8,936 Works

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with Coccolithus braarudii, 2011, supplement to: Krug, Sebastian; Schulz, Kai Georg; Riebesell, Ulf (2011): Effects of changes in carbonate chemistry speciation on Coccolithus braarudii: a discussion of coccolithophorid sensitivities. Biogeosciences, 8(3), 771-777

Sebastian Krug, Kai Georg Schulz & Ulf Riebesell
Ocean acidification and associated shifts in carbonate chemistry speciation induced by increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have the potential to impact marine biota in various ways. The process of biogenic calcification, for instance, is usually shown to be negatively affected. In coccolithophores, an important group of pelagic calcifiers, changes in cellular calcification rates in response to changing ocean carbonate chemistry appear to differ among species. By applying a wider CO2 range we show...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with Patella vulgata, 2010, supplement to: Marchant, Hannah K; Calosi, Piero; Spicer, John I (2010): Short-term exposure to hypercapnia does not compromise feeding, acid–base balance or respiration of Patella vulgata but surprisingly is accompanied by radula damage. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90(7), 1379-1384

Hannah K Marchant, Piero Calosi & John I Spicer
The effect of short-term (5 days) exposure to CO2-acidified seawater (year 2100 predicted values, ocean pH = 7.6) on key aspects of the function of the intertidal common limpet Patella vulgata (Gastropoda: Patellidae) was investigated. Changes in extracellular acid-base balance were almost completely compensated by an increase in bicarbonate ions. A concomitant increase in haemolymph Ca2+ and visible shell dissolution implicated passive shell dissolution as the bicarbonate source. Analysis of the radula using SEM revealed...

Svalbard 2010 team (2010): EPOCA Svalbard mesocosm experiment 2010 depth-integrated (0-12m) variables

Svalbard 2010 Team, Kai Georg Schulz, Richard G J Bellerby, Anne-Marin Nisumaa, Tsuneo Tanaka, Chiaki Motegi, Michael Meyerhöfer, Corina P D Brussaard, Dag O Hessen, Jan Czerny, Frances E Hopkins, Signe Klavsen, Judith Piontek, Anna de Kluijver, Stephen Archer, Anna Silyakova, Anja Engel & Tim Boxhammer
Latest data set update: 9 October 2013. In order to allow full comparability with other ocean acidification data sets, the R package seacarb (Lavigne and Gattuso, 2011) was used to compute a complete and consistent set of carbonate system variables, as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). In this dataset the original values were archived in addition with the recalculated parameters (see related PI).

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with postlarvae of barnacle of Semibalanus balanoides and Elminius modestus, 2010, supplement to: Findlay, Helen S; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen (2010): Post-larval development of two intertidal barnacles at elevated CO2 and temperature. Marine Biology, 157(4), 725-735

Helen S Findlay, Michael A Kendall, John I Spicer & Stephen Widdicombe
Ocean acidification and global warming are occurring concomitantly, yet few studies have investigated how organisms will respond to increases in both temperature and CO2. Intertidal microcosms were used to examine growth, shell mineralogy and survival of two intertidal barnacle post-larvae, Semibalanus balanoides and Elminius modestus, at two temperatures (14 and 19°C) and two CO2 concentrations (380 and 1,000 ppm), fed with a mixed diatom-flagellate diet at 15,000 cells ml-1 with flow rate of 10 ml-1...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and Celleporella hyalina biological processes during experiments, 2011, supplement to: Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Calosi, Piero; Widdicombe, Stephen; Bishop, John D D (2011): Will variation among genetic individuals influence species responses to global climate change? Oikos, 120(5), 675-689

Jennifer C A Pistevos, Piero Calosi, Stephen Widdicombe & John D D Bishop
Increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the last two centuries have lead to rising sea surface temperature and falling ocean pH, and it is predicted that current global trends will worsen over the next few decades. There is limited understanding of how genetic variation among individuals will influence the responses of populations and species to these changes. A microcosm system was set up to study the effects of predicted temperature and CO2 levels on the bryozoan...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and Ruditapes decussatus biological processes during experiments, 2011, supplement to: Range, P; ChÌcharo, M A; Ben-Hamadou, R; Pilò, D; Matias, D; Joaquim, S; Oliveira, A P; ChÌcharo, L (2011): Calcification, growth and mortality of juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus under increased pCO2 and reduced pH: Variable responses to ocean acidification at local scales? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 396(2), 177-184

