342 Works

Supply Logistics Modelling for Large-Scale Biomass Users

T. Ranta, O.-J. Korpinen, E. Jäppinen & M. Virkkunen
Satellite terminals are part of the supply logistics for large­scale biomass use. Since they are far from the end user, the long­distance transportation required relies on railway operation besides road transport by road to terminals in Finland. The paper discusses planning of terminal locations, space needs, biomass supply and handling at the terminals, and other aspects of the organisation of operations. In an example case, satellite terminal operations were planned for the Kontiomäki terminal, in...

Fate of Minerals in the Fast Pyrolysis Process

E.J. Leijenhorst, L. Van De Beld, E. Meers & W. Prins
The distribution of minerals between the products of biomass fast pyrolysis is important with respect to the sustainability of the chain as well as for downstream applications. In case biomass residues from agricultural origin are for example used for renewable energy production, it is important the nutritional value of the minerals can be recovered and recycled to the original environment. For most pyrolysis oil applications it is disadvantageous if high mineral concentrations are present in...

Dehydration Process of Windrowed MRC Poplar Stems

V. Civitarese, L. Pari, A. Acampora, A. Suardi, M. Barontini, F. Gallucci, A. Scarfone, A. Del Giudice & E. Santangelo
The two phases harvesting methodology allows to manage and schedule the chipping operations as in function of moisture content of the stored biomass. In this study we evaluated the loss of moisture of medium rotation forestry plantations, considering four different times of cut. The results obtained have shown the possibility to reach, during the first days of June, humidity levels between 36 and 45% by felling down the plants between December and mid March.

An Investigation into the Ash Deposition Behaviour of Pulverised Olive Residue and Palm Kernel Expeller Combusted in a Drop Tube Furnace

T. Bennet, H. Liu & C. Eastwick
There is increasing interest in the use of low cost biomass fuels for combustion, and in the differences in the effects that the fuels have in terms of ash deposition, leading to slagging and fouling and corrosion. The objective of the present study is to examine ash deposition of pulverised olive residue and palm kernel expeller onto stainless steel grade 316, when combusted in a laboratory drop tube furnace. Relation of these results to those...

The Impact of Moisture on the Milling Behaviour of Different Biomasses

O. Williams, C. Eastwick, E. Lester, D. Giddings & N. Byrne
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of moisture content on the milling behaviour of four different biomasses commonly used in the power sector and characterise their milling behaviour in a laboratory scale planetary ball mill. As received (raw) and dried wood pellets, eucalyptus pellets, olive pellets, and Spanish olive cake were milled for the same milling conditions, and then characterised by energy consumption, particle size, and thermal characterisation. The study found...

Evaluation and Development of Upgrading Methods for Bioliq®-Condensates

C. Boscagli, K. Raffelt, T. Zevaco, J. Sauer & J.D. Grunwaldt
Upgrading of bio-oils for using them as transport fuel or as source for chemicals is a challenging task that has recently attracted a lot of attention. One of the most studied approaches in literature is hydrodeoxygenation, which is also the topic of this work. The light phase of a pyrolysis oil, produced in the bioliq® pilot plant in Karlsruhe, was treated with hydrogen (80 bar, pressure at room temperature) under mild hydrotreating conditions (250°C) in...

BioEconomy Regional Strategy Toolkit - The BERST Project

R. Guisson & M. Van Leeuwen
The implementation of the European bioeconomy occurs under the impulse of entrepreneurs (ranging from carbon­based industries to farmers and foresters) and political authorities, assisted by knowledge workers (R&D). The drivers are (1) the search for alternative resources for fossil fuels, (2) the response to climate warming by becoming as CO2 neutral as possible and (3) the industrial demand for new functionalities offered by biobased materials and chemicals. Regions can be encouraged to apply new development...

Integration of a Torrefaction Process in a Large-Scale Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plant for the Reduction of Energy Requirement for Biomass Milling at Higher Co-Firing Rates

T. Distler, B. Everts & A. Kather
When increasing the co­firing rate of wood chips with coal in large­scale pulverized coal­fired power plants to rates up to 50 % rated thermal input, the effort to grind the biomass in terms of internal power consumption increases tremendously and tends to become the largest contributor to overall internal power demand. The pre­treatment of wood chips using a torrefaction process can be a suitable measure to reduce this effort to a magnitude comparable to milling...

Ultrasonic Assisted Biodiesel Production

C.J. Schabort, D. Hövener & S. Marx
One of the biggest hurdles in the production of biodiesel is the high production cost compared to petroleum-derived diesel. Even though the mechanical agitation utilised during biodiesel production is effective, it is energy intensive and costly. In this study ultrasonic assisted biodiesel production has been considered as a more economical alternative. The optimum transesterification reaction conditions were investigated using sunflower oil as a feedstock, methanol (MeOH) as the alcohol, along with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as...

Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Ultrasonic Pretreatment

C.J. Schabort, C. Faul, M. Nagel & S. Marx
The potential fermentation of the sugars derived from water hyacinth, sweet sorghum bagasse and amaranth using indirect ultrasonic pretreatment, was investigated. The optimum sugar and ethanol yield for the ultrasonic bath pretreatment with 7% NaOH was found to be 289 g ethanol/kg biomass, 231 g ethanol/kg biomass, 189 g ethanol/kg biomass, for the sweet sorghum bagasse, amaranth and water hyacinth. The high energy input required of 486 kJ/g biomass implies that ethanol production from these...

Estimating the Higher Heating Value of CVO And HCVO Fuels from Elemental Analysis

C. Augustin, A. Sievers & T. Willner
The higher heating value (HHV) is an important parameter to evaluate fuels from biomass and wastes. In literature, there are a large number of formulas to calculate the HHV from the weight fractions of the elements for various substances. The measured HHV of 50 samples from cracked vegetable oil (CVO), hydrotreated cracked vegetable oil (HCVO), diesel and vegetable oil have been compared with the calculated values from the elemental composition. The oxygen content of the...

Production of a H2 Rich Gas from Biodiesel Derived Glycerol by Catalytic Steam Reforming as a Solution to Improve Biodiesel Economy

J. Remón, C. Jarauta, J. Ruiz, M. Oliva & L. Garcia
In the present work the catalytic steam reforming of biodiesel-derived glycerol has been studied as a possible solution to valorise this by-product towards a hydrogen rich gas. Specifically, the influence of the pH used in the purification step (5-7) has been studied aiming to select the best refining conditions for the posterior upgrading by catalytic steam reforming. Once the purification optimised, the steam reforming operating conditions: temperature (400-700 ºC), glycerol concentration (10-50 wt.%) and the...

Experimental Study of Wood Char Gasification Kinetics in Fluidized Beds

R. Reschmeier & J. Karl
Steam gasification is an efficient way for energy recovery from solid biomass fuels. For designing new plants it is necessary to use kinetic data for the gasification of the char remaining back after pyrolysis, because the char gasification is usually slower than pyrolysis and thus the limiting step in designing gasifiers. The objective of this work is to determine “apparent” kinetic constants for wood char gasification in bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers. In order to obtain...

Suspensions of Flash Pyrolysed Biomass: Systematic Examination of Stirring

T. Nicoleit, A.C. Herzog, K. Raffelt, N. Dahmen & J. Sauer
The purpose of Karlsruhe’s bioliq®-project is the conversion of biomass into synthetic chemicals and fuels (also referred to as BtL, biomass to liquids). The lignocellulosic biomass is first liquefied by fast pyrolysis in distributed regional plants to produce an energy-dense intermediate composed of pyrolysis condensates and solid char powder. Both products are mixed to a suspension (the so called bio-slurry or Syncrude) to be suitable for long storage periods and economic transport over long distances....

Batch and Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Autoctonous Microalgae and Pig Manure. Laboratory and Pilot Plant Experiments in Extremadura Region (Southwestern Spain)

A.I. Parralejo, L. Royano, J. González & J.F. González
Anaerobic co-digestion of autochthonous microalgae and Scenedesmus sp. with pig manure was investigated under batch and semi-continuous conditions. Low volatile solid (VS) concentrations (1-3%) in batch experiments (microalgae methane potential) yielded higher methane productions than high VS concentrations (5-10%). Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion was inhibited with low OLR (2 kg VS m-3 d-1) when high volatile solid concentration was used, apparently because of elevated ammonia concentration in microalgae biomass and pig manure mixture in the reactor....

Influence of Fuel Fine Particles on Slagging of Commercial Size Biomass Boilers

T. Plankenbuehler & J. Karl
The influence of fine fuel particles on deposition behavior is examined in a lab-scale experiment using a heatpipe probe positioned in the flue gas channel of a fluidizing bed combustor. A water cooling system assures isothermal conditions on the probe, leading to slagging due to hot particles’ stickiness on cold surfaces. An extra inlet for a defined fuel fine particle fraction above the fluidized bed allows controlled combustion in the freeboard area. Hereinafter, fine particles’...

Characterization of Plant Biomass Derived Black Carbon (Biochar) as Soil Amendment by X Ray Powder Diffraction

R. Caliandro, A. Libutti, B.D. Belviso, G. Chita & M. Monteleone
The approach of combining pyrolysis or pyrogasification processes for energy production with biochar addition to soil takes advantage of biochar’s proven ability to retain cations, remove CO2 from atmosphere, regenerate degraded lands and reduce environmental pollution. To evaluate the full potential of biochar as soil amendment, precise knowledge of its structural features, related to the thermochemical process conditions, and adsorptive properties, related to the minerals absorbed during crop cycles, is needed. To this aim, X­ray...

