329 Works

Möglichkeiten im konservatorischen und restauratorischen Umgang mit gealterten Sgraffitowerken

Ina Heine & Kerstin Klein
Poster von Ina Heine und Dr. Kertin Klein: Im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit (FH Potsdam, 2011) wurde neben einem Überblick über die Grundlagen zur Geschichte der Sgraffitotechnik, der Materialtechnologie und einer Zusammenstellung tradierter Rezepturen Beispiele von historischen wie auch jüngeren Restaurierungs- und Rekonstruktionsprojekten zusammengestellt. Veranstaltung/Präsentation: Sgraffito im Wandel. Materialien, Techniken, Themen und Erhaltung. HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD), 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Sgraffito in Israel

Shay Farkash & Mika Tal
Poster by Shay Farkash and Mika Tal, introducing a brief historyof sgraffito murals in Israel an case study–conservation and Restoration of sgraffito at mMishmar-Ha’Emek kibbutz. Event details: Sgraffito in Change. Materials, Techniques, Topics, and Preservation by HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD), 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Sgraffito Murals at an Israeli Kibbutz

Shay Farkash & Yossi Gabriel
Poster by Shay Farkash and Gabriel Yossi, introducing the Or-Haner kibbutz in the south part of Israel were a culture of sgraffito paintings was created characterized by a variety of attributes. Event details: Sgraffito in Change. Materials, Techniques, Topics, and Preservation by HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD, 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Sgraffiti als Bauschmuck der Vor- und Nachkriegszeit in Hildesheim

Lea Puglisi
Poster von Lea Puglisi zur Vorstellung der Ergebnisse ihrer Bachelor-Thesis Sgraffiti der 1950er Jahre“ an der HAWK Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, 2015. Veranstaltung/Präsentation: Sgraffito im Wandel. Materialien, Techniken, Themen und Erhaltung. HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD), 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Die Putzritzungen im Magdeburger Dom

Leonard John
Poster von Leonard John zur Vorstellung der Ergebnisse seiner Diplomarbeit an der Hochschule für bildende Künste Dresden, 2016. Veranstaltung/Präsentation: Sgraffito im Wandel. Materialien, Techniken, Themen und Erhaltung. HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD),2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Salt-induced flaking of wall paintings at the Mogao Grottoes, China

Lori Wong, Su Bomin, Wang Xiaowe, Amarilli Rava & Neville Agnew
The Mogao Grottoes, a World Heritage Site in northwest China, is known for its surviving 492 painted Buddhist cave temples. Commissioned over a thousand year period, from the fourth to the fourteenth centuries, the caves were hewn into a 1.6 km long cliff face and the wall paintings executed on earthen plasters. Situated in a remote and arid desert landscape, these painted caves have endured throughout the centuries but many have also suffered from salt-related...

Evaluation of desalination and restoration methods applied in Petra (Jordan)

Wanja Wedekind & Helge Fischer
One of the major causes for the deterioration of historical monuments made up of sandstones can be attributed to the circulation and evaporation of salt laden fluids percolating through the rock material, an aspect that has been either overlooked or neglected in previous restoration attempts, often with damaging consequences. Particularly the lack of consideration for the importance of a quantitative analysis of the salt content of the rock, has led to adverse effects in subsequent...

Management of sodium sulfate damage to polychrome stone and buildings

David Thickett & Bethan Stanley
English Heritage holds large collections of polychrome stone. Often the polychromy only remains as small fragments, loosely adhered to the stone surface with any original binders having converted to oxalate. The sixteenth century limestone Thetford Tomb fragments are amongst the most significant part of the collection. Salt analyses indicated very high concentrations of sodium sulfate present, (up to 1.5% by mass of the stone). Considering the very fragile nature of the remaining polychromy and the...

Numerical analysis on salt damage suppression of the Buddha statue carved into the cliff by controlling the room temperature and humidity in the shelter

Nobumitsu Takatori, Daisuke Ogura, Soichiro Wakiya, Masaru Abuku, Kyoko Kiriyama & Yoshei Kohdzuma
Motomachi Sekibutsu is a Buddha statue that was carved into a cliff in Oita City, Japan, during the 11th or 12th century. It was designated as a national historic site in 1934. The stone statue is constantly affected by the penetration of heat and moisture into the cliff, and concerns have been raised about its deterioration. Various preservation measures have been taken to prevent this; however, the main cause of deterioration, salt damage, has not...