P Range, M A ChÌcharo, R Ben-Hamadou, D Pilò, D Matias, S Joaquim, A P Oliveira & L ChÌcharo
We investigated the effects of ocean acidification on juvenile clams Ruditapes decussatus (average shell length 10.24 mm) in a controlled CO2 perturbation experiment. The carbonate chemistry of seawater was manipulated by diffusing pure CO2, to attain two reduced pH levels (by -0.4 and -0.7 pH units), which were compared to unmanipulated seawater. After 75 days we found no differences among pH treatments in terms of net calcification, size or weight of the clams. The naturally...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and Littorina obtusata biological processes during experiments, 2009, supplement to: Ellis, Robert P; Bersey, Jess; Rundle, Simon; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Spicer, John I (2009): Subtle but significant effects of CO2 acidified seawater on embryos of the intertidal snail ,Littorina obtusata. Aquatic Biology, 5(1), 41-48

Robert P Ellis, Jess Bersey, Simon Rundle, Jason M Hall-Spencer & John I Spicer
Our understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on whole organism function is growing, but most current information is for adult stages of development. Here, we show the effects of reduced pH seawater (pH 7.6) on aspects of the development, physiology and behaviour of encapsulated embryos of the marine intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. We found reduced viability and increased development times under reduced pH conditions, and the embryos had significantly altered behaviours and physiologies. In...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and Gadus morhua length, weight and sperm biological processes, 2010, supplement to: Frommel, Andrea Y; Stiebens, V; Clemmesen, Catriona; Havenhand, Jonathan N (2010): Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua). Biogeosciences, 7(12), 3915-3919

Andrea Y Frommel, V Stiebens, Catriona Clemmesen & Jonathan N Havenhand
Ocean acidification, as a consequence of increasing marine pCO2, may have severe effects on the physiology of marine organisms. However, experimental studies remain scarce, in particular concerning fish. While adults will most likely remain relatively unaffected by changes in seawater pH, early life-history stages are potentially more sensitive - particularly the critical stage of fertilization, in which sperm motility plays a central role. In this study, the effects of ocean acidification (decrease of pHT to...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and Emiliania huxleyi biological processes during experiments, 2010, supplement to: Guan, WanChun; Gao, Kunshan (2010): Enhanced calcification ameliorates the negative effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis in the calcifying phytoplankter Emiliania huxleyi. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55(7), 588-593

WanChun Guan & Kunshan Gao
The calcifying phytoplankton species, coccolithophores, have their calcified coccoliths around the cells, however, their physiological roles are still unknown. Here, we hypothesized that the coccoliths may play a certain role in reducing solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) and protect the cells from being harmed. Cells of Emiliania huxleyi with different thicknesses of the coccoliths were obtained by culturing them at different levels of dissolved inorganic carbon and their photophysiological responses to UVR were investigated....

Combined effects of solar UV radiation and CO2-induced seawater acidification on photosynthetic carbon fixation of phytoplankton assemblages in the South China Sea, 2010, supplement to: Wu, YaPing; Gao, Kunshan (2010): Combined effects of solar UV radiation and CO2-induced seawater acidification on photosynthetic carbon fixation of phytoplankton assemblages in the South China Sea. Chinese Science Bulletin, 55(32), 3680-3686

YaPing Wu & Kunshan Gao
We carried out short term pCO2/pH perturbation experiments in the coastal waters of the South China Sea to evaluate the combined effects of seawater acidification (low pH/high pCO2) and solar UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) on photosynthetic carbon fixation of phytoplankton assemblages. Under photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) alone treatments, reduced pCO2 (190 ppmv) with increased pH resulted in a significant decrease in the photosynthetic carbon fixation rate (about 23%), while enriched pCO2 (700 ppmv) with...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and coral (Acropora digitifera and Acropora tenuis) algal infection rate, survival and surface area of plyps during experiments, 2009, supplement to: Suwa, Ryota; Nakamura, Masoko; Morita, Masaya; Shimada, Kazuaki; Iguchi, Akira; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Atsushi (2009): Effects of acidified seawater on early life stages of scleractinian corals (Genus Acropora). Fisheries Science, 76(1), 93-99

Ryota Suwa, Masoko Nakamura, Masaya Morita, Kazuaki Shimada, Akira Iguchi, Kazuhiko Sakai & Atsushi Suzuki
Ocean acidification, caused by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, is currently an important environmental problem. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of ocean acidification on all life stages of a wide range of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the effects of increased CO2 on early life stages of organisms, including corals. Using a range of pH values (pH 7.3, 7.6, and 8.0) in manipulative duplicate aquarium experiments, we have evaluated...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and calcification rate of eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, 2011, supplement to: Waldbusser, George G; Voigt, Erin P; Bergschneider, Heather; Green, Mark A; Newell, Roger I E (2011): Biocalcification in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in Relation to Long-term Trends in Chesapeake Bay pH. Estuaries and Coasts, 34(2), 221-231

George G Waldbusser, Erin P Voigt, Heather Bergschneider, Mark A Green & Roger I E Newell
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduce pH of marine waters due to the absorption of atmospheric CO2 and formation of carbonic acid. Estuarine waters are more susceptible to acidification because they are subject to multiple acid sources and are less buffered than marine waters. Consequently, estuarine shell forming species may experience acidification sooner than marine species although the tolerance of estuarine calcifiers to pH changes is poorly understood. We analyzed 23 years of Chesapeake Bay...

