311 Works

Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics and Functional Analysis of JCCBF Gene from Jatropha Curcas L.

S.S. Wang, H.B. Wang, F.F. Deng, Z.R. Zou & M. Gong
The C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREBs) are a group of conserved transcription factors, with fundamental roles in response and adaptation to cold stress in plants, especially chilling-tolerant and herbal species. However, the information on CBFs in chilling-sensitive woody plants is relatively limited. Previously, we performed the global transcriptome sequencing of chilling-treated Jatropha curcas L., an important chilling-sensitive bioenergy woody crop. A novel CBF-like gene, designated JcCBF, was isolated, which contains AP2/EREBPmotifknown to exist...

Olive Tree Pruning as Feedstock for Co-Producing Antioxidants and Bioethanol in an Advanced Biorefinery

Romero-GarcÍA, J.M., G. Rendón-Acosta, MartÍNez-Patiño, J.C., E. Ruiz, G. Magaña, E. Castro & A. Sanchez
Olive tree pruning production is almost 30Mt/year and highly concentrated in the south of Spain. This agricultural residue is mostly burned or crushed in-site with considerable economic and environmental costs. Due to its abundancy ad concentration in specific locations and the current trend in the food and pharma industries using natural raw materials, olive tree pruning can be considered as potential feedstock to obtain high value-added products. This paper presents a conceptual design of an...

The Cost-Effectiveness of Electrofuels in Comparison to other Alternative Fuels for Transport in a Low Carbon Future

M. Grahn, S. Brynolf, J. Hansson & M. Taljegård
In future, a complement to biofuels, which also can originate from biomass, is electrofuels. Electrofuels are synthetic hydrocarbons, e.g. methane or methanol, produced from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water with electricity as primary energy source. The CO2 can be captured from e.g. biofuel production plants and thereby potentially provide an opportunity for biofuel producers to increase the yield from the same amount of biomass. This project assesses if there are conditions under which electrofuels are...

The Effect of Dilute Alkaline-Autoclaving Pretreatment in Enhancing the Biodegradability of Lignocellulosic Garden Waste

G. Robles, M. Othman & I. Horvath
In Victoria, Australia, organic waste makes up approximately 50% of the average household municipal solid waste. All organic matter is a potential feedstock for anaerobic digestion however there remains a large proportion that is underutilised. Garden waste (GW) is one such lignocellulosic material with a complex cellulose­hemicellulose-lignin structure making it resistant to degradation. Dilute alkaline-autoclaving (A-A) pretreatment was performed on GW at various particle sizes (unground and ground <10mm) and NaOH concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, and...

Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Implications of the Use of Abandoned Agriculture Land for Future Biomass Production in Central and Eastern Europe (CCE)

S. Miyake, J.T. Mizgajski, D. Bargiel, K. Wowra & L. Schebek
Land use change (LUC) effects from biomass production have emerged as an important area of global bioeconomy policy and research. The use of ‘underutilised agricultural land’, including ‘abandoned agricultural land’ is one of the most important solutions to minimise the LUC effects resulting from biomass production, such as indirect land use change (iLUC). Agricultural land abandonment in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) is largely associated with dysfunctional agricultural and land reforms, and political and institutional...

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Slagging in Biomass Combustion

T. Plankenbühler, D. Müller & J. Karl
The Chair of Energy Process Engineering at Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU-EVT) developed a prediction tool for slagging and fouling in biomass boilers, based on CFD simulation and verified through lab-scale experiments. Main focus lies on collision induced deposition of molten ash particles carried away from fuel bed, thus burning in the flue gas canal. Key parameters for the occurrence of slagging are the ash melting temperature, particle residence time and fuel’s fine particle fraction. In combination...

A Multistep Mild Process for Preparation of Nanocellulose from Orange Bagasse

M. Mariño, R. Camila C. & L. Tasic
In this study, biomasses with low lignin contents, named industrial orange bagasse (IOB-Citrosuco, Matão, SP) and orange bagasse in natura (OBN), were investigated as starting materials for the production of nanocellulose under mild conditions. These last account for both acid hydrolysis (at 100 °C and pH 2.0) and alkaline hydrolysis (with NaOH 1.6-4.0%, m/v), performed at 120 ºC, followed by bleaching (with NaClO2 1-3% m/v) at 70 ºC. After chemical and mechanical treatments, it was...

Recycling and Energy Recovery from Incontinence Waste (Inkocycle): Anaerobic Treatment of Adults Diapers

S. Herbert, J. Heynemann, T. Luthardt-Behle, U. Theilen & H. Weigand
Due to the demographic change in Europe, the amount of incontinence waste is expected to increase drastically. In Germany, this waste stream is estimated as 200,000 metric tonnes per year. This study focused on the optimized energy recovery from incontinence waste using a combined approach of anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organics fraction followed by incineration of the digestate as refuse derived fuel (RDF). In a two years pilot test the AD resulted in 238...