Determination of the water uptake and drying behavior of masonry using a non-destructive method

Amelie Stahlbuhk, Michael Niermann & Michael Steiger
Historic masonry of different types often suffers from various enrichments in surface and near-surface areas. Salts, atmospheric pollutants and other materials from external sources are possible causes for these enrichments which can directly influence the water uptake and drying of the masonry. Thus, a compaction of the superficial porous network can be expected in the case of crust formation, an enhanced water uptake in the case of hygroscopic salts. Both of these lead to a...

Conservation of marble artifacts by phosphate treatments: influence of gypsum contamination

Enrico Sassoni, Gabriela Graziani, Elisa Franzoni & George W. Scherer
The use of ammonium phosphate solutions has proven to be very promising for protection and conservation of marble. However, all the studies carried out so far have been performed on uncontaminated marble. Unfortunately, this is rarely the case in the field, because marble artifacts exposed outdoors are often affected by sulfation, i. e. formation of a gypsum crust on the surface. Because gypsum is much more soluble than calcite, the outcome of the ammonium phosphate...

Diagnostics and monitoring of moisture and salt in porous materials by evanescent field dielectrometry

Cristiano Riminesi & R. Olmi
Moisture and salts are the main causes of decay of porous materials, like wall paintings, stones, plasters and cement-based artefacts. Water is the ‚driving force‘ of decay, such as the detachment of the painted layer, the whitening of surfaces due to the crystallization of salts (efflorescence), and the weakening of the cementing binder. Early diagnostics of water content and detection of the presence of soluble salts inside the material is a key issue for understanding...

Wick action in cultural heritage

Leo Pel & Raheleh Pishkari
Salts crystallization is one of the main degradation mechanisms of historical objects, e. g., masonry. In this study we looked at a special case often encountered in marine environment, i.e., wick action. This is a steady state situation in which one end of an object is continuously absorbing a salt solution, e. g., sea water, whereas at the same time at other side there is continuous drying. As a result there will be a continuous...

How not to bother salts while grouting

Chiara Pasian, Francesca Piqué, Cristiano Riminesi & Albert Jornet
The objective of this research work was to assess if the injection of water-reduced grouts (water-ethanol-based) mobilises soluble salts to a lesser extent compared to the injection of conventional water-based grouts. Ethanol was used as a partial substitute for water in grouts preparation, being a poorer solvent for soluble salts when compared to water. Three injection grouts were evaluated; for each grout individually, the performance of mixtures prepared with 100% water was compared to the...

Electrode placement during electro-desalination of NaCl contaminated sandstone – simulating treatment of carved stones

Lisbeth M. Ottosen & Lovisa C. H. Andersson
Carved stone sculptures and ornaments can be severely damaged by salt induced decay. Often the irregular surfaces are decomposed, and the artwork is lost. The present paper is an experimental investigation on the possibility for using electro-desalination for treatment of stone with irregular shape with only two electrodes. The used Gotland sandstones were contaminated by NaCl in the laboratory. Due to the relatively good homogeneity in initial salt concentration obtained in this way, interpretation of...

Measurement of salt solution uptake in fired clay brick and identification of solution diffusivity

Etsuko Mizutani1, D. Ogura, T. Ishizaki, M. Abuku & J. Sasaki
Salt solution uptake rates in fired clay brick were measured with γ-ray to investigate the influence of salt on solution diffusivity for appropriate numerical analysis of salt solution transfer and crystallization in porous materials. NaCl and Na2SO4 are the main salts confirmed in Hagia Sophia (Aya Sophia Museum), Istanbul, Turkey, and are used in this experiment. We identified solution diffusivity as a function of solution content by a numerical analysis of solution transfer. The main...

Investigation and examination of a degraded Egyptian painted limestone relief from Tell Hebua (Sinai)

Eid Mertah, Moamen Othman, Mohamed Abdelrahman, Mohamed Fatoh & S. Connor
This paper presents a study bas-relief from the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC), which was found in Sinai in 2009 and came the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, in a quite challenging condition. The interest of this piece lies in the danger that the salt causes to the block’s surface, and particularly to the pigments of its decoration. The block is sculpted on two opposite sides, which both need to be consolidated, in order to be safely displayed...