Seawater carbonate chemistry, and Lithophyllum sp. and Feldmannia spp. coverage and dry weight during experiments, 2009, supplement to: Russell, Bayden D; Thompson, Jo-Anne I; Falkenberg, Laura J; Connell, Sean D (2009): Synergistic effects of climate change and local stressors: CO2 and nutrient-driven change in subtidal rocky habitats. Global Change Biology, 15(9), 2153-2162

Bayden D Russell, Jo-Anne I Thompson, Laura J Falkenberg & Sean D Connell
Climate-driven change represents the cumulative effect of global through local-scale conditions, and understanding their manifestation at local scales can empower local management. Change in the dominance of habitats is often the product of local nutrient pollution that occurs at relatively local scales (i.e. catchment scale), a critical scale of management at which global impacts will manifest. We tested whether forecasted global-scale change [elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and subsequent ocean acidification] and local stressors (elevated nutrients)...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and coverage and dry weight of Ecklonia radiata during experiments, 2010, supplement to: Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D (2010): The direct effects of increasing CO2 and temperature on non-calcifying organisms: increasing the potential for phase shifts in kelp forests. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 277(1686), 1409-1415

Sean D Connell & Bayden D Russell
Predictions about the ecological consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 have been preoccupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks the direct effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa, particularly those that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts. We used two experiments to investigate whether increased CO2 could exacerbate kelp loss by facilitating non-calcareous...

Seawater carbonate chemistry, pigments and proteins during experiments with phytoplankton, 2010, supplement to: Hopkinson, Brian A; Xu, Yan; Shi, Dalin; McGinn, Patrick J; Morel, Francois M M (2010): The effect of CO2 on the photosynthetic physiology of phytoplankton in the Gulf of Alaska. Limnology and Oceanography, 55(5), 2011-2024

Brian A Hopkinson, Yan Xu, Dalin Shi, Patrick J McGinn & Francois M M Morel
In the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the Gulf of Alaska, microcosm manipulation experiments were used to assess the effect of CO2 on growth and primary production under iron-limited and iron-replete conditions. As expected, iron had a strong effect on growth and photosynthesis. A modest and variable stimulation of growth and biomass production by CO2 (high CO2: 77-122 Pa; low CO2: 11-17 Pa) was observed under both iron-replete and iron-limited conditions, though near the limit of...

Incorporation of Mg and Sr in calcite of cultured benthic foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa and Ammonia tepida) and seawater carbonate chemistry, 2010, supplement to: Raitzsch, Markus; Dueñas-Bohórquez, Adriana; Reichart, Gert-Jan; de Nooijer, Lennart Jan; Bickert, Torsten (2010): Incorporation of Mg and Sr in calcite of cultured benthic foraminifera: impact of calcium concentration and associated saturation state. Biogeosciences, 7(3), 869-881

Markus Raitzsch, Adriana Dueñas-Bohórquez, Gert-Jan Reichart, Lennart Jan de Nooijer & Torsten Bickert
We investigated the effect of the calcium concentration in seawater and thereby the calcite saturation state (omega) on the magnesium and strontium incorporation into benthic foraminiferal calcite under laboratory conditions. For this purpose individuals of the shallow-water species Heterostegina depressa (precipitating high-Mg calcite, symbiont-bearing) and Ammonia tepida (low-Mg calcite, symbiont-barren) were cultured in media under a range of [Ca2+], but similar Mg/Ca ratios. Trace element/Ca ratios of newly formed calcite were analysed with Laser Ablation...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological parameters of Sepia officinalis during experiments, 2009, supplement to: Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, Frank (2009): Abiotic conditions in cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) eggs: embryonic development at low pH and high pCO2. Marine Biology, 156(3), 515-519

Magdalena A Gutowska & Frank Melzner
Low pO2 values have been measured in the perivitelline fluids (PVF) of marine animal eggs on several occasions, especially towards the end of development, when embryonic oxygen consumption is at its peak and the egg case acts as a massive barrier to diffusion. Several authors have therefore suggested that oxygen availability is the key factor leading to hatching. However, there have been no measurements of PVF pCO2 so far. This is surprising, as elevated pCO2...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes during experiments with a Sea Star Crassaster papposus, 2010, supplement to: Dupont, Sam; Lundve, Bengt; Thorndyke, Mike (2010): Near Future Ocean Acidification Increases Growth Rate of the Lecithotrophic Larvae and Juveniles of the Sea Star Crossaster papposus. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B-Molecular and Developmental Evolution, 314B(5), 382-389