Characterization and Kinetic Study of Energy Crops and Biomass of Microalgae Indigenous in Southern Europe for Biogas

A.I. Parralejo, L. Royano, J. González & J.F. González
Sweet sorghum and triticale are considered energy crops with lower water requirements to growth and as good substrates to anaerobic co-digestion with microalgae biomass, together they make an optimal nutrient balance. Corn stover is a biomass residue in Southern Europe and it has excellent properties as co-substrate in anaerobic co-digestion. Two anaerobic co-digestion experiments in semi-continuous regime were investigated with four (experiment 1) and five (experiment 2) substrates for different Organic Load Rate (OLR). Previously,...

Model Development for Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Reactions in a Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Gasification System by Means of CPFD

S. Kraft, F. Kirnbauer & H. Hofbauer
Rough conditions inside a dual fluidized bed (DFB) biomass gasification reactor system like high temperatures and bed material movement make computer simulations a practical tool for investigating fluid dynamics inside such a reactor system. The simulated reactor system presented here is a dual fluidized bed steam biomass gasification plant situated in Güssing, Austria. A computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model for such a reactor system has been set up with the software BARRACUDA and is...

Biomethane Fuelled Tractor - Operation Experiences and Emission Behaviour

K. Thuneke, S. Mautner, P. Emberger & E. Remmele
The use of biomethane as fuel for agricultural machinery with dual-fuel technology contributes to climate protection and ensures safe fuel supply. So far, hardly any newer operational experiences are known. The aim of the project, funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology, was to investigate practicability for daily use and emission behaviour of a Valtra N101 prototype tractor (exhaust stage IIIA). The retro-fitted dual-fuel technology allows simultaneously use of...

Valorization of Dry Orange Peel Residues by Gasification Process

V. Chiodo, S. Maisano, G. Zafarana, F. Urbani, A. Galvagno, M. Prestipino & S. Freni
The growing need to reduce the environmental impact of the modern lifestyle imposes a continuous development of novel technologies aimed at a severe reduction of pollutant emissions in order to ensure a tolerable quality of life in metropolitan areas. Among potential alternatives, particular attention has been recently addressed toward the exploitation of residual biomass and wastes as sources for syngas production by thermo-chemical processes for heat and power production. Fruits processing industries generate important amount...

beReal - Development of a New Test Method for Firewood Roomheaters Reflecting Real Life Operation

G. Reichert, H. Hartmann, W. Haslinger, H. Oehler, S. Pelz, C. Schmidl, M. Schwabl, H. Stressler, R. Sturmlechner, M. Woehler & C. Hochenauer
Standard type testing methods for biomass room heating appliances have driven technological development tremendously in the last decades towards low emissions and high efficiency. However, they are not suitable to reflect real life performance as operating conditions and user habits are not sufficiently considered in the test procedure. Several studies revealed a major contribution of batch fired room heating appliances to harmful gaseous and particulate emissions. Consequently, there is the need to optimize the combustion...

Integral Optimization of Torrefied Cereal Straw Pellets Production

F.J. Lemus & J. Gil
In this work, cereal straw torrefaction tests were carried out at pilot plant scale, and then pelletised at different conditions. Chopped straw and straw pellets were tested as fuels, in order to investigate the bulk density effect in torrefaction performance and optimization of pelletisation. High quality torrefied straw pellets can be produced. Thermal efficiency for straw torrefaction is higher than for wood due to the lower moisture content and higher reactivity. Using straw pellets as...

Biogas Recovery from a Pig Farm. Smithfield Bacova Unit Case Study

A.R. Wächter, I. Ionel, A.E. Cioablă & M.R. Wächter
The continuously increasing production of organic waste is linked to the agricultural and food industries, which represents an environmental issue for today’s society that has to be solved. The high content of organic constituents, attested in this type of waste, points out the fact to be suitable for regenerative bio-energy exploitations. Under the frame of Waste to Energy principle, the related study focuses on the energy recovery of an industrial pig farm, due to energy...

Experimental Research Regarding the Combustion of Crude Camelina Oil in a Furnace

A. Petcu, R. Kuncser, M. Deaconu, C. Berbente & D. Crunteanu
Camelina is well-suited to be a biofuel crop, as its seeds naturally have high oil content. The process of obtaining bio-kerosene from camelina oil by hydrotreatment is time consuming and expensive, thus the possibility of using straight camelina oil as fuel in terrestrial applications is taken into consideration. For this purpose combustion tests have been conducted on a burner. Tests at different burner functioning regimes have been carried out by varying both the pressure of...

Biogas Production from Waste Waters through Anaerobic Co-Fermentation Processes at Laboratory Scale

L.A. Varga, A.E. Cioablă & I. Ionel
The present study focuses on suitable materials for co-fermentation used in the biogas production, characterized by increased characteristics in terms of quality and produced quantity in comparison to the situation of not using them. One will present a serial of comparative tests, at laboratory scale, with different material combinations of waste co-fermentation substances, having as basic material residual water from the Timisoara beer factory, 10 % by mass cow whey and 10 % by mass...

