182 Works

An Innovative Telepathology Solution For Developing Countries

M. Botteghi, N. Masalu, V. Stracca & D. Amadori
Introduction/ Background The increasing incidence of pathologies like tumors and infections is a significant public health burden in developing countries. The ability to provide early diagnosis, treatments, follow-up care has a strong impact on the survival. Telemedicine is of great utility in countries lacking appropriate healthcare facilities by allowing for the performance of good level healthcare practices. Sub-Saharan African Countries suffer a dramatic shortage of medical pathologists (in the range of 1 to 10 pathologists...

Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Histological Image Analysis in Gastric Carcinoma Whole Slide Images

H. Sharma, N. Zerbe, I. Klempert, O. Hellwich & P. Hufnagl
Introduction/ Background In this paper, histopathological whole slide images of gastric carcinoma are analyzed using deep learning methods. A convolutional neural network architecture is proposed for two classification applications in H&E stained tissue images, namely, cancer classification based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) into classes Her2/neu+ tumor, Her2/neu- tumor and non-tumor, and necrosis detection based on existence of necrosis into classes necrotic and non-necrotic. The studies in [1] and [2] explored computer-aided classification using graphbased methods and...

Epigenetics in lung cancer: What do DNA-methyltransferases do?

Uli Fehrenbach & MD Kayser
Despite recent advances in molecular characterization and targeted therapy approaches, lung cancer still remains the number one killer among malignant diseases worldwide. After understanding the impact of genetic mutations on malignant transformation, epigenetic changes have been focused on in recent times. Several studies could elucidate the potential of epigenetic alterations to not only increase invasiveness of cancer cells in cell culture and animal models but also to contribute to autonomous cellular growth and thus malignant...

Raman Spectroscopy-Based Cancer Diagnostic Platform For Pathology Classification In Barrett’s Oesophagus And Its Integration Into Clinic

Martin Isabelle, O. Old, G. Lloyd, K. Lau, J. Dorney, A. Lewis, G. Thomas, N. Shepherd, H. Barr, I. Bell, N. Stone & C. Kendall
Introduction/ Background Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been shown to accurately classify tissue pathology in a variety of conditions and organ systems. Much of this work has been performed using Raman microspectrometers on tissue sections. Despite the demonstrated potential as an accurate cancer diagnostic tool, RS is yet to be adopted by the clinic for histopathology review. The Stratified Medicine through Advanced Raman Technologies (SMART) consortium has begun to address some of the hurdles (e.g. tissue...

Morphometric Analysis In Benign, Atypical And Invasive Breast Lesions And Its Correlation With Histological Diagnosis, Tumour Grading And Her2 Overexpression

Renu Gahlaut & B. Arora
Introduction/ Background Computer image analysis has become an important tool in the pathology laboratory for quantitative morphometric analysis, which has several advantages over conventional visual assessment: Objectivity, reproducibility and the ability to detect changes not immediately apparent to naked eyes. The nuclear and cytoplasmic alterations during the development of various breast lesions are the cornerstone for typing and grading of these lesions, including carcinomas. The current study was aimed at analyzing the morphometric parameters like...

Research on Devices for Handling Whole Slide Images on Pathology Workstations. An Ergonomic Outlook

Eduardo Alcaraz Mateos, Fuensanta Caballero-Alemán, Mariano Albarracín-Ferrer, Francisco Cárceles-Moreno, Rubén Hernández-Gómez, Sergio Hernández-Kakauridze, Laura Hernández-Sabater, Ignacio Jiménez-Zafra, Alberto López-Alacid, Carmen Moreno-Salmerón, Miguel Pérez-Ramos, Andrés Nieto-Olivares, Nicolás Sánchez-Campoy, Ignacio Martínez González-Moro & Enrique Poblet
Background Digital Pathology represents a technological innovation that introduces changes in the traditional tasks of pathologists. In this regard, an important issue that has not been enough emphasized is the image handling from an ergonomic point of view to avoid work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The aim of this study was to investigate a proper input device for digital pathology. Material & Methods Research was conducted in two phases: (1). A comparative study to find out...

The Reproducibility Index of Pathological Diagnosis and Rare Cases. The Results of the On-line Diagnostic Competition “Final Diagnosis”

Asel Kudaybergenova, A. Artemyeva & A. Remez
Introduction/ Background UNIM Ltd. have created the SAAS platform DPathology that can be used for saving and studying histological slides and it doesn’t require an installation of a special software. You can use the platform with all the modern internet browsers. The SAAS platform gives all the specialists a chance to analyze remotely digital histological slides. It increases the accuracy of diagnostics and speeds up the medical assessment Aims To indicate the importance of collecting...

