89 Works

Grassland management in Germany: effects on plant diversity and vegetation composition

Kristin Gilhaus, Steffen Boch, Markus Fischer, Norbert Hölzel, Till Kleinebecker, Daniel Prati, Denise Rupprecht, Barbara Schmitt & Valentin H. Klaus
The vast majority of European grasslands strongly depend on the regular removal of above-ground biomass by agricultural land use, mostly grazing or mowing or a combination of both. These specific management schemes have strong influence on plant diversity and vegetation composition, depending on their particular characteristics and their intensity. For example, the presence or absence of fertilization will favour some species over others, changing plant communities accordingly. Additionally, the farmer’s choice of a specific management...

Syntaxonomy of relic Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) forests in the Tatra Mountains

Antoni Zięba, Wojciech Różański & Jerzy Szwagrzyk
Pinus cembra forests in the Tatra Mountains were studied by MYCZKOWSKI (1970) and WOJTERSKA et al. (2004), and this research led to a description of a separate forest association called Cembro-Piceetum Myczkowski 1970 or, according to WOJTERSKA et al. (2004), Larici-Pinetum cembrae (Pallmann et Haffter 1933) Ellenberg 1963. However, due to insufficient data, the syntaxo-nomical status of Swiss stone pine forests remained arguable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the syntaxonomical status...

Cessation of livestock grazing and windthrow drive a shift in plant species composition in the Western Tatra Mts

Patryk Czortek, Halina Ratyńska, Marcin K. Dyderski, Andrzej M. Jagodziński, Anna Orczewska & Bogdan Jaroszewicz
Mountain vegetation is considered highly sensitive to changes in land use, especially grazing re-gime and forest management. The aim of this study was to assess shifts in plant species composition in the Western Tatra Mts over the past 92 years and to determine environmental drivers that have caused changes in species composition. We resurveyed 47 vegetation plots assigned to three differ-ent types of vegetation, which were originally sampled in 1922. For each plot we recorded...

Phytosociological studies of Malus sylvestris in North Hesse and Upper Franconia, Germany

Helge Walentowski, Gregor Aas, Alexander Göllner, Lisa Ahl & Martin Feulner
Malus sylvestris the European crabapple, a rare and threatened small tree species, has attracted in-creasing interest since it was awarded tree of the year 2013 in Germany. In this study, we used the wide range of different habitats in Upper Franconia and North Hesse to reveal a more complete picture about its phytosociology and ecological behavior in these regions and to examine the main environmental factors which affect its distribution. We collected a data set...

Estimating the distribution of forage mass for ungulates from vegetation plots in Bavarian Forest National Park

Jörg Ewald, Luisa Braun, Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Hans Jehl & Marco Heurich
Herbaceous ground vegetation is an important pool of biomass and nutrients, which is also used as the major forage source for wild ungulates. Up to now no standard methods exist to estimate herbaceous biomass on a landscape level for temperate forests, which are characterised by deciduous trees with closed canopies. Quantity and quality of the herbaceous forage accessible to herbivores can be estimated from estimated cover in vegetation plot data and information on biomass and...

An overview of aquatic vegetation in Serbia

Dušanka Lj. Cvijanović, Dmitar V. Lakušić, Milica M. Živković, Maja Z. Novković, Ana A. Anđelković, Danijela M. Pavlović, Dragana M. Vukov & Snežana B. Radulović
The majority of aquatic vegetation studies in the Middle Danube Basin (Serbia) were done inde-pendently during the last two decades, including data from small areas, which resulted in several classification solutions. The main purpose of this paper was to develop a numerical classification of the aquatic vegetation in Serbia, without fitting the vegetation groups into the existing phytocoenolog-ical classification scheme. Datasets of (i) surface and subsurface vegetation of free-floating duck-weeds, ferns, liverworts and bladderworts, and...

Waldvegetation der Sassau im Walchensee: Vergleich von Naturwald und Wirtschaftswald, Insel und Halbinsel

Jörg Ewald & Udo Endres
Forest stands, vegetation and soils of the strict forest reserve (NWR, designated in 1978) Sassau, an island of 2.6 ha situated in the alpine lake Walchensee, were surveyed on 20 permanent plots and compared to a neighbouring forest under customary management (WW). Both forests are situated on karstic limestone plateaus, 800–830 m a.s.l. under cool and moist climate (6.2 °C, 1483 mm) of the lower montane belt. With 48 m² and 450 m³*ha-1, NWR had...

