369 Works

Biomass Production in Alley Coppice Systems on Acid Soils of the North Piedmont (Italy)

G. Facciotto, L. Rosso & S. Bergante
Alley coppice is an innovative production system that combines the production of trees for valuable timber with short rotation coppice (SRC) in the same land. It has been introduced, in the recent past in Italy and this paper refers the growth and production results of a trial sited in Brusnengo (BI), in North Piedmont. In this trial, planted in Spring 2005 on a inceptisol soil, 4 poplar and 4 willow genotypes and different timber species:...

Safety, Self-Ignition and Storage; Investigation of Woody and Oily Biomass Samples

K. Rupar-Gadd & B. Zethraeus
The current investigation focused on obtaining experimental results on properties of different woody and oily biomasses during lab-scale storage. During large-scale storage of vegetable oils, biodiesel and woody biomasses, physical, biological and chemical processes lead to deterioration of the fuel, self-heating and in some cases to self-ignition. The heat released from the different biomass samples was measured by isothermal calorimetry, with the purpose to assess the biomass suitability for storage. The highest thermal output came...

Production of High Purity Hydrogen from Biomass Derived Synthesis Gas Using Dual Fluidised Bed Gasification Technology

J. Loipersböck, B. Rehling, R. Rauch, H. Hofbauer & C. Aichernig
A synthesis gas, which has high contents of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, is derived from biomass in the CHP (combined heat and power) plant Güssing. The synthesis gas is highly suitable for hydrogen production and synthesis applications like Fischer Tropsch synthesis. High efficiencies of more than 60% can be reached by generating hydrogen from biomass, and total efficiencies of up to 80% are possible by utilisation of waste heat [1]. The aim of the work...

BioDRI: Forestry Meets Steel. A Techno-Economic Study on Use of Biomass Gasification to Produce a Gas Suitable for Production of CO2 Lean Iron

C.-E. Grip, H. Salman, L.I. Andersson, O. Ritzen, M. Tottie, R. Robinsson, H Winnika & M. Östman
A major part of the world’s iron production is presently using fossil reductants. The climate effect would be improved if renewable raw material could be used instead. One way could be to gasify biomass and use the gas to produce DRI (Direct reduced Iron). This is studied in a cooperative project. LTU, MEFOS, ETC and five industries in the areas forestry & pulp, mining, iron and gas are involved. The production chain Biomass production and...

The Biomethane Development in Germany, it's driving Forces and a Forecast - A System Dynamics Modelling Approach

T. Horschig, E. Billig, J. Witt, R. Wirkner & D. Thrän
The mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the reinforcement of renewable energy are well known national and international targets. Bioenergy, by the production of heat and power as well as fuel can contribute to these targets. Especially in the field of biomass based energy the difficulties lie in uncertainties of cost dynamics and policy changes (responding to continuously adopted supporting market instruments like feed-in tariffs) as well as external costs and requirements for concomitants...

Spatial Assessment of Forest-Fuel Supply to a CHP Plant with a Spreadsheet-GIS Tool

O.-J. Korpinen, E. Jäppinen & T. Ranta
The aim of this work was to develop a user-friendly analysis tool for estimating supply costs of spatially fragmented biofuel sources such as forest fuels. The analysis tool is based on Microsoft Excel software, and it uses tabular data about biomass resources and transportation network as fixed inputs and demand for different fuel types, logistics costs and estimates of user-defined parameters as user-defined parameters. The outputs are cost summary from supply of each fuel type...

Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Emissions of Gases and Particles

J.B. Illerup, B.B. Hansen, W. Lin, J. Nickelsen & K. Dam-Johansen
A collaboration project between the CHEC research Centre, at DTU Chemical Engineering, and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has been established during the last years and has led to development and marketing of wood stoves (Autopilot IHS) equipped with a digital control system. The improved performance has been verified by field tests in private homes. The main components of an Autopilot IHS wood stove are: a modern wood stove with three separate combustion air...

Terminal Cost Analysis for Forest Fuel Supply in Finland

M. Virkkunen & J. Raitila
As forest fuel demand increases, new logistical solutions are needed. Most of the increase in use is expected to take place in large heat and power (CHP) production units which set special requirements for the supply as both procurement volumes and transport distances increase. Biomass fuel terminals broaden the spectrum of available supply options by offering cost-effective large-scale biomass storage and processing options for securing the fuel supply in all conditions. This study aimed to...

The Bioliq® Process for Synthetic Chemicals and Fuels Production

N. Dahmen, T. Kolb, M. Neuberger, J. Sauer, D. Stapf & B. Zimmerlin
Ten years ago, the bioliq project was launched to demonstrate the production of synthetic biofuels from residual biomass and to provide a research platform. The bioliq process aims at the conversion of low grade residual biomass into synthetic fuels and chemicals. Central element of the bioliq project is the 2-5 MW pilot plant along the complete process chain: fast pyrolysis for pre-treatment of biomass to obtain an energy dense, liquid intermediate fuel, high pressure entrained...