The Technicians´ Role in Digital Pathology Implementation. Searching Optimization.

Eduardo Alcaraz Mateos, Inmaculada Tortosa-Martínez, Carlos Alcolea-Guardiola, Susana Estévez-Ligero, Ángeles Abellán-Palazón, Alexandra Kundisova, Andrés Nieto-Olivares, Asunción Chaves-Benito & Enrique Poblet
Background Scanning histological or cytological preparations is a crucial element in the process of digitization of Pathology Departments, along with the traceability of tissue samples and the reports management. The scanning time and the high size of the files are still considered suboptimal for full implementation. In order to optimize time and space a comparative study of the workflow performed by histotechnicians in our center has been carried out. Material & Methods A total of...

Quo vadis universitas?

Hans Guski
The article considers the advantages and disadvantages of the European universities that can be explained only by the analysis of their history. In contrast to the conventional theories, the economic enforcement was the driving cause for university formation in the Middle Ages. The guild concept created by Siegfried Bär 15 years ago explains the historical imperative, but also the construction faults of the universities resulting from their specific features essentially the principles of self-autonomy and...

Standardization Of Pathology Whole Slide Images According To DICOM 145 Supplement And Storage In PACs

M. Garcia-Rojo, A. Sanchez, Gloria Bueno & D. De Mena
Introduction/ Background In recent years different technological solutions have emerged for the scanning or digitization of histological and cytological slides in pathology, from several manufacturers. High resolution scanning is usually based in tile (small fragment) or stripes (longitudinal areas) that are combined or stitched together to create a high magnification (usually equivalent to 20x to 40x magnification) global image. Thus, a large digital slide can be displayed using specific viewers to simulate the functions of...

Correlations Between Interstitial Stromal Fibrillary Network And Disease Progression In Hepatitis C

I.E. Plesea, C.D. Uscatu, M.S. Serbanescu, M. Indries & R.M. Plesea
Introduction/ Background Since the virus description in the 80s [1] , [2], the infection with hepatitis virus C (HVC) became a real health problem because 50-80% of acute HVC infections evolve to chronic hepatitis, from which 4–20% of patients develop liver cirrhosis within 20 years and, finally, the risk of developing HCC of patients with liver cirrhosis is 1–5% per year [3]. The principal stage of pathological processes is the interstitial space and mainly the...

Patch-Based Nonlinear Image Registration For Gigapixel Whole Slide Images

J. Lotz, J. Olesch, N. Weiss, J. Lotz, K. Breuhahn, H. Hahn & J. Modersitzki
Introduction/ Background Image Registration of whole slide histology images allows the fusion of fine-grained information – like different immunohistochemical stains – from neighboring tissue slides. Traditionally, pathologists fuse this information by looking subsequently at one slide at a time. If the slides are digitized and accurately aligned at cell-level, automatic analysis can be used to ease the pathologist’s work. However, the size of those images exceeds the memory capacity of regular computers, preventing the application...

A case of renal cell carcinoma with abundant smooth muscle (leiomyomatous) stroma and the differential diagnosis

Carlos Filipe Abrantes, Rui Caetano Oliveira, Luís Sepúlveda, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Carol Marinho, Vítor Sousa & Lígia Prado E Castro
Renal cell carcinoma with smooth muscle stroma (RCCSMS) is a rare and controversial renal cancer type with indolent behavior. This separation of this entity from other types of renal cell carcinoma is supported by recent published studies but not yet recognized by the World Health Organization. We present a case of a 72 years old female, with incidental finding on abdominal ultrasound of a renal nodule with 1.5cm. The patient underwent partial nephrectomy and the...

Choosing And Implementing The Correct Whole Slide Imaging System

Peter Branders, T. Tousseyn & B. Weynand
Introduction/ Background The whole slide imaging (WSI) market has developed enormously in the recent years. This evolution has made the selection and the implementation of digital pathology more complicated. Based on a validation process, we developed recommendations that need to be taken into account when implementing whole slide imaging. In addition to selecting the right hardware, one should also focus on laboratory organization, integration, training and handling. Aims The aim is to integrate WSI as...

