357 Works

Agricultural and Forest Residues in Peru: Potential for Bioenergy Use

E. Assureira & M. Assureira
The total primary energy supply in Peru in 2014 was 22'711,210 TOE, mainly from fossil fuels with 82% followed by wood and hydroelectric energy. Despite the high energy potential of agro-wastes, these resources are considered as low-value materials being burned or sent to landfills.The aim of this work was the development of the Peruvian Biomass Energy Atlas which shows the location, quantity and energy potential of agricultural and forest wastes in the country, at department...

Increasing Energy Efficiency of an Agro-Industrial Integrated Process through Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Slaughterhouse Waste Water and Farm Manure

A.R. Wächter, I. Ionel, T.V. Vintila & D. Vaida
This work is a case study of an agro-industrial company from Arad County, Romania. This company applies an integrated farming and processing approached by (near) closed loop cycle of bio-resources: (1) agricultural farming, (2) animal breeding (cattle and pigs), (3) food production (meat and milk products), (4) marketing finished agro (bio) products. The single link missing to close this cycle is conversion of organic wastes into energy and fertilizer. We propose application of anaerobic digestion...

Integrating Power-to-Gas into Sugarcane Ethanol Industry: A Mobility OrientedOptimization

A.B. Gallo, M.M. Santos, H.K.M. Costa, M.T.W. Fagá & E. Moutinho Dos Santos
Concerns about climate change motivate the quest for less carbon intensive technologies. In energy sector, this explains the increasing use of renewable energy sources, especially solar and wind, and natural gas. However, variable sources, like solar and wind, cause challenges in supply-demand grid balance. Consequently, measures to increase grid flexibility are required, including the use of energy storage technologies. Power-to-gas is a promising one, providing seasonal storage as well as converting electricity into another energy...

CO Hydrogenation to Alcohols over SBA-15 Supported Fe, Co, and Cu: Binary vs Ternary Catalysts

J. Plana-Pallejà, C. Berrueco, D. Montané & S. Abelló
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS), currently used to obtain hydrocarbons from syngas, comprises a very complex set of reactions that yield a wide variety of products. An important subset among those products are alcohols, and a novel field of study of this classical reaction involves its tuning towards the production of higher alcohols (>C2+-OH). The present work aims to adapt classic FTS catalysts – based on Fe and Co as active components – towards the production of...

Modelling Tar Conversion on SOFC Anodes

T. Herrmann, M. Dillig & J. Karl
Tars are inevitable components of producer gas from gasification of biomass. Because of their condensing nature they are often regarded as the Achilles heel of biomass gasification. Studies have shown that tar­laden producer gas can be utilized in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) without degradation problems. The nickel based anode acts as a catalyst for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Hence the integration of a biomass driven gasifier and a SOFC does not require extensive...

Comparative Analyses of Current Biobased Economy Policies and Strategic India - EU Partnership

N. Sharma, P. Joshi & D. Claps
Both India and Europe still depend heavily on fossil fuels and both face the controversial challenging trade-off between the food supply on the one side, and biomass production on the other. The present studies show that both regions share a similar idealistic view when it comes to sustainability – both striving towards a low-carbon economy with emphasis on “green” energy. The government policy on bioenergy and bio-based products plays an important role in the development...

Emissions and Performance of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Diesel and Biodiesel Additivated with Bio-Oil

C. Dueso, J. Arroyo, F. Moreno, M. Muñoz, C. Monné, A. Bautista, N. Gil-Lalaguna, A. Gonzalo & J.L. Sánchez
Biodiesel is considered one of the most promising alternative fuels to petrol fuels. It consists of a mixture of alkyl esters obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a short chain alcohol (mainly methanol or ethanol) and catalysed by acids or bases (usually NaOH or KOH). Poor oxidation stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel are considered the main drawbacks for its wide utilization as fuel. Different synthetic additives have been used...

New CFD Based Model for the Design and Optimisation of Porous Burners for Biomass Combustion Plants

G. Knauss, G. Thek, F. Biedermann & I. Obernberger
As no reliable CFD models for porous burners are available, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based simulation model has been developed which is intended to serve as an innovative tool to extend the application of porous burners to biomass boilers and to support the development of this new application by CFD simulations. The model developed allows a realistic three-dimensional calculation of the combustion processes inside porous burners coupling gas phase combustion and the solid porous...

Biomass Accident Investigations - Missed Opportunities for Learning and Accident Prevention

F.H. Hedlund
The past decade has seen a major increase in the production of energy from biomass. The growth has been mirrored in an increase of serious biomass related accidents involving fires, gas explosions, combustible dust explosions and the release of toxic gasses. There are indications that the number of bioenergy related accidents is growing faster than the energy production. This paper argues that biomass accidents, if properly investigated and lessons shared widely, provide ample opportunities for...

