar Produced in Updraft Biomass Gasification

R.H. Yin, R.Z. Zhang, C.Y. Liu & Y.H. Luo
Gasification is one of the most promising ways for the utilization of the abundant biomass resource in China. However, corrosion and blockage caused by tar produced in the process seriously inhibit the development of the technology. Fortunately, tar has been found to have a positive effect on NO reduction in the previous work. Thus, a technical routine of gasification syngas reburning was chosen which can solve both tar and NO problems. In this work, a...

Lipid Production Capacity of Three Different Oleaginous Yeast Strains under Various Incubation Conditions

D. Steindl, K. Krennhuber, A. Jäger & H. Kahr
Three oleaginous yeast strains (R. glutinis, T. fermentans, Y. lipolytica) were compared to each other at various incubation conditions to determine the most promising strain and the associated growth conditions. Different pH values and molar carbon-to-nitrogen ratios in combination with varying glucose concentrations and the addition of nutrient salts were tested. Results show that Y. lipolytica is the most promising yeast among all tested strains. The highest lipid concentration was 6.99 g L-1 at a...

Quality of the Biomass Produced in Short Rotation Coppices of Poplar, Willow, Black Locust and Sycamore in Two Different Spanish Locations

M.J. Fernández, P. Ciria, R. Barro, J. Losada, J. Pérez, H. Sixto & J.E. Carrasco
Short rotation high density plantations were established in the provinces of Soria and Madrid in 2009. Three poplar clones (I-214 and two improved new clones Oudenberg and Baldo) together with willow, black locust and sycamore species were included in the study. Representative samples were collected after a three year cycle. Species harvested in Madrid lead to a higher yield (10.9 odt/ha year as average of all species and/or clones) than species harvested in Soria (9.3...

The Yield Losses During Oilseed Rape (Brassica Napus L.) Harvesting at On-farm Scale in the Italian Area

L. Pari, A. Assirelli, A. Suardi & E. Santangelo
Although Italy has a favorable climate for the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivation, its widespread is restrained by the significant seed losses that, due to its peculiar ripening physiology, are caused by the mechanical harvesting and meteorological events. Lacking the availability of works investigating the actual losses during the harvest at large scale, the Consiglio per la sperimentazione e la ricerca in agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’ingegneria agraria (CRA-ING) has conducted a study in...

Life Cycle Assessment of a Brown Seaweed-based Third-generation Biorefinery Process

M. Alvarado-Morales, A. Boldrin, D.B. Karakashev, S.L. Holdt, T. Astrup & I. Angelidaki
The use of seaweed biomass to produce biofuels appears to be a promising process to supplement and secure energy supply and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) of a brown seaweed-based-third generation was performed in Nordic conditions to document and improve the sustainability of the process. Three scenarios were considered for the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata: scenario1: S1-BioGas, scenario 2: S2-BioEtOH + BioGas, and scenario 3: S3-NaALG + BioGas....

Gasification Kinetics of Char from Olive Tree Pruning with Co2 and H20 in Fluidized Bed

S. Nilsson, A. Gómez-Barea, D. Fuentes, I. Pardo, G. Pinna, M.A. Silva Perez & P. Ollero
Kinetics of gasification of char from olive tree pruning was measured in a fluidized bed at temperatures between 760 and 900 ºC. Experiments were carried out using H2O­N2 and CO2­N2 mixtures to measure the rates of the gasification reactions with H2O and CO2 and to assess the inhibition effects of H2 and CO. The reaction rates with H2O were 3­4 times faster than those obtained with CO2 and inhibition by CO and H2 was observed...

Olive Kernel and RDF Co-firing with Greek Lignite in Drop Tube Pulverized Fuel Furnace

E. Karampinis, P. Vounatsos, M. Agraniotis, P. Grammelis, E. Kakaras, A. Fuller, J. Maier, M. Pagano & G. Scheffknecht
The purpose of the current work is to present the experimental results from co-firing tests performed at a 20 kWth drop tube pulverized fuel furnace installed at the Institute of Combustion and Power plant Technology (IFK), University of Stuttgart. High ash and moisture low rank lignite utilized in the Megalopolis power plant in Greece was used as the main fuel. Olive kernel produced from a olive mill and drying plant, in the vicinity of the...

Improving the Performance of Enzymes in Hydrolysis of High Solids Paper Pulp delivered from MSW

D.J. Puri, S. Heaven & C.J. Banks
The research aimed at improving the overall conversion efficiency of the CTec® family of enzymes by identifying factors that lead to inhibition and seeking methods to overcome these through process modification and manipulation. Pulp derived from municipal solid waste was processed in an industrial-scale washing plant and diluted to a total solids content of 18.5% TS before single-stage enzyme hydrolysis which resulted in a maximum glucan conversion of 68%. It was found that two-stage hydrolysis...

Registration Year

  • 2013
    364

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    364