182 Works

Success and failure in translation of findings from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis to multiple sclerosis

MD Berghoff
Despite the differences between multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), most of the knowledge on immune-mediated tissue damage in MS is based on data from EAE. Immune response– modifying therapies such as TNFα inhibitors, glatiramer acetate (GA) or natalizumab have been studied in rodents and have been translated into treatment for patients with varying success. In humans treatment with an anti TNF monoclonal antibody or a recombinant TNF receptor Ig...

Influence Of Display Characteristics On Clinical Performance In Digital Pathology

Tom Kimpe, A. Avanaki, K. Espig, J. Rostang, G. Van Hoey & A. Xthona
Introduction/ Background Digital Pathology adoption is increasing rapidly. Recent technological advances have resulted in a steep increase in the performance and quality of digital pathology systems. Quality assurance mechanisms are being developed to ensure consistent quality of scanned slide images. However one important component that surprisingly is often overlooked is the display system. Pathologists base their diagnosis on the images presented by the display. The quality of these digital images depends on all of the...

Image Quality – Requirements For Clinical and Research Applications

N. Zerbe, D. Heim, T. Wetzel, M. Domhardt, S. Wienert, A. Alekseychuk, K. Schlüns & P. Hufnagl
Introduction/ Background The digitalization of slides and subsequent utilization of whole slide images has a highly visible penetration within digital pathology workflows. Not only research applications moving towards daily use, but also clinical pathology applies digital images increasingly. The use of virtual microscopy, with all of their advantages and benefits, requires additional efforts to assure sufficient image quality [1]. This consist of multiple aspects to be fulfilled, such as sharpness, tissue completeness, color fastness primary...

Pathology Assistant (C) - Gamechanger Of Pathology Diagnostic

Asel Kudaybergenova & A. Remez
Introduction/ Background UNIM Ltd. specializes in pathology diagnostics and digital pathology. We have created the SAAS platform DPathology that can be used for saving and studying histological slides and it doesn’t require an installation of a special software. You can use the platform with all the modern internet browsers. The SAAS platform gives all the specialists a chance to analyze remotely digital histological slides. It increases the accuracy of diagnostics and speeds up the medical...

Diagnosticpathology.eu ; Experiences 2016 – Perspectives 2017

Klaus Kayser
The peer reviewed open access journal diagnosticpathology.eu is embedded in a financially completely independent medical communication network of nodes which serve for different duties. The nodes include the services of the unique Virtual International Pathology Institute (VIPI, www.diagnomx.eu/vipi), an automated image measuring system (EAMUS), an anatomy training course, and a collection of sixty rare and common lung diseases. An atlas of ‘Natural and Synthetic Mineral Fibers affecting Man’ (including fine granulate) has been added in...

Typing, Grading, Staging - The Ultimate Goals Of Pathology Reports Modelled In HL7V3/CDA

Gunter Haroske & F. Oemig
Introduction/ Background Clinicians want pathologists to provide their reports fast, understandable, and useable for clinical decision making. Reports without a concise diagnostic conclusion in terms of typing, grading and staging of a disease are of low value. Therefore Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports (APSR) should have those keystones also reflected. Aims Instead to define very long lists with specific TNM-formulas, grading values, and tumor classifications information models have been developed which allow a flexible use in...

Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the breast - report of 2 cases

László Fónyad, László Piros, Gabriella Arató & Janina Kulka
BACKGROUND Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the breast is rare, although 20-30% of primary breast carcinomas show neuroendocrine differentiation to some degree. According to the 2012 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Breast the current classification recognizes 3 subgroups of breast tumors with neuroendocrine features: Neuroendocrine tumor, well-differentiated; Neuroendocrine tumor, poorly-differentiated; Invasive breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Due to the low prevalence of this disease our understanding of its development, prognosis and effective therapy is limited....

Open Access Publication In Pathology – Advantages, Constraints And New Tools

Rita Carvalho, Stephan Borkenfeld & Klaus Kayser
Introduction/ Background Open access journals are financed by authors (i.e. re- search grants), rather than by readers or subscribers. This business model allows a world – wide uncontrolled distribution of medical information and scientific knowledge. The financial of shifting the finance and the opportunities for misuse raise significant concerns regarding non – scientific impact and article content integrity. Aims Herein we report and discuss ideas and experiences of open access publication focusing on diagnostic pathology....

Classification of Degree of Differentiation of Colorectal Neoplasm by Changes in the Betti Number

K. Nakane & A. Takiyama
Introduction/ Background The diagnosis of pathology provides important information for determining the treatment protocol, but other than in developed countries, the number of pathologists is not sufficient. Even where the number is sufficient, they are often unevenly distributed, with most pathologists in large hospitals in metropolitan areas, and adequate services cannot be provided to all patients. For this reason, it is desirable to develop ways to allow for remote diagnosis or to develop automatic diagnostic...

