3,775 Works

Biomass Freezing Tests for Composite and Metal Containers

J. Föhr, K. Karttunen, J. Enström, T. Johannesson & T. Ranta
The use of forest-based biomass has been increasing rapidly over the last and current decade meaning longer transport distances from the supply areas to the largest demand sites. Long distances have also made rail and waterway modes into parts of supply logistics. Interchangeable containers have many advantages in the supply chain, but they will also cause idle times for containers in terminals and long-lasting deliveries. Idle times may cause freezing problems for containers which are...

Boosting Water Protection Efficiency by Means of Biofilters in Forestry

K. Karosto, L. Lukkarinen, T. Ranta-Korhonen, H. Soininen & K. Kontinen
The aim of the study was to develop filters in order to decrease the nutrient and solid-matter load to waterways. It is difficult to prevent completely the transfer of solids and nutrients to lower water systems with traditional water protection methods (e.g. sedimentation tanks) used in forestry. Filter tests were carried out in order to find a solution, which would complement and enhance the existing methods. During the improvement of ditches, it was observed that...

Nitrogen Assessment in Small Scale Biomass Heating Systems

M. Enigl, C. Strasser, E. Hochbichler & C. Schmidl
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) raises big concerns particularly in form of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) since it causes direct and indirect (as precursor) harm to society and environment. Also for the thermal use of biomass there have been intensive debates, but no study so far has quantified the impact of Nitrogen. Therefore a better understanding of how nitrogen performs along the biomass combustion cycle (i.e. from tree to emission) should be gained. Based on a literature study...

Comparing the Relative Contribution of Crop Residues, Grass and Forest Biomass to Produce Second Generation Bioethanol in Veracruz, Mexico

H.D. Inurreta-Aguirre, J. Uresti-Gil, R. De J. López-Escudero & D. Uresti-Durán
Crop residues, grasses and fast growing forest species are considered as the most promissory source of biomass for second generation bioethanol. The state of Veracruz, located in the tropical southeastern México; with 7.18 Mha has appropriate conditions to produce cereals, grasses and forest species. The objective of this work was to assess and map the potential contribution of crop residues, grasses and fast growing forest species to produce biomass as feedstock for second generation bioethanol...

BioEconomy Regional Strategy Toolkit - The BERST Project

R. Guisson & M. Van Leeuwen
The implementation of the European bioeconomy occurs under the impulse of entrepreneurs (ranging from carbon­based industries to farmers and foresters) and political authorities, assisted by knowledge workers (R&D). The drivers are (1) the search for alternative resources for fossil fuels, (2) the response to climate warming by becoming as CO2 neutral as possible and (3) the industrial demand for new functionalities offered by biobased materials and chemicals. Regions can be encouraged to apply new development...

Biomass CHP with Micro-Fluidized-Bed Combustion

D. Müller & J. Karl
The high demand for micro scale combined heat and power plants fired with renewable energy sources based on biomass requires new technological concepts. Central issue is the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels, which leads to fouling of heat exchangers and reduces the reliability during the operation. In this contribution, the concept of linking a Stirling engine with a fluidized bed combustion applied for small-scale combustion is presented. First tests at the Institute of Energy...

Techno-Economic Analysis of a Novel Solution for Biomass and Waste Valorisation in Paper Mills

G. Fiorenza, F. Di Gennaro, D. Barisano, F. Reale & G. Braccio
Paper industry is an “energy intensive” sector, therefore an increasing fraction of energy requirements is currently fulfilled by self-production, the most common solution being represented by gas-fired CHP plants. Moreover, the growing use of recovered paper and board as the raw material requires rational solutions for the management of the refuse originated by the mechanical separation of gross impurities from the usable fibre. A preliminary assessment of a novel solution for biomass and waste valorisation...

The Effect of Vicia Faba as a Cover Crop on Growth and Biomass Productivity of Fibre Sorghum on Poor Sandy Soils

D.F. Beslemes, N.G. Danalatos, P. Efthimiadis & E.L. Tigka
A field experiment was carried out in Trikala area (central Greece), involving the cultivation of fiber sorghum as energy crop after an intercrop cultivation of faba bean as cover crop in the period 2007-2009. Experimental design was a factorial split plot involving two factors: a) nitrogen dressings in 2 treatments e.g. 0, 150 kg/ha for sorghum and b) cover crop intercropping in 3 treatments: i. harvested before the sowing of the energy crop, ii. incorporated...