Sewage Sludge and Pinewood Sawdust Co-Pyrolysis in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor

J. Alvarez, M. Amutio, G. Lopez, M. Artetxe, A. Erkiaga, I. Barbarias, A. Arregi & M. Olazar
Co-pyrolysis of both feedstock (a mixture of 50 wt. % of sewage sludge and 50 wt. % of pinewood sawdust) has been carried out at 500 ºC in a Conical Spouted Bed Reactor (CSBR), which has been proven to be suitable for the individual valorisation of each material, attaining high bio-oil yields (48 wt. % for sewage sludge and 75 wt. % for pinewood). Significant synergetic effects have been observed in both the previous thermogravimetric...

Determination of Gasification Rate for Supercritical Water Gasification of Shochu (Japanese Distilled Liquor) Residue

Y. Akeyama, S. Inoue, Y. Matsumura, T. Inoue, Y. Kawai, H. Kubota & T. Noguchi
Supercritical water gasification is gasification of biomass in hot compressed water whose temperature and pressure are above critical values of water and shochu (Japanese distilled liquor) residue is expected to be promising feedstock for this technology. However, its gasification characteristics in supercritical water has not been determined yet. In this study, shochu residue was gasified in supercritical water using a laboratory scale continuous reactor, and reaction rate equation was derived in the form of Arrhenius...

Preliminary Study on Pyrolysis Char Gasification Using a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

R. Moreira, A. Portugal, N. Gil-Lalaguna, F. Bimbela & J.L. Sánchez
This preliminary experimental work aims to gain additional insight into the char gasification process in a bubbling fluidized-bed gasifier, as a potential route for obtaining hydrogen destined to bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation. Different operating conditions were tested in order to enhance hydrogen production, which in the best studied case reached 0.26 mol H2/mol C. More work is required to further improve char gasification conversion in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor.

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Food Processing Residues: Application to Blackcurrant Pomace

M. Déniel, G. Haarlemmer, A. Roubaud, E. Weiss-Hortala & J. Fages
This study reports hydrothermal liquefaction of blackcurrant pomace to produce bio-oil, focusing on the influence of several process parameters on yields and carbon distribution between phases: holding time (0-240 min), temperature (290-335°C), and addition of sodium hydroxide NaOH to vary the initial pH (3.1-12.8). Bio-oil yields up to 34 wt. % on a dry matter basis were obtained. An optimum temperature of 310°C corresponding to 30 wt. % bio-oil yield was observed, while higher temperatures...

Co-Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge with Refuse Derived Fuel

N. Ruiz, V. Quispe, J. Ábrego, M.B. Murillo & J.F. Mastral
Pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) has been studied at the Thermochemical Processes Group (University of Zaragoza) as an alternative way to manage this kind of wastes. However, major hurdles have been found, such as the high energy requirements for SS drying, and the high nitrogen content in the pyrolysis liquid, which makes difficult its use as fuel. Co-pyrolysis of SS with refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been studied as a possible solution, considering that RDF...

Fast Pyrolysis of Leucaena Leucocephala in a Circulating Fluidised Bed Reactor

K. Duanguppama & A. Pattiya
A fast-growing mimosoid tree, Leucaena leucocepphala has been promoted as an energy crops in Thailand. Its woody biomass contained 2wt% ash and had a lower heating value (LHV) of 17 MJ/kg. It was fast pyrolysed in a bench-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) reactor at 450-550°C. The effect of reaction temperature on product yields and properties was investigated. The pyrolysis products are bio-oil, char and gas. The bio-oil yields were monitored by two means (1) heavy...

Effects of Pretreatment on Drying of Microalgae

K. Yeoh, E. Pahija & C.W. Hui
The use of microalgae for biodiesel production is a promising alternative to the usage of fossil fuels as an energy source. During the conversion of microalgae into fuels, a large amount of energy is expended to dewater and/or dry the microalgae before lipid extraction. Pretreatment methods such as thermal treatment, acid or alkali treatment are proven to have positive effects on microalgae drying, e.g. increasing the drying rate, reducing the amount of energy usage, etc....

Electricity Production from Rice Husk Gasification for Rural Electrification in Ghana: An Economic and Energetic Perspective

P.V. Ramamurthi, M.C. Fernandes, P.S. Nielsen & C.P. Nunes
Decentralised systems can help accelerate electrification in countries struggling to achieve universal electricity access through centralised grids. Using the case of Ghana, a country where 50% of the rural population is unelectrified, this paper examines the potential of using rice husk gasification mini-grids to electrify the country’s unelectrified rural communities. Economic studies and energy balances of the gasification system were conducted. In major rice growing regions of Ghana, rice husk gasifiers have the potential to...