Hydrothermal Carbonisation of Renewable Resources: Influence of Process Parameters on the Coal Quality

C. Pfeifer, G. Tondl, W. Tesch & P. Tesch
Biogenic wastes and residues, especially those with high fractions of ash and contaminants (e.g. sewage sludge) are currently mainly thermally treated. Alternatively, materials low in impurities but with high water content are processed through fermentation. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process for the conversion of biogenic raw materials and residues to hydrophobic solids ("HTC - coal") with, in comparison to the starting materials, reduced weight and higher calorific value. Hydrothermal carbonization offers the possibility...

Prospects and Limitations of Solid Fuel Enhancement Through Torrefaction, Hydrothermal Carbonization or Mechanical Leaching - Conclusions from Combustion Experiments and Emission Measurements

J. Khalsa, F. Döhling, N. Weller & V. Lenz
In the recent years, along with a growing demand for wood as solid fuel, technological innovations have been made that focus on improving biomass by-products and residue biomasses for combustion. Three innovative pre-treatment technologies are torrefaction, hydrothermal carbonization and mechanical leaching. The purpose of this study is to compare solid fuel characteristics as well as the resulting combustion and emission behavior of fuels from these three technologies under defined small-scale combustion conditions. We analyzed chemical...

Full Chain Analysis of the Domestic Used Cooking Oil to Biodiesel Chain - The European Initiative Recoil

ParaÍBa, O., T. Tsoutsos, S. Tournaki, D. Antunes, C. Uggè & V. Magnolfi
The energy potential of household used cooking oil (UCO) is practically unlimited. Its disposal, in some cases illegally, increases the cost and the energy consumption of domestic wastewater treatment, as well as the GHG emissions associated with its biodegradation (non-CO2 emissions). Moreover it should be added the heavy environmental pollution load. The European initiative RecOil (Promotion of used cooking oil recycling for sustainable biodiesel production), co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe programme of the European...

Biomass Feedstock from Multipurpose Poplar Plantations: Current Situation and Potential Development in Italy

D. Coaloa & G. Facciotto
Traditional hybrid poplar plantations, with ten­year rotations, grown on agricultural land were able to meet, for a long time, various needs of the wood market, providing industrial wood as well as biomass. Recently, beside the ten­year rotation cultivation model, different high density plantation models, such as short rotation coppice, have been adopted, in order to meet the new requirements of specific sectors ­such as, for instance, the need of biomass for energy or for new...

Techno-Economic Assessment of Different Conversion Pathways for Pyrolysis Char from Pig Manure

T. Kuppens, M. Van Dael, J. Maggen, K. Vanreppelen, J. Yperman, R. Carleer, H. Elen & S. Van Passel
The amount of animal manure that can be brought back to agricultural land is limited by legislation. Because pig manure is available in too large quantities in some areas, we investigate the techno-economic feasibility of converting it into valuable products. First, slurry is separated in water, a thick fraction and a fertilizer concentrate poor in phosphate. Then, the thick fraction is dried and pyrolyzed. Our goal is to identify the optimal pyrolysis and activation conditions...

Sewage Sludge Fast Pyrolysis in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor

J. Alvarez, G. Lopez, M. Amutio, M. Artetxe, A. Erkiaga, I. Barbarias, A. Arregi & M. Olazar
The fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge has been performed in the 450­600 ºC range in a continuous pyrolysis bench­scale plant equipped with a conical spouted bed reactor (CSBR). The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis yields and main chemical products of the bio­oil has been determined. The liquid yield peaks (48 wt. %) at 500 ºC and the amount of bio­oil above this temperature decreases due to secondary cracking reactions undegone by the pyrolysis vapours....

Continuous Liquefaction of Biomass Model Compounds for Chemicals and Fuels

M. Kroeger & M. Klemm
Beside thermo­chemical processes like pyrolysis and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion comes into the focus of research for the treatment of biomass. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages. As the reaction medium is water, wet biomass does not need to be dried. By processing wet biomass continuously several advantages can be achieved which may lead to a higher percentage of liquefied products and also a better selectivity towards specific products....

Modeling the Reaction Kinetics During Hydrothermal Carbonization of Waste Biomass

D. Basso, F. Patuzzi, D. Castello, M. Baratieri & L. Fiori
In this paper, a study on the reaction kinetics of the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process is presented. A fundamental piece of information for the design of a HTC process is the knowledge of its kinetics: the process conditions do not allow the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium and the reaction kinetics approach becomes mandatory for understanding how the process occurs, evolves over time and depends on the operating conditions. Experimental data have been collected applying the...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Text