Fermentation by Debaryomyces Hansenii NRRL Y-7426 from Detoxificated Olive-Tree Pruning Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

A.J. Moya, S. Mateo, J.G Puentes, I. Roberto & S. Sánchez
The purpose of this research was to study the fermentability of a new method of detoxification applied to olive-tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolyzates with Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426. The olive-tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolyzates obtained from acid hydrolysis were not fermented by D. hansenii, neither growth nor consumes was observed. This strong inhibition, even in cultures from acid hydrolysis in lower concentrations, caused the need for a detoxification process. It could be noted the high concentration of...

Optimisation of Logwood Fired Stoves by Means of Innovative Primary Measures

C. Mandl, T. Brunner, I. Obernberger & M. Koessl
Primary measures for logwood fired stoves have been evaluated and advanced stove concepts showing significantly reduced CO, OGC and PM emissions have been developed and tested. The primary measures covered advanced stove geometries, air supply concepts, air staging concepts as well as process control automation measures. The work performed has been based on two relevant approaches, namely experimental work as well as utilisation of CFD simulations for stove design, optimisation and evaluation. In a first...

Use of Gasification Char for Hot Gas Filtration in Micro-scale Power Plants

N. Morselli, G. Allesina, S. Pedrazzi, M. Puglia, J. Mason, A. Lemberger & P. Tartarini
Char is a carbonaceous gasification by-product often used as soil amendment due to its high porosity and recalcitrant structure. Porosity is a fundamental feature when char is used to adsorb liquids and aerosol. This paper investigates gasification char as filtering medium for producer gas in small-scale gasifiers. Two metallic candle filters filled with about 1 kg of gasification char each were fabricated and tested under different temperature conditions (60, 70 to 80 °C). Char behavior...

Energy Conversion of Cynara Biomass and Valorization of By-Products

J. Fernández, M.D. Curt, A. Bahillo, D. Santana, J.M. Toledo, M. López Granados, A. Heras, U. Ruiz-Rivas & J. Villa
The R+D+i Programme ‘Energy Conversion of Cynara Biomass and Valorization of By¬Products' (acronym: CARDENER¬CM) has been conducted since January 2010 in the frame of the call for project proposals launched by the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) for research groups with the support of the European Social Fund. The ultimate objective of the Programme is to assess the energy conversion potential of Cynara cardunculus L. for cultivation in the Region of Madrid, Spain. CARDENER¬CM covers...

Wheat-Straw and Chickpea-Straw Alkaline Pretreatment to Produce Adsorption Materials for Wastewater Cleaning

D. Politi, P. Fradelos & D. Sidiras
The feasibility of using agricultural wastes (e.g. straws) and wood industry wastes (e.g. sawdust) to remove basic dyes from water and wastewater is widely investigated by various researchers. In this work, wheat and chickpea straw were used as absorbents after alkaline pretreatment to enhance their adsorption properties. Alkaline pretreatment successfully delignifies biomass by disrupting the ester bonds cross­linking lignin and xylan, resulting in cellulose enriched fractions. The use of dilute alkaline solution for the pretreatment...

Geospatial Analysis of Heat Utilisation Centers from Bionergy Plants in Germany

S. Das, P. Tafarte & D. Thrän
The increasing pressure on biomass resources makes it important to optimally utilize locally available resources. Heat generation and use from biomass has been undertaken in several European countries including Germany and is also supported by policy instruments. This paper aims at identification and spatial visualisation of existing biomass plants for heat use and assesses the importance of settlement density for heat use planning. The results indicate that there are strong regional and intra­regional differences that...

Comparative Research of No-Food Cereals Combustion in Small Heating Appliances

D. Dell'Antonia, R. Gubiani & G. Pergher
The importance of emission control has increased sharply due to increased need of energy from combustion. However, biomass utilization in energy production is not free from problems because of physical and chemical characteristics which are substantially different from conventional energy sources. In this situation, the quantity and quality of emissions as well as used renewable source as wood or corn grain are often unknown. To assess this problem the paper addresses the objectives to quantify...

Modelling of a Small Scale Energy Conversion System Based on an Open Top Gasifier Coupled with a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

C. Caligiuri, D. Antolini, F. Patuzzi, M. Renzi & M. Baratieri
The purpose of this work is to model a CHP system made up of an open-top downdraft gasifier and a 4kW single-cylinder diesel engine in operation at the Bioenergy & Biofuels Lab of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano (Italy). In particular, the present study aims to couple a multi-stage and multi-phase thermodynamic model of the gasifier with a 0-D thermodynamic model describing dual fuel combustion inside the engine.Preliminary results have been obtained in terms of...

