285 Works

A Modelling Based Study on the Integration of Indirect Biomass Gasification, Methanol and Power Production

B. Sridharan, M. Del Grosso, C. Tsekos, W. De Jong & S. Klein
This work focused on system modelling regarding the investigation of biomass gasification and its integration with methanol synthesis and power production. Indirect gasification technology was chosen and modelledusing Aspen Plus®. The gasification process along with the reaction kinetics were validated with experimental data from the literature. Different processing steps towards the conversion of biomass to methanol were identified and modelled. The identified process blocks were: Gasifier, Gas Cleaning Unit, Methanol Synthesis and the Energy Conversion...

The Effect of Biomass Drying on the Overall Efficiency and Economics of Combined Production of Transportation Fuels and Heat by Steam Gasification and FT-Synthesis

S. Tuomi, E. Kurkela, I. Hannula & C-G. Berg
In this study, we examined the effect of biomass drying on the overall efficiency of the BTL process in combined production of FT product and heat. The proposed BTL process is based on steam-blown dual fluidized-bed gasification of biomass, simplified gas clean-up and once-through FT synthesis. Biomass drying was found to have a significant effect on both the FT wax yield and the overall thermal efficiency of the BTL plant. According to the calculations carried...

Charcoal Production in Kenya. Ensuring Sustainability in Hotspots Areas

H. Wanjiru, R. Diaz-Chavez & F.X. Johnson
Biomass is the main source of energy for cooking in Kenya. In 2013, 72% of the country’s total primary energy supply came from bioenergy. Charcoal provides 82% of household energy in urban areas, and 34% in rural areas. The sector employs nearly 900,000 people and contribute approximately US$1.6 annually to Kenya’s economy. Countries have tried to ban charcoal production in order to protect forests, but given that charcoal production occur mostly in the informal sector,...

Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Tunisian Lif of Date Palm Phoenix Dactylifera L.

Y. Antit, K. Zaafouri, I. Olivares, M. Handi & S. Sánchez
Lif is a byproduct generated by the date palm tree Phoenix dactylifera L. with an annual production of around 30460t/year. As this material is not exploited thermochemically and biochemically, it could be a good feedstock for bioenergy recovery. Therefore, to reach this purpose it is necessary to hydrolyze enzymatically the hydrotreated lif fibers (young and old) at 220°C using a combination of two enzymes. The optimization of enzymatic saccharification in young lif (33.33 FPU of...

Hydrogen from Biomass by Oxy-Steam Gasification - A Quantitative Analysis of Cases

A. Gupta & S. Dasappa
Hydrogen is the future energy carrier with zero carbon footprint. Currently more than 97% of hydrogen produced comes from fossil fuels, mainly, natural gas via steam methane reforming [1]. Present work is an attempt to establish biomass as a source for future hydrogen production. Oxy-steam gasification of biomass produces synthesis gas enriched with hydrogen. In present work, experimental results from a fixed bed downdraft gasifier have been taken as basis for analysis of four routes...

Formation of N-Containing Heterocycles from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Model Compounds and Sewage Sludge

Y. Fan, U. Hornung, N. Dahmen & A. Kruse
The hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process is limited for fuel applications by the high nitrogen content in the bio-crude in case of the protein-containing biomass. In this study, carbohydrates and proteins are selected as model compounds to perform HTL, investigating the fate of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing heterocycles in the bio-crude. Special attention was paid to the influence of Maillard Reactions on this conversion. In addition, sewage sludge as “real” feedstock is subjected to the same experimental...

Biotechnology to Investigate the Microbial Community Responsible of Biogas Production from Biomass

M. Trentini, M. Lorenzon & F. Conti
Biotechnology represents a new point of view on the organic matter and its purposes. The biotechnological approach consists in the exploitation of living organisms or biological systems for specific intents, such as the production of metabolites or the modification and improvement of processes. The organic waste, used for the biogas production, contains complex microbial consortia. In the humid and airless environment, typical of the anaerobic digestion, the organic matter’s degradation is catalysed by those microbes...

Is There a Best Way for the Hydrothermal Treatment of Moist Bio-Waste? First Experiences from a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach

D. Reißmann, D. Thrän & A. Bezama
A considerable part of high water containing biogenic residues does not have a proper, resource-efficient use in several European countries yet. Especially, their challenging logistics and the low energy efficiencies are identified as crucial barriers for managing these materials via conventional biomass treatment paths. Thus, hydrothermal processes (HTP) seem to be promising for the treatment of such residual streams, as for their optimal processing them actually require an input containing 70% to 90% water content....