Technique for transportation of stone sculptures damaged by salt crystallization

Vinka Marinković
The paper presents a technique for handling and transportation of stone sculptures damaged by salt crystallization. A limestone sculpture from the Cathedral of St. Lawrence in Trogir was studied and pre-consolidated with cyclododecane. First, test were performed in the lab. On 5 glass slides were applied powder of the Seget stone and then consolidated with 50% solution of CCD in Shellsol T, 50% solution of CCD in white spirit, 50% solution of CCD in toluene,...

Desalination of Cotta type Elbe sandstone with adapted poultices: Optimization of poultice mixtures

Julia Maitschke & Heiner Siedel
Cotta type Elbe sandstone has been frequently used as construction material and ornamental stone on buildings over centuries. Desalination of this sandstone (often performed with cellulose poultices in restoration practice) is ineffective in many cases due to its high amount of fine pores. A mixture of cellulose, kaolin and sand (1:2:1 by weight, CKS_121) with a high portion of fine pores was applied for poultice desalination on artificially salt-loaded specimens of Cotta type sandstone. Moreover,...

Development of a network-based climate monitoring system for climate assessment and regulation

Christian Leonhardt, Sabine Leonhardt & Julika Heller
In the cloister (the so-called Schwahl) of the St. Petri Cathedral in the German town of Schleswig, the current situation of the historical wall paintings was investigated in the context of a research project funded by the German Federal Foundation for the Environment (German: “Deutscher Bund fur Umwelt” – DBU). The project is focused on the investigation of the intense salt contamination and its connections with the climatic situation. In this context, a network-based climate...

Investigation and conservation of salt damaged epitaphs in the church of Werben (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)

Steffen Laue, Dörte Poerschke & Benjamin Hübner
The case study of the St. Johannis church in Werben (Saxony-Anhalt) is one of those instances where conservators and restorers working in the field of building heritage have to find sustainable solutions for a cultural heritage site affected by high humidity levels and salt content for centuries. In the church of Werben, the ground floor of the steeple houses a remarkable collection of predominantly polychrome epitaphs from the 16th – 18th centuries. These epitaphs reflect...

Assessment of the durability of lime renders with Phase Change Material (PCM) additives against salt crystallization

Loucas Kyriakou, Magdalini Theodoridou & Ioannis Ioannou
Energy consumption in buildings is mostly associated with the use of heating and cooling systems. Renders with the addition of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have the ability to absorb and release thermal energy, when the temperature changes accordingly, thus enhancing the thermal comfort and energy efficiency of buildings. Nevertheless, the performance of such renders with traditional binders lacks international experimental data, especially regarding their durability against salt weathering. This paper focuses on the effect of...

Environmental control for mitigating salt deterioration by sodium sulfate on Motomachi Stone Buddha in Oita prefecture, Japan

Kyoko Kiriyama, Soichiro Wakiya, Nobumitsu Takatori, Daisuke Ogura, Masaru Abuku & Yohsei Kohdzuma
This study aimed to develop an appropriate interior environment to mitigate the deterioration by sodium sulfate crystallization on Motomachi Stone Buddha in Oita prefecture of Japan. This Stone Buddha is carved on the fragile welded tuff and has been covered by a shelter for the preservation. On this site, salt crystallization, especially in winter, is a major deterioration factor of this Buddha. In previous studies, the crystallization of sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate were identified...

Local strain measurements during water imbibition in tuffeau polluted by gypsum

Mohamed Ahmed Hassine, Kévin Beck, Xavier Brunetaud & Muzahim Al-Mukhtar
The research presented in this communication aimed to evaluate the mechanism of spalling generated by mechanical stresses and strains developed due to imbibition and the link with atmospheric pollution generating gypsum in the stone. Tests were carried out on a French limestone, called tuffeau. Local strains were measured using strain gage rosettes during water imbibition in polluted and unpolluted samples. Three rosettes were placed on a sample at different distances from the surface (1, 4,...

The application of hydroxyapatite-based treatments to salt-bearing porous limestones: A study on sodium sulphate-contaminated Lecce Stone

Gabriela Graziani, Enrico Sassoni, George W. Scherer & Elisa Franzoni
Salt weathering is among the most severe phenomena affecting porous limestone, often leading to the loss of precious material from historical sculptures and building facades. Together with exerting a weathering action, salts can also hamper the success of consolidation treatments, by interfering with consolidants’ penetration and/or curing reactions. On site, application of consolidants on non-contaminated stone is rarely feasible, especially in the case of porous limestones; for this reason, testing application of consolidants on salt...

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