The application of structural entropy in tissue based diagnosis

Gian Kayser, Jürgen Görtler, Cleo Aron Weis, Stephan Borkenfeld & Klaus Kayser
Background: Entropy belongs to the few basic measurable entities in nature. It measures the distance of a closed or open ‘statistical’ system from its present stage to its final stage, and analyzes the probability distribution of the included elements, independently from their meaning. The development can be predicted by use of an ‘ideal transformation’, i.e. additive formula (for example Shannon’s entropy) or by mathematical derivatives such as the more generalized q – entropy, for example...

Structure, Function, And Predictive Diagnosis Algorithms

Klaus Kayser, Stephan Borkenfeld, Rita Carvalho & Gian Kayser
Introduction/ Background Background: Predictive diagnosis (PD) is a component of tissue based diagnosis. It is based upon immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular genetic (MG) measurements of structures and functions. It predicts the outcome of individual cancer treatment. Aims To develop computerized analysis of microscopic images in relation to prognosis evaluation of cancer patients. Methods Theory: Structures are related to object – associated visual information that remains constant within the period of observation. Functions display with changes...

Towards Efficient Collaborative Digital Pathology: A Pioneer Initiative Of The FlexMIm Project

D. Racoceanu, D. Ameisen, A. Veillard, B. Ben Cheikh, E. Attieh, P. Brezillon, J.-B. Yunès, J.-M. Temerson, L. Toubiana, V. Verger, J.-F. Pomerol, J. Klossa, F. Lallemand, P. Constant, F. Capron, C. Guettier, N. Phan & P. Bertheau
Introduction/ Background The development of digital resources for pathologists is a long process before truly validated algorithms can be used in daily practice. Aims In addition to developing new tools for helping Whole Slide Image (WSI) analysis by pathologists, the cooperative research project FlexMIm aims at setting up a shared platform allowing further technological improvements to be tested and evaluated online by a community of pathologists. Methods The FlexMIm consortium includes 27 pathology laboratories in...

Evaluation of a confocal WSI scanner for FISH slide imaging and image analysis

Xiujun Fu, Jochen K. Lennerz, Maristela Onozato, Anthony Iafrate & Yukako Yagi
Background: Technological advances contribute to the maturation of digital pathology in clinical and research applications. However, there are only few reports on fluorescence scanning especially on confocal fluorescence imaging technology in digital pathology, which has superior depth resolution compared to wide-field fluorescence imaging. Here, we explored the features of a confocal WSI scanner for typical diagnostic and research imaging applications of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay. Methods: Multi-layer stacking (Z-stack) which stores all image...

Cognitive programming and digital pathology

Stephan Borkenfeld

Correlations Between Interstitial Stromal Fibrillary Network And Disease Progression In Hepatitis C

I.E. Plesea, C.D. Uscatu, M.S. Serbanescu, M. Indries & R.M. Plesea
Introduction/ Background Since the virus description in the 80s [1] , [2], the infection with hepatitis virus C (HVC) became a real health problem because 50-80% of acute HVC infections evolve to chronic hepatitis, from which 4–20% of patients develop liver cirrhosis within 20 years and, finally, the risk of developing HCC of patients with liver cirrhosis is 1–5% per year [3]. The principal stage of pathological processes is the interstitial space and mainly the...

An Integrated Framework For Histological Image Data Analytics

A. Homeyer, H. Kost & H. Hahn
Introduction/ Background Automated image analysis enables the mining of rich information from digitized histological slides. A major challenge is the complexity and large size of the images. Whole-slide images contain a multitude of different structures, like sections, regions of different tissue types and the contained cells. To make sense of these struc- tures, often multiple analysis solutions must be com- bined. A common example is the initial identification of regions-of-interest and the subsequent evaluation of...

How do I diagnose Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the breast

László Fónyad, László Piros & Gabriella Arató
Primary neuroendocrine tumor of the breast is a rare condition. Although 20-30% of primary breast cancers show neuroendocrine differentiation to some degree, according to the WHO classification, at least 50% of the tumor cells have to be positive with at least one neuroendocrine immunohistochemical marker to establish a diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor of the breast while clinically excluding other primary sites and a metastatic nature. Due to the low prevalence of this disease our understanding...