Indikatorarten für nährstoffarme Standorte in den Bergwäldern der Bayerischen Alpen

Birgit Reger, Karl Heinz Mellert & Jörg Ewald
Many mountain forests of the Bavarian Alps are found on sites with low supply of N, P and K and, in fewer cases, of Mg and Ca. In order to identify these sites, which are sensitive to biomass extraction, in the field, plant species of the soil vegetation can be used as indicators. The aim of our study was to identify indicator species of nutrient-poor forest sites in the Bavarian Alps by analysing a comprehensive...

Retamoid scrubs of the Cytisetea scopario-striati in the Netherlands: a new approach to classify marginal associations

Rense Haveman, Iris de Ronde & Joop H.J. Schaminée
Marginal associations, i.e. floristically impoverished associations at the margin of the distribution area of a higher syntaxon, form a problem in vegetation classification, because true character species are lacking. We propose a new approach for the classification of such marginal associations, making use of the notion of 'chorological tension zones'. In the absence of true character species, the species from other syntaxa of the same formation can be used as such. Our proposal is to...

Wiederansiedlungen von Gefäßpflanzenarten in Deutschland – eine Übersicht und statistische Auswertung

Martin Diekmann, Josef Müller, Thilo Heinken & Cecilia Dupré
Aim - Plant reintroductions and other forms of targeted species translocations will in the future gain growing importance for nature conservation. In fragmented habitats, species reintroductions offer one of the most efficient tools for preserving or restoring plant diversity. In our study, we have compiled available data about plant reintroduction projects in Germany to answer the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics, habitat preferences and ecological strategies of species considered in plant reintroduction trials,...

Species trait-environment relationships in semi-dry Brachypodium pinnatum grasslands on old waste heaps left by Zn-Pb mining in the western Małopolska region (S Poland)

Marcin W. Woch
This study describes the vascular flora and community structure of grasslands occurring on heaps of waste rock left by former Zn-Pb mining in relation to the metal content in the soil and other environmental factors. The study was performed on 65 heaps scattered in agricultural land in southern Poland. The sites were described in terms of plant community characteristics, soil physicochemical properties, distance from woodland, altitude and local climate. The number of plant species and...

Effects of fire severity on understory community regeneration and early succession after burning of moist pine forest

Zbigniew Dzwonko, Stefania Loster & Stefan Gawroński
The interaction between fire severity (measured as the degree of organic soil layer consumption) and species regeneration strategy has been suggested to explain early post-fire vegetation dynamics in coniferous forests. To test this hypothesis we analyzed 14 years of succession on permanent plots after a wildfire in moist Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on muck-peat soil in southern Poland. Plots were established at heavily, partly and slightly burned sites, as well as in unburned...

Diversity and ecological differentiation of mixed forest in northern Montenegro (Mt. Bjelasica) with reference to European classification

Milan Gazdić, Albert Reif, Milan Knežević, Danka Petrović, Marko Stojanović & Klara Dološ
The current state of forests as well as tree species composition in stands is the result of past de-velopment and somehow a record of all previous influences. As a base for better projections of future forest development and the development of sustainable management strategies we should recognize developmental processes in forests and understand their drivers. Mixed mountain forests in Montenegro, with an exceptionally large variation of environmental conditions, provide an excel-lent opportunity to study eastern-Mediterranean...

Do short-lived ruderal and arable weed communities reflect regional climate differences? A case study from SE Styria

Verena Denk & Christian Berg
The Feldbach district is situated near the town of Feldbach in the southeastern province of Styria, Austria. Since 2007, a climate observation network of 151 climate stations within an area of approximately 20 x 15 km (grid cell 1.4 × 1.4 km) has provided a unique collection of spatial and temporal meteorological data. Examining short-lived ruderal and arable weed communities, we search for correlations and spatial patterns between the community composition and climate data. Do...

High resilience of plant species composition to coppice restoration – a chronosequence from the oak woodland of Gerolfing (Bavaria)

Jörg Ewald, Radim Hédl, Markéta Chudomelová, Petr Petřík, Jan Šipoš & Ondřej Vild
In the oak forest of Gerolfing (near Ingolstadt, Germany), regular coppicing has been reintro-duced after approximately 30 years of abandonment to enhance biodiversity and provide fuel to private households. Based on 42 vegetation plots in six strata (5-year harvesting intervals plus an untreated control) a chronosequence representing a full coppice cycle is studied using measurements of vegetation structure, light availability, topsoil chemistry and indicator species analysis. Coppicing triggers a succession in forest structure and radiation...