Modelling and Assessment of Algae Cultivation for Large Scale Biofuel Production - Sustainability and Aspects of Up-Scaling of Algae Biorefineries

M. Hingsamer, G. Jungmeier, D. Kleinegris & M. Barbosa
Microalgae are currently considered to be highly attractive as a raw material for production of bioenergy and biomaterials in the future BioEconomy. However, a number of successful developments are still necessary before algae can reach commercial applications. These include the development of commercial production technologies, efficient energy, nutrients and water use, maintenance of stabile production conditions at commercial scale, and cost-competitiveness. The European project "FUEL4ME - Future European League 4 Microalgal Energy" - is driven...

Modelling of Co-Gasification of Biomass and Cow Dung in a Downdraft Gasifier

J. Jia & B. Sun
One-dimensional chemical kinetics model of downdraft biomass gasifier has been developed in order to overcome the limitations of the equilibrium model. The mathematics models of pyrolysis, combustion and reduction zones of the downdraft gasification are combined to simulate the global process of biomass gasification. The gas composition, reaction temperature, and un-reacted char are predicted along height of the reduction zone. Effect of operating parameters, such as moisture content, equivalence ratio and biomass content on char...

Biomass Gasification with Dolomite and Olivine Particles as a Bed Inventory in Presence of Catalytic Ceramic Filter

S. Rapagnà & G. Spinelli
Continuously biomass gasification trials were carried out in a bench scale gasification plant. The main plant component has been a fluidized bed reactor containing in its freeboard alternately, non-catalytic and catalytic ceramic filters already used in other gasification tests. Both, catalytic and non-catalytic filters, were delivered by Pall Schumacher. The fluidized bed inventory was composed of olivine particles contains alternately 10% and 20% by weight of dolomite particles. The fluidization gases were air and steam...

Sustainable Production of Innovative Biobased Ingredients for Cosmetic Products

S. Adam, S. Tlatlik & A. Gottschalk
OPTIBIOCAT is an European 7th Framework Programme project (theme KBBE.2013.3.3-04), aiming at developing biocatalysts based on feruloyl esterases (FAEs) and glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) for production of antioxidants for cosmetic industry, expanding the number/type of industrial biotransformations. The multidisciplinary project consortium is composed of 16 partners including 8 SMEs, 1 large company, universities and research institutes, from 8 EU countries [1]. This paper focuses on our process engineering approach from the laboratory towards the future technical...

Design of a Novel Reactor for the Anaerobic Digestion of Biowaste: Radial and Axial Substrate Mixing in a Rotary Drum Fermenter

F. Brück, S. Hörner, S. Geipert, H. Geipert, U. Theilen & H. Weigand
This study focusses on the design requirements for the adaptation of a rotating drum fermenter to the specific needs of a dry anaerobic digestion (AD) process. To maximize biogas yields adequate substrate mixing during dry AD is of particular importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of static mixing tools (plates and shovels) on the residence time behavior. A lab-scale rotating drum fermenter (V = 250 L) was manufactured from acrylic...

An Economic Assessment of the Potential and Costs of Investments in R&D in Agriculture to Avoid Land Use Change and Food Security Effects of Bioenergy

Z. Smeets-Kristkova, E. Smeets & H. Van Meijl
There are major concerns about the impact of the large scale production of woody and grassy crops for energy production on the conversion of natural vegetation and on food security. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of avoiding these undesirable effects by increasing the productivity of crop and livestock production through investments in R&D in agriculture. An extended version of the Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET) is used...

Setting Up and Running Sustainable Supply of Woody Biomass from Agrarian Pruning and Plantation Removal. Scope and European Initiative

GarcÍA-Galindo, D., A. Rezeau, A. Samper, E. Karampinis, P. Grammelis, G. Simatou, M. Monteleone, F. Volpe, T. Zheliezna, A. Kravchenko, L.F. Calaim, C. Poutrin, T. Radic & E. Font De Mora
This paper presents a new European initiative, the uP_running project, which aims to set the path for the development of the bioenergy utilisation of agrarian pruning and plantation removal (APPR). These woody residues are not being used currently, although they present a high potential in the European Union due to a large cultivated area of vineyards, olive groves and fruit tree plantations. uP_running vocation is the abatement of the current immobility of the value chain...

Characterization of Sunflower Husks Fouling in a Drop Tube Furnace: Comparison of Deposits With H3PO4, CaCO3 AND Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Additives

L. De Fusco, J. Blondeau, F. Defoort, H. Jeanmart & F. Contino
Fouling of heat exchangers in biomass combustion plants is an operational problem that can lead to a severe decrease of boilers efficiency and availability. To counteract deposition, additives are used to bind the vaporized alkali in high melting temperature structures, such as solid phosphates or aluminum-silicates. Fouling during the combustion of sunflower husks with a combination of P- and Ca-based additive (H3PO4 and CaCO3) and Al-silicates additives (kaolin or halloysite) was studied in a test...

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