Biomass Feedstock from Multipurpose Poplar Plantations: Current Situation and Potential Development in Italy

D. Coaloa & G. Facciotto
Traditional hybrid poplar plantations, with ten­year rotations, grown on agricultural land were able to meet, for a long time, various needs of the wood market, providing industrial wood as well as biomass. Recently, beside the ten­year rotation cultivation model, different high density plantation models, such as short rotation coppice, have been adopted, in order to meet the new requirements of specific sectors ­such as, for instance, the need of biomass for energy or for new...

Effect of Torrefaction in an Auger Reactor on the Fast Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge

Atienza-MartÍNez, M., I. Rubio, I. Fonts, J. Ceamanos & G. Gea
The aim of this study is to improve some of the properties of the liquid obtained from fast pyrolysis of dry sewage sludge by means of previous torrefaction in an auger reactor under intermediate temperatures and long solid residence times. Dry sewage sludge previously torrefied in a lab-scale auger reactor under different conditions (250 ºC/13 min and 275 ºC/ 24 min) was pyrolyzed (530 ºC/6 min) in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor. The results obtained...

A Novel Approach to Biomass Gasification in a Downdraft Gasifier

Y. Muilu, K. Pieniniemi, U.-P. Granö & U. Lassi
The purpose of the HighBio is to study input and output flows of the wood chips gasification process in pilot-scale gasifiers. Solid wood based biomass is used as a fuel in the gasification process. It is heated with the amount of air which is insufficient for total combustion in the gasifier, i.e. it gasifies the biomass to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen both 15-20 vol-% (synthesis gas). Pyrolysis equipment consists of the downdraft...

Enzyme Synergism: A Powerful Tool for Decreasing Enzyme Loading for Efficient Biomass Conversion

B. Pletschke, S. Malgas, A. Bhattacharya, A. Bhattacharya-Shrivastava, M.D. Clarke, M.S. Mafa, S. Morake & M. Thoresen
Biomass conversion technologies for the production of fuels and value added products have rapidly gained support over the past few decades. The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic wastes has been particularly attractive, due to environmental and sustainability concerns. One of the major challenges in the production of cost effective biofuel (via the enzymatic hydrolysis route) is the cost associated with enzymes and enzyme loading. Our studies, and those of others, have conclusively shown that the enzyme...

GIS-Based Evaluation of Cardoon (Cynara Cardunculus L. Var. Altilis DC.) Suitability in Apulia Region

G. De Mastro, N. Grassano, L. D'Andrea & A.D. Palumbo
The potential of land for energy crops is determined by an evaluation of biophysical and economical variables. From this respect, climate, soil and geomorphologic environmental components are the most important agro-ecological variables to conduct this kind of evaluation. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to identify the most suitable areas for cardoon crop production in the Apulia region. Environmental components such as climate (precipitation, temperature), soil (chemical and physical characteristics including...

Influence of Operating Conditions on the Catalytic Reforming of Volatiles from Biomass Pyrolysis

A. Arregi, M. Amutio, G. Lopez, M. Artetxe, A. Erkiaga, J. Alvarez, I. Barbarias & M. Olazar
The pyrolysis of pinewood sawdust in continuous mode and in-line catalytic steam reforming of volatiles have been carried out in a conical spouted bed reactor and fluidized bed reactor, respectively. The influence of temperature (in the 550-700 ºC range), space-time (between 0.03-0.42 gcatalyst h gbiomass -1) and steam/biomass mass ratio (between 2 and 5) on the conversion, distribution of products and their composition has been studied. In order to convert the bio-oil into hydrogen, a...

Fuel-Staged Co-Combustion of High-Alkali Oil Palm Residues in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor Using Mixtures of Alumina and Silica Sand to Prevent Bed Agglomeration

V.I. Kuprianov, P. Ninduangdee & P. Suheri
Oil palm kernel shell (primary fuel) and empty fruit bunch (secondary fuel) with elevated potassium contents were co-combusted in a fluidized-bed combustor using fuel staging with conventional (bottom) air supply. During experiments for variable excess air at fixed fuel feeding, alumina sand (AS) mixed with silica sand (SS) in different proportions was used as bed material to inhibit bed agglomeration in the combustor. The study revealed substantial effects of the empty fruit bunch energy fraction...

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