Die Einfache Mondraute (Botrychium simplex, Ophioglossaceae) in Deutschland

H. Wilfried Bennert, Irmgard Sonneborn & Karsten Horn
This paper provides a brief portrait of Botrychium simplex and starts by describing its biological characteristics and distribution in Germany. In the third part, a demographic study is presented reporting on long-term observations of the only presently known German population (Senne area, North Rhine-Westphalia). As with all moonworts, the spores of B. simplex germinate in the soil, and the gametophytes start developing only if they are infected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont. The sporophytes are...

Was haben Pilze wie die Saftlinge (Gattung Hygrocybe s. l.) auf magerem Grünland zu suchen?

Barbara Ruthsatz
It is still uncertain which nutrition strategy waxcap fungi (Hygrocybe s. l.: Hygrocybe, Cuphophyl-lus und Gliophorus) are pursuing on nutrient-poor grasslands. Where do they get nitrogen and carbon from, especially since they are sensitive to mineral N-fertilizer? Are they able to extract it from soil organic matter in a saprotrophic manner or are they biotrophic, depending on plants? Waxcap species have been studied in western Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) on over 100 grasslands from 2010 until 2017....

Habitat preferences of the rare lizard-orchid Himantoglossum adriaticum H. Baumann

Judit Bódis, Éva Biró, Timea Nagy, Attila Takács, Attila Molnár V. & Balázs András Lukács
Himantoglossum adriaticum is a rare and in many countries endangered orchid species. It grows on calcareous soils in natural and semi-natural, dry and mesophilic grasslands or open woodlands and is restricted to a small region along the Adriatic coast and within Central and Southeastern Europe. We compiled phytosociological relevés (n = 84) covering the whole distribution range to investigate its habitat preferences and collected soil samples from 41 relevés to determine various soil parameters. We...

Vegetation of limestone outcrops in Western and Central Podillia (Ukraine)

Yakiv P. Didukh & Yulia A. Vasheniak
This article characterises limestone outcrop vegetation. Such communities grow on limestone, chalk, gypsum and other kinds of rocks of the Devon and Paleogene period dispersed throughout Western and Central Podillia. The relief, geological structure, soil, distribution factors caused by climate, specificity and diversity of the communities and their particular floristic qualities are high-lighted. The history of phytocoenological investigations of limestone outcrop communities in Ukraine is also shown. Syntaxonomical and ecological assessments with critical analyses and...

Nomenclatural revision of dry grassland syntaxa of the Central Balkan

Svetlana Aćić, Urban Šilc, Slobodan Jovanović, Eva Kabaš, Snežana Vukojičić & Zora Dajić Stevanović
An extensive survey of the relevant literature of dry grassland communities described for the territory of Serbia allowed us to check the validity and legitimacy of the nomenclature of this vegetation. Nomenclature rules of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature were strictly followed. The syntaxonomic affiliation of communities to higher syntaxa was assessed according to existing syntaxonomic schemes for Serbia and the position determined by the original source. Higher syntaxa followed the synsystem of the...

Open Access zu 13 500 europäischen Vegetationsaufnahmen aus dem Reinhold-Tüxen-Archiv

Friedemann Goral, Ansgar Hoppe & Erwin Bergmeier
About 13,500 phytosociological relevés (vegetation plot samples) of the Reinhold-Tüxen Archive at the Institute of Geobotany, Leibniz Universität Hannover, collected between 1925 and 1979, were digitalized in the years 2000–2003. These relevés come from 25 European countries and Canada, the geographical focus being in north-western Germany. However, due to the file format then used, the data have proved to be hardly accessible for vegetation scientists and have barely been used since. In an effort to...

Effect of phenology, nutrient availability and windthrow on flowering of Allium ursinum – results from long-term monitoring and experiments

Steffi Heinrichs, Hartmut Dierschke, Thomas Kompa & Wolfgang Schmidt
Allium ursinum, a dominant herb layer species in nutrient rich, deciduous forests of Central Eu-rope, has considerably expanded in the past decades. As this species mainly relies on regeneration by seeds, we wanted to analyse if and how the timing of phenological phases, climatic factors and resource availability correlated with flowering intensity as a potential factor for its success. We rec-orded annual inflorescence numbers in a population of the Göttinger Wald from 1981 until 2017...

Restoration possibilities of dry grasslands afforested by pine: the role of seed bank and remnant vegetation

Anna Szabó & Eszter Ruprecht
Stipa-dominated steppe-like dry grasslands represent a great nature conservation priority in Ro-mania and in the whole European Union. In Romania, due to their low productivity, many sites had been afforested by pines or black locust trees at the end of the 1950’s in order to raise economic value and to hinder landslides on the steep slopes. Economic expectations did not live up, thus afforested sites will increasingly be targeted for grassland restoration, especially in protected...

Effects of forest management intensity on herb layer plant diversity and composition of