Cy-TEST - A new platform for training and testing in cytopathology

Luca Lianas, Marco Enrico Piras, Elodia Musu, Simona Podda, Francesca Frexia, Emanuela Ovcin, Giovanni Bussolati & Gianluigi Zanetti
Introduction/ Background Clinical training at the European level requires flexible ways to provide education across borders with the goal of a unified way to teach and assess quality. The Cy-TEST project focuses on Cytological Training at European Standard through Telepathology. The project (2014-1-IT01-KA202-002607) has been approved and funded in 2014 by EU within the ERASMUS+ Program. The project consortium is composed of 4 leading university Institutions (COREP and University of Turin, University of Padua, Imperial...

Correlation Analysis of the Feto-Placental Parameters Et Intrauterine Growth Retardation

I. Gorianikova, O. Kononenko, O. Zinchenko & O. Antonova
Introduction/ Background A number of studies suggest that some disproportions and retardations in feto-placental growth may lead to various pathologies in adults. Aims The aim of the present work was to identify alterations in correlations between placental and fetal parameters in cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at 20-25 weeks of gestation (wg). Methods 18 cases with IUGR and high placenta/fetal weight index (PFI) have been compared with 20 controls in cases of induced abortions...

Structure, Function, And Predictive Diagnosis Algorithms

Klaus Kayser, Stephan Borkenfeld, Rita Carvalho & Gian Kayser
Introduction/ Background Background: Predictive diagnosis (PD) is a component of tissue based diagnosis. It is based upon immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular genetic (MG) measurements of structures and functions. It predicts the outcome of individual cancer treatment. Aims To develop computerized analysis of microscopic images in relation to prognosis evaluation of cancer patients. Methods Theory: Structures are related to object – associated visual information that remains constant within the period of observation. Functions display with changes...

Fractal Behavior Of Gleason And Srigley Grading Systems

M.S. Serbanescu, R.M. Plesea, O.T. Pop, C. Bungardean & I.E. Plesea
Introduction/ Background Prostate cancer remains one of the major malignancies of modern society. The need of grading this malignancy is still in dispute. Two major grading systems have emerged and are world-wide adapted: Gleason grading system [1] and Srigley grading system [2]. Both systems use optical subjective descriptions of different architec- tural growth patterns of prostate adenocarcinoma. The fractal dimension (FD) is used in the medical field as an objective feature for describing a given...

Automated Image Analysis Of Her2 Fish Enables New Definitions Of Genetic Heterogeneity In Breast Cancer Tissue

G. Radziuviene, Allan Rasmusson, R. Augulis, D. Lesciute-Krilaviciene, A. Laurinaviciene, E. Clim & Arvydas Laurinavicius
Introduction/ Background Therapy decisions for breast cancer rely on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification testing. The HER2 status of tumors is primarily established by immunohistochemistry; borderline (2+) cases undergo further testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Current guidelines state that HER2 amplification is determined from manual counts of HER2 and CEP17 signals in 40 nuclei per case with an additional 20 nuclei in equivocal cases. The definitions are based on...

Predatory Journals, Science Citation Index and Open Access Publications in Diagnostic Pathology

Klaus Kayser, Stephan Borkenfeld & Gian Kayser
Background: Predatory behavior in open access peer reviewed scientific journals seems to be increasing. It is subject to serious discussions between editors, authors, and publishers. Herein we discuss some characteristics of electronic communication in science, the reasons for potential misuse, and present some entropy calculations. Theoretical considerations: Publication of research articles uses visual information transfer, and seldom acoustic communication. Advantages of open access electronic journals include prompt and worldwide distribution, free access, and several free...

Cytest - A New Platform For Training And Testing In Cytopathology

Luca Lianas, M.E. Piras, E. Musu, S. Podda, F. Frexia, E. Ovcin, G. Bussolati & G. Zanetti
Introduction/ Background Clinical training at the European level requires flexible ways to provide education across borders with the goal of a unified way to teach and assess quality. The CyTest project focuses on Cytological Training at European Standard through Telepathology. The project (2014-1-IT01-KA202-002607) has been approved and funded in 2014 by EU within the ERASMUS+ Program. The project consortium is composed of 4 leading university Institutions (COREP and University of Turin, University of Padua, Imperial...

Cryptosporidiosis in an Immunocompetent Individual An unusual case with brief review of the literature

Bo Jin, Anveil Yashpal, Nisha Deol, Ahmed AbuRashed & Husain Saleh
Cryptosporidiosis infection involves most commonly the small intestine but can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Typical infection by this parasitic organism occurs in immunocompromised individuals. However, rare cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent individuals has been reported. Herein, we describe a case of cryptosporidiosis in an 85-year old woman who has hypertensive heart disease and diabetes, but is otherwise immunocompetent. This patient had protracted chronic diarrhea, however, medical workup failed to identify the etiology...

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