A review of graph-based methods for image analysis in digital histopathology

Harshita Sharma, Norman Zerbe, Sebastian Lohmann, Klaus Kayser, Olaf Hellwich & Peter Hufnagl
Digital image analysis of histological datasets is a currently expanding field of research. With different stains, magnifications and types of tissues, histological images are inherently complex in nature and contain a wide variety of visual information. Several image analysis techniques are being explored in this direction. However, graph-based methods are gaining most popularity, as these methods can describe tissue architecture and provide adequate numeric information for subsequent computer-based analysis. Graphs have the ability to represent...

Biobank Semantic Information Management With The Health Intelligence Platform

Christian Seebode, M. Ort, S. González Álvarez & C.R.A. Regenbrecht
Introduction/ Background Traditionally Biobanks were mostly used as repositories of cells and tissues. They are addressing scientific questions mainly for retrospective trials where stored tissues and cells can be used. This paradigm has been changing lately. Biobanks can play a different and more prominent role in the scientific process. In fact, the information contained in biobanks can fuel the scientific reasoning itself more than just accompanying it with management of specimens and data. Information management...

Novel anti-human Axl monoclonal antibodies for improved patient biomarker studies

Lavina Ahmed, Sergej M Kiprijanov, Hawa Nalwoga, Katarzyna Wnuk-Lipinska, Hallvard Haugen, James B Lorens, Lars A Akslen & David Robert Micklem
Background: Axl receptor tyrosine kinase has been associated with poor clinical outcome in a wide variety of malignancies including breast, lung, prostate, pancreatic, brain and myeloid cancers. Axl is up-regulated during tumour epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is associated with metastasis, immune evasion and drug resistance. Methods: The aim of this study was to develop improved assays for detection of Axl protein in patient samples. We developed a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against the...

Extralobular Sequestration

Klaus Kayser, Stephan Borkenfeld & Gian Kayser
Lung sequestration is a radiological/clinical diagnosis displaying with a mass of lung parenchyma that is not connected to the tracheobronchial tree. Intralobular sequestration defines lung parenchyma that is covered by visceral pleura; extralobular sequestration defines lung parenchyma that lies outside the visceral pleura. We report the histological findings of a 71 years old women suffering from chronic cough, recurrent bronchopneumonias, and several radiological densities in the left lower lobe (lingula). A resection of the lingula...

Phosphohistone 3 (PHH3) and lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) are expressed in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: possible clinical implications

Martin Sillem, Sascha Baum, Stefanie Engist, Gian Kayser, Martin Werner & Sylvia Timme-Bronsert
Purpose: Proliferation and pre-malignancy are typical features of DCIS. The expression of PHH3 as a marker for proliferation and LDH 5 as an indicator for oxygen independent energy metabolism was investigated in order to assess their potential for an improved characterisation of these lesions. Methods: Archived tissue blocks and clinical records of 130 patients with DCIS. Immunohistochemistry for PHH3, LDH5, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human EGF receptor 2 (HER2). Silverstein nuclear grading. Chi...

The Technicians´ Role in Digital Pathology Implementation. Searching Optimization.

Eduardo Alcaraz Mateos, Inmaculada Tortosa-Martínez, Carlos Alcolea-Guardiola, Susana Estévez-Ligero, Ángeles Abellán-Palazón, Alexandra Kundisova, Andrés Nieto-Olivares, Asunción Chaves-Benito & Enrique Poblet
Background Scanning histological or cytological preparations is a crucial element in the process of digitization of Pathology Departments, along with the traceability of tissue samples and the reports management. The scanning time and the high size of the files are still considered suboptimal for full implementation. In order to optimize time and space a comparative study of the workflow performed by histotechnicians in our center has been carried out. Material & Methods A total of...

www.diagnosticpathology.eu: Reflections of 2017 – Perspectives on 2018

Klaus Kayser
The peer reviewed open access journal www.diagnosticpathology.eu remains still the only financially autonomous, solely science and medicine obliged journal. It is embedded in a medical communication network of different service nodes. The nodes include the unique Virtual International Pathology Institute (VIPI, www.diagnomx.eu/vipi), an automated image measuring system (EAMUS), a lexicon of air borne hazards such as natural and synthetic mineral fibers, fine granulate and air pollutants (Natural and Synthetic Mineral Fibers affecting Man), an anatomy...

Digital Pathology In Italy: Preliminary Results From A National Survey

D. Massi, R. Mencarelli & Vincenzo Della Mea
Introduction/ Background Digital pathology has been around since many years now, but it is still not fully integrated in work routine. The Italian Society of Pathology and CytoDiagnostics (SIAPEC) contributed to its development at national level, and is willing to stimulate better collaboration and sharing for the aims of continuing education and training. For this, a common infrastructure for hosting digital slides could be useful. For this, SIAPEC, in collaboration with theUniversityofUdine, decided to investigate...

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