Utilization of Various Non-woody Biomass Fuels in an Innovative Multi-fuel Combustion Concept

S. Feldmeier, E. Wopienka, T. Reiterer, A. Buchegger, M. Schwarz & C. Pfeifer
The variation of properties of woody and non-woody biomass fuels poses a challenge to small-scale combustion technologies. Not only constructional aspects, e.g. the structure of the grate or the ash removal solution but also aspects related to the control strategy need to consider the broad variety of non-woody biomass fuels. Performance and efficiency loss, ash- and slag-related problems, increase of emission release through to damage or even failure of the appliance are the consequences of...

Double-Pass Harvesting System on Giant Reed in South Italy

A. Assirelli, V. Civitarese, G. Caracciolo, M. Sannino, M. Crimaldi & S. Faugno
The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of two step harvesting system for giant reed. The biomass was shredded and dried in the field, in second time was baled and storage. First step was cutting and shredding with a specific shredder for biomass crops rear mounted in agricultural tractor and in the second time the Arundo biomass was harvested after more day of drying in the field with continuous monitoring of the...

The AGRANA Starch Biorefinery Coproducing Highly Sustainable Crop Based Bioethanol, Food, Feed and Chemicals for the Bioeconomy

G. Jungmeier, L. Canella, E. Haimer, J. Eisenschenk & D. Grüll
In Pischelsdorf/Austria a starch biorefinery is in operation to coproduce food, feed, bioethanol and chemicals from an annual wheat input of about 340,000 t. The products are starch, bran, gluten, 3 types of animal feed, bioethanol and liquid biogenic CO2. The purpose of the work was to analyze and assess the life cycle based sustainability of this starch biorefinery in comparison to two reference systems covering technical, economic, environmental indicators. Additionally for the bioethanol the...

Study of the Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in the Residue from Thermal Conversion of a Sewage Sludge

A. Ronda, V. Ferreira, J. Salinero, P. Haro, D. Fuentes-Cano, S. Nilsson & A. Gómez-Barea
The thermal conversion of the sewage sludge by pyrolysis, gasification and combustion can be an attractive alternative because it reduces the volume of the residue and improve its properties for safe disposal. However, the high content of some heavy metals in sewage sludge has to be carefully considered to come up with rational and sustainable disposal methods. Therefore, the study of the heavy metals distribution in the final residue after the thermal conversion of the...

Long Term Effect of Treated Sewage Sludge on Energy Crop Production

I. Bautista, A. Plaza, P.V. Mauri, M.C. Amorós & M.C. Lobo
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of two types of treated sewage sludge as soil amendment, composted with pruning wastes (CP) and thermally dried (ST) on the production of ten woody perennials species for energy purposes. The species used were: Paulownia tomentosa (princess tree), Populus x euramericana (Canadian poplar), Ulmus minor (field elm, tree clones), Ulmus laevis (European white elm), Prunus x amygdalo-persica (adafuel), Tamarix gallica (tamarisk), Salix alba (white willow)...

Identification of EU Success Factors for Sustainable Wood Waste Valorization

A.L. Fernando, J. Costa, M. Cocchi & D. Boulday
Absorbing the potential of wood waste in EU regions and industrial biobased ecosystems is the objective of the BioReg project funded by the European Union. Overall, the project aims to identify, develop and fully unlock the unused wood waste potential at European level and allow for the implementation of the full range of wood waste valorisation practices among European regions. For the purpose, five model regions were analyzed and three recipient regions will be engaged...

Potential Effects of Global Warming on the Spatial Distribution and Productivity of Five Tree Species Used in the Wood Energy Supply Chain in France for 2050

E. Garbolino, W. Daniel & G. Hinojos Mendoza
The development of wood biomass energy systems, in order to produce heat and/or electricity, knows a significant increase since the end of the 90’s in France, with more 6.000 power plants and heating plants developed currently. Because these collective and industrial systems are built for a minimal duration of 30 years, it is relevant to assess the availability of the wood resource according to the potential impacts of global warming on fire tree species mainly...

Assessment of the Potential of Green Floating Filters for Bioenergy Production

D-S. Kourkoumpas, M.D. Curt, S. Kallen, M. Buevinc, M. Zapatero, S. Kiartzis, P. Diaz, P.L. Aguado, S. Bezergianni & P. Grammelis
The purpose of this research is to use helophytes as floating filters in an artificial aqautic system for water treatment in Lake Cheimaditida and irrigation channels (Western Macedonia, 40 km southeast of Florina, Greece) and in irrigation channels and pods (broader region of Avila, province 150 km east of Madrid, Spain). By using these floating filters, the challenge of producing feedstock for bioenergy without using agricultural land will be achieved. There are several factors that...

Numerical Analysis of a Combined Heat and Power Generation Technology from Residual Biomasses

C. Caputo, D. Cirillo, M. Costa, M. La Villetta, R. Tuccillo & R. Villani
Energy valorization of organic waste material is nowadays an assessed practice of circular economy. Combined heat and power (CHP) technologies based on biomass gasification represent viable substitutes to traditional energy conversion units based on combustion, whose need has recently experienced a huge growth, due to the increasing concerns about the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and the related effects on climate changes. At present, only a few solutions have yet achieved a level of...