Integrated Utilisation Pathways for Biogenic Carbon Dioxide in Biomass Driven Industry Sectors

S. Kouri, M. Hurskainen, J. Kärki, E. Tsupari, E. Alakangas & C. Bajamundi
The climate change forces us to shift from fossil to renewable resources. Integrated utilisation of biogenic CO2 is a promising way to produce sustainable raw materials and fuels. CO2 capture and utilisation (CCU) enables sustainable routes for carbon-based products and guiding the development to utilising especially biogenic instead of fossil CO2 directs the investments towards sustainable targets in the long term. Integrated CCU options benefit from a local CO2 source – substantially reducing the CO2...

Physical and Thermal Properties of Briquette Fuel from Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw Using Vinasse as a Binder

RÍOs, J.M.G., D.S. Rodrigues, A.R. Santana, C.A. Silva, K.B.B. Marana, G.C. Antonio & J.T.C.L. Toneli
The physical and thermal properties of briquettes composed by straw, bagasse and vinasse as residues from sugarcane industry were determined by varying the proportions according to central compose experimental design 2³ with three central points, considering temperature, moisture and the percentage of bagasse composition in the briquettes as independent variables. The characterization was performed according to the proximate and ultimate analysis in order to quantify the components in these residues. It was also determined the...

Solid Superacidic and Superbasic Catalysts for Enhanced Biodiesel Production throughSequential Esterification and Transesterification

C.L. Chiang, K.S. Lin, C.W. Shu, J.C.S. Wu, K.C.W. Wu & Y.T. Huang
Soybean oil containing free fatty acids (FFA, palmitic acid, 5.0 wt%) was converted to biodiesel by a two-step process in a catalytic fixed-bed batch reactor using three different catalysts. The solid superacidic SO42-/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared with 0.1-1.5 M H2SO4 and calcined at 300-700 .C. In addition, two solid superbasic catalysts, KF/CaO–Fe3O4 and Na/NaOH/Al2O3, were synthesized with 5-25 wt% KF loading and 10-25 wt% NaOH, respectively, then calcined at 200-700 .C. The efficiency of FFA...

Separation of Salts During the Gasification of Spent Grain in Supercritical Water

N. Boukis, I.K. Stoll, J. Sauer, J. Fischer & R. Kansy
The process of gasification of organic substances in supercritical water is an effective method for the energetic utilization of wet residual biomass. Biomass contains also inorganic plant components like Phosphorous, Sulphur and Nitrogen salts. Reuse of these components is essential in order to save the limited natural resources and energy. On the other hand, inorganic salts precipitate under the conditions of supercritical water and cause plugging and corrosion of different components. In the present work,...

Boosting Water Protection Efficiency by Means of Biofilters in Forestry

K. Karosto, L. Lukkarinen, T. Ranta-Korhonen, H. Soininen & K. Kontinen
The aim of the study was to develop filters in order to decrease the nutrient and solid-matter load to waterways. It is difficult to prevent completely the transfer of solids and nutrients to lower water systems with traditional water protection methods (e.g. sedimentation tanks) used in forestry. Filter tests were carried out in order to find a solution, which would complement and enhance the existing methods. During the improvement of ditches, it was observed that...

Simulation of a Polygeneration Process for the Generation of Hydrogen, H2CH4, and District Heat via Sorption Enhanced Reforming of Wood Chips

M. Kraussler, F. Benedikt, J. Priscak & H. Hofbauer
In this work, a polygeneration process for the generation of H2, H2CH4 (a gas mixture composed of H2 and CH4, sometimes referred to as hythane), and district heat was simulated using the process simulation software IPSEpro. The process employed sorption enhanced reforming of wood chips using the dual fluidized bed steam gasification technology. In addition, two pressure swing adsorption units using carbon molecular sieve and activated carbon as adsorbents were employed in order to separate...

Comparison Between Equilibrium and Kinetic Models with Aspen Plus for a Full Scale Biomass Downdraft Gasifier

S. Frigo, R. Gabbrielli & M. Seggiani
The development of numerical simulation models is an important tool in order to provide more accurate qualitative and quantitative information on biomass gasification process and the effect of process parameters. The modelling of the gasification process can be generally executed adopting one of the following approach: steady state models (equilibrium models), transient state models (kinetic models) and models based on the computational fluid dynamics. This paper shows a comparison between an equilibrium model and a...

From Irrigated to Rainfed Agriculture in a Mediterranean Environment: the Shift in Biomass Yield of the Arundo Crop over the Seasons

M.D. Curt, M. Sanz, P.V. Mauri, A. Plaza, J. Cano-Ruiz, J. Sanchez, P.L. Aguado & J. Fernandez
A long-term study of the potential of nine clones of Arundo donax L. for biomass production was conducted under a Xeric Mediterranean climate characterized by 4-month dry period in summertime. The crop was managed according to a perennial cultivation system with annual harvests of the aboveground biomass. Clones were optimally irrigated four years; afterwards, they were maintained in rain-fed conditions for two years (363 mm year-1 mean precipitation). In line with literature data, the present...