Sam Dupont, Bengt Lundve & Mike Thorndyke
Ocean acidification (OA) is believed to be a major threat for near-future marine ecosystems, and that the most sensitive organisms will be calcifying organisms and the free-living larval stages produced by most benthic marine species. In this respect, echinoderms are one of the taxa most at risk. Earlier research on the impact of near-future OA on echinoderm larval stages showed negative effects, such as a decreased growth rate, increased mortality, and developmental abnormalities. However, all...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes of Sepia officinalis during experiments, 2010, supplement to: Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, Frank; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, Guy; Pörtner, Hans-Otto (2010): Acid–base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmentalphysiology, 180(3), 323-335

Magdalena A Gutowska, Frank Melzner, M Langenbuch, C Bock, Guy Claireaux & Hans-Otto Pörtner
Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO2 levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and dark respiration and photosynthetic capacity during experiments with coral Acropora formosa, 2010, supplement to: Crawley, Alicia; Kline, David I; Dunn, Simon; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Dove, Sophie (2010): The effect of ocean acidification on symbiont photorespiration and productivity in Acropora formosa. Global Change Biology, 16(2), 851-863

Alicia Crawley, David I Kline, Simon Dunn, Kenneth R N Anthony & Sophie Dove
Ocean acidification is expected to lower the net accretion of coral reefs yet little is known about its effect on coral photophysiology. This study investigated the effect of increasing CO2 on photosynthetic capacity and photoprotection in Acropora formosa. The photoprotective role of photorespiration within dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has largely been overlooked due to focus on the presence of a carbon-concentrating mechanism despite the evolutionary persistence of a Form II Rubisco. The photorespiratory fixation of oxygen...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and dissolution rates by boring microflora during ex situ experiments with dead corals (Porites lobata), 2009, supplement to: Tribollet, Aline; Godinot, Claire; Atkinson, M J; Langdon, Chris (2009): Effects of elevated pCO2 on dissolution of coral carbonates by microbial euendoliths. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB3008

Aline Tribollet, Claire Godinot, M J Atkinson & Chris Langdon
Eight-month-old blocks of the coral Porites lobata colonized by natural Hawaiian euendolithic and epilithic communities were experimentally exposed to two different aqueous pCO2 treatments, 400 ppmv and 750 ppmv, for 3 months. The chlorophyte Ostreobium quekettii dominated communities at the start and at the end of the experiment (65-90%). There were no significant differences in the relative abundance of euendolithic species, nor were there any differences in bioeroded area at the surface of blocks (27%)...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processed during experiments with corals Porites sp. & Stylophora pistillata, 2010, supplement to: Krief, Shani; Hendy, Erica J; Fine, M; Yam, Ruth; Meibom, Anders; Foster, Gavin L; Shemesh, Aldo (2010): Physiological and isotopic responses of scleractinian corals to ocean acidification. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 4988–5001

Shani Krief, Erica J Hendy, M Fine, Ruth Yam, Anders Meibom, Gavin L Foster & Aldo Shemesh
Uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is altering seawater chemistry with potentially serious consequences for coral reef ecosystems due to the reduction of seawater pH and aragonite saturation state (omega arag). The objectives of this long-term study were to investigate the viability of two ecologically important reef-building coral species, massive Porites sp. and Stylophora pistilata, exposed to high pCO2(or low pH) conditions and to observe possible changes in physiologically related parameters as well as...

Seawater carbonate chemistry, nutrients and growth rate during experiments with coral Astrangia poculata, 2010

Michael Holcomb, Daniel C McCorkle & Anne L Cohen
Zooxanthellate colonies of the scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata were grown under combinations of ambient and elevated nutrients (5 µM NO, 0.3 µM PO4, and 2nM Fe) and CO2 (780 ppmv) treatments for a period of 6 months. Coral calcification rates, estimated from buoyant weights, were not significantly affected by moderately elevated nutrients at ambient CO2 and were negatively affected by elevated CO2 at ambient nutrient levels. However, calcification by corals reared under elevated nutrients combined...

Seawater carbonate chemistry and biological processes of oysters Crassostrea virginica during experiments, 2010, supplement to: Beniash, Elia; Ivanina, Anna; Lieb, Nicholas S; Kurochkin, Ilya; Sokolova, Inna A (2010): Elevated level of carbon dioxide affects metabolism and shell formation in oysters Crassostrea virginica. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 419, 95-108

Elia Beniash, Anna Ivanina, Nicholas S Lieb, Ilya Kurochkin & Inna A Sokolova
Estuarine organisms are exposed to periodic strong fluctuations in seawater pH driven by biological carbon dioxide (CO2) production, which may in the future be further exacerbated by the ocean acidification associated with the global rise in CO2. Calcium carbonate-producing marine species such as mollusks are expected to be vulnerable to acidification of estuarine waters, since elevated CO2 concentration and lower pH lead to a decrease in the degree of saturation of water with respect to...

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  • 2011
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