Gasification of Cellulose and Lignin with Water Vapor

R.L. Costa, R.F.P.M. Moreira, E. Virmond & H.J. José
The biomasses are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in different proportions. Studies in this area evaluate the behavior of different biomasses in thermochemical processes in general, but not in their constituents. However, it is important to note that the proportion of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is directly related to the final products. The objective of this work was to study the influence of biomass, cellulose and lignin components on the gasification process. The gasification...

Effect of Reforming Conditions in the Catalyst Deactivation in the Pyrolysis-Reforming of Biomass for Hydrogen Production

A. Arregi, M. Amutio, J. Alvarez, I. Barbarias, L. Santamaria, M. Cortazar, E. Fernandez & M. Olazar
Hydrogen production from catalytic steam reforming of volatile products from biomass pyrolysis has been investigated using a reaction system provided with two steps in series: i) pyrolysis of biomass at 500 ºC in a conical spouted bed reactor, and ii) subsequent step of catalytic steam reforming of the pyrolysis volatiles in a fluidized bed over a commercial Ni reforming catalyst. The effect of temperature (550-700 ºC), space time (10-30 gcatalyst min gvolatiles-1) and steam/biomass ratio...

Valorization of Char from Biomass Gasification as Catalyst Support: Preliminary Results of Fischer-Tropsch Tests

V. Benedetti, S.S. Ail, F. Patuzzi, R. Rauch & M. Baratieri
Char, a carbonaceous solid residue derived from biomass gasification, exhibits remarkable properties very similar to activated carbon (AC) and potentially it could replace it in many applications. In particular, this study investigates the feasibility of using char from commercial biomass gasifiers as catalyst support for the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. 20% Co-based catalysts supported on char and on a commercial AC selected as reference, were prepared through incipient wetness impregnation and characterized through elemental analysis, physisorption...

A Village-Based Integrated Biorefinery Model for Rural Areas

S. Bartha, F. Carvalheiro, L.C. Duarte, S. Di Berardino, A. Reis, B. Vajda, M.T. Lopes Da Silva & V. Velichko
Biomass use in many European villages is still currently focused on the production of heat by burning the woody biomass or agricultural residues, typically in low energy efficient equipment, such as fireplaces, stoves, and boilers. In fact, rural Europe, regardless of several EU and national funded projects in the past years, performing successfully innovative technologies and studies demonstrating the high potential of biomass upgrade, the full-scale application did not yet captured the opportunities / profit...

Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Mechanical Behavior of Charcoal for Metallurgical Applications

A. Dufourny, J. Blin, G. Humbert, D. Guibal, L. Martin, J. Banos & L. Van De Steene
Substitution of fossils reducers by charcoal from woody biomass is one of the most suitable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of metallurgical industries. The main problem involved in fossils reducers replacement is the lack of mechanical strength of charcoal. Aim of this study is to investigate the impact of pyrolysis parameters, such as temperature and solid residence time, on the mechanical properties of charcoal. Charcoal was produced from two woody biomasses, Eucalyptus globulus and...

Agrochains - Supply Chains of Green Residues for Bioenergy Exploitation

I. Eleftheriadis, I. Papamichael, M. Christou, K.D. Panopoulos, V. Bellis & S. Chatzigavriel
The main objectives of this work is the development, implementation and evaluation of biomass supply chains from“green”agricultural residues for the production of energy products (solid biofuels, energy) through specific field trials, testing ofenergy exploitation technologies and related techno-economic and environmental assessments. For that purpose, two major categories of biomass were selected, straw and corn residues, as well aspruning, including urban tree’s clearing and forest residues. The work will be implemented in three regions in Greece,...

Optimisation of Gas Production in a Biogas Plant by Improving the Monitoring

H. Soininen, S.K. Mörsky & L. Pulkkinen
In the future, biogas production processes must be more cost efficient than they are now. The factors affecting the process must also be better identifiable and manageable. The aim of this study is to develop the processes, monitoring, and process diagnostics of biogas plants in order to meet the increasing business environment demands of the future. Comprehensive optimisation and monitoring of biogas plants and their end products will be studied in the course of this...

Developing Technique Anaeorobic Digestion in the Context of Renewable Energy Sources

G. Wałowski
Methods and techniques applied in the immobilization of methanogens were analyzed. The literature-based examples of immobilization were reviewed to seek research areas referring to media for strains of bacteria used in bioreactors. The reason for this study is the use of microorganisms to produce gas by means of porous materials. Technical and process aspects of the technology resulting biogas technologies were identified. The selected techniques were reviewed and their technological aspects were characterized. The conditions...

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