Effect of Wood Pre-Treatment on Operating Conditions, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions During Combustion in a Pellet Stove - First Analytical Campaign

P. Genevray, G. Schmidt, F. Cazier, D. Dewaele, C. Vandenbilcke, G. Leyssens, G. Trouvé, V. Tschamber, C. Schönnenbeck, O. Allgaier, S. Labbé, F. Balay, Y. Denance, E. Faivre, C. Le-Dreff & N. Adam
This work aims at studying the influence of the nature of biomass fuel and its pre-treatment on both emission factors of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated by new domestic heating systems in real use conditions. Indeed, last years, domestic wood heating manufacturers have highly optimised combustion conditions, thanks to new technologies development, to respect the new European legislation proposed in 2022. Furthermore, environmental performance can be improved by modifying biomass properties (type, size, chemical composition,...

Pilot Plant Air-Steam Gasification of Nut Shells for Syngas Production

N. Cerone, F. Zimbardi, L. Contuzzi, M.S. Celiktas & V. Valerio
Autothermal gasification of hazelnut and almond was carried out and the performances of a pilot plant with a feeding rate of 20 -30 kg/h were evaluated. Air, mixes of air with steam and oxygen with steam were used as gasification medium; the gas flows corresponded to different equivalence ratios of combustion, ER(O2), and water reaction, ER(H2O). The recording of the thermal profile inside the reactive bed during the runs made it possible to highlight a...

Socio-economic Assessment including Feedstock Supply and Marketability Concept of HTC/HTL-Products

K. Suwelack, A. Kruse & N. Dahmen
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) appear to be effective conversion techniques to produce energy dense biofuels and high value bio-chemicals. Both processes avoid the energy penalty of drying the biomass feedstock by processing the whole wet feedstock in hot compressed water. This work presents a socio-economic assessment and a market analysis of different HTL and HTC-biorefineries and also evaluates the appropriateness of different feedstocks qualitatively in this respect. Throughout the analysis the value...

Technical Production Process for Innovative Antioxidants using Novel Enzymes as Biocatalyst

S. Adam, S. Tlatlik & A. Gottschalk
A systematic approach combining conceptual process design, theoretical and experimental research is applied, to result in a sustainable whole technical production process. It includes the evaluation of the enzyme production and downstream processing to a commercial viable quantity of novel enzymes as well as the development of the most sustainable whole integrated technical biocatalytic process. This paper summarizes the tools and approach applied in the EU FP7 project OPTIBIOCAT (www.optibiocat.eu). It is about the production...

Assessment of Citrus Wastes Gasification through a Fluidized Bed Reactor: Experimental Analysis for Integration in an Existing Citrus Juice Industry

M. Prestipino, V. Chiodo, S. Maisano, G. Zafarana & A. Galvagno
The aim of this work is to assess the integration of citrus residues gasification in a Sicilian medium size enterprise, which processes about 85,000 t/year of fresh fruit. In this work, gasification tests were performed in a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor working with both air and air-steam mixtures as gasification mediums. The gasification experiments were carried out at 700, 750, and 850 °C and at different steam to biomass ratios (0 – 1.25). Thus, evaluations...

Influence of the Stoichiometric Ratio on Tar Composition during Fluidized Bed Gasification

D. Fuentes-Cano, J. Salinero, P. Haro, S. Nilsson & A. Gómez-Barea
Fluidized bed gasification is a promising technology for the energetic valorization of biomass and wastes. However the presence of heavy tars limits the use of the gas to applications where the gas is not cooled. Several parameters such as the temperature profile inside the gasifier and the gas residence time influence the concentration and composition of the tar mixture and thus the gas dew point. In autothermal air-blown fluidized bed gasifiers the stoichiometric ratio (fed...

Contribution to Sustainability of Cogeneration and CO2 Compression Stages in Lignocellulosic Biorefineries for Bioethanol Production

A. Sanchez & G. Rendon-Acosta
The role of cogeneration and CO2-compression stages is studied in the sustainability of biochemical-platform biorefineries for producing lignocellulosic bioethanol. Olive tree pruning is employed as feedstock for a 1000 ton/day capacity biorefinery. Selling compressed CO2 from fermentation as a byproduct provides a slight economic advantage (i.e. 2% lower TPC) with respect to a standard biorefinery design including a co-generation stage. Nevertheless, the standard design with co-generation is more environmentally sustainable than either the standard plant...

Sepiolite Performance as Bed Material Towards Gas and Tar Compositions During C. Cardunculus L. Gasification

D. Serrano Garcia, S. Sanchez Delgado & A. Horvat
Sepiolite, a clay mineral with good adsorbent properties is proposed as bed material for biomass gasification in bubbling fluidized bed. Cynara cardunculus L. has been used as biomass feedstock and silica sand has been also used as a reference bed material. Operating temperature is varied from 830 to 875 ºC with a constant equivalence ratio of 0.30. The raw gas generated using sepiolite as bed material has a slightly less quality than the gas produced...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    357

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    357