Experimental Analysis of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Coupled with Biomass Gasification

R. Gadsbøll, J. Thomsen, C. Bang-Møller, C. Nygaard, A. Tomaszewski, J. Ahrenfeldt & U. Henriksen
Thermal gasification and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies represent an interesting combination for power generation, as high fuel flexibility and high electric efficiencies are expected. The TwoStage gasifier is a high-efficient downdraft gasifier fueled by wood chips that produces a very clean product gas with virtually no tar. This study operated an 800 We SOFC stack with product gas from the TwoStage gasifier for a total of 145 hours. Only minimal gas conditioning was...

Socio-economic Effects of Biomass Supply Chain: Case Studies from Logist’EC Project

C. De La Rúa, Y. Lechón, F. Morandi, H. Østergård, J. Wohlfahrt, A. Perrin, B. Gabrielle, T. Bjørkvoll, T. Flatberg & S. Damman
The European policies have been designed over the last decade to face the challenge of climate change. Several measures have been put in place to accelerate the development and deployment of cost-effective low carbon technologies. The domestic nature and its potential availability in Europe make biomass a relevant resource to be considered. The Logistics for Energy Crops Biomass (LogistEC) project aims to develop new or improve technologies of biomass logistics chain. The sustainability of different...

Three Decades of Biomass Use in Swedish District Heating Systems

K. Ericsson & S. Werner
More than two thirds of the heat supply to the Swedish district heating systems is nowadays based on biomass and waste resources. These district heating systems provide heat to cover more than half of the heat demands in the Swedish building stock. This paper reveals the development from the original use of fossil fuels in the late 1970s, the introduction of biomass as fuel in the early 1980s, the transition to considerable more renewables during...

Parameter Study with Sulfidized Molybdenum Catalyst for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis with Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

G. Weber, R. Rauch & H. Hofbauer
In the Güssing CHP (combined heat and power) plant, dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification technology is used to provide a high quality biomass-derived synthesis gas with a high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The synthesis gas is highly suitable for synthesis gas applications like Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, mixed alcohol synthesis (MAS) and hydrogen production. Since 2011, a pilot plant for the production of mixed alcohols from the synthesis gas has beenin operation. A steam...

Additivation Guideline - How to Utilise Inorganic Additives as a Measure to Improve Combustion Related Properties of Agricultural Biomass Fuels

T. Brunner, M. Wohlmuther, W. Kanzian, I. Obernberger & W. Pichler
Within a nationally funded Austrian research project an additivation guideline for agricultural biomass fuels has been developed. It aims at the targeted application of inorganic additives to overcome ash related problems (slagging, deposit formation, particulate emissions) usually associated to the combustion of agricultural fuels in fixed-bed combustion units. By the application of this guideline, these fuels shall be made applicable for conventional medium and large-scale wood combustion systems at economically and environmentally sound constraints. Thereby,...

Gasification of Solid Recovered Fuels in a Lab-Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor. Effect of Experimental Conditions on Process Performance and Syngas Quality

J. Recari, C. Berrueco, D. Montané & X. Farriol
This paper studied the gasification of two solid recovered fuels (SRF) in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The gasification performance and syngas quality were assessed under the influence of several parameters: gasification temperature (from 700 to 850 ºC), equivalence ratio (ER, 0.22-0.35), SRF feedstock (RT or FL), bed material (sand or dolomite) and gasification agent (air or oxygen/steam). Special attention was devoted to the evolution of tar and microcontaminants concentration (H2S, HCN, HCl and...

Development of an Estimation Model for the Evaluation of the Energy Requirement of Pretreatments of Biomass

O.A.T. Mafe, S.M. Davies, J. Hancock, C. Du & J. McKechnie
In the biochemical conversion route of biomass, pretreatments are indispensable to the efficient production process of fuels, plastics, chemicals and specialty chemicals. It is a very energy-intensive step. Here, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the energy required during the pretreatment of biomass for the production of ethanol. The model was developed using the dilute acid pretreatment process reported by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as the basis for its development. The energy demand...

Production and Characterisation of Solid Biofuels from Agricultural Residues and Energy Crops in Extremadura Region (Southwestern Spain)

L. Royano, A.I. Parralejo, F. Llera, J. González & J.F. González
Thermochemical biofuels can be produced locally, contributing to the maintenance of the employment and population in rural areas. Agricultural and forestry residues –almond, plum and holm-oak pruning-, and energy crops biomass –poplar and paulownia- were compared to standards for pellets and woodchips quality. All samples analyzed can be grouped according to Spanish standards for non-industrial solid biofuels –UNE 14961-, except almond woodchips that have a higher ash content than 3%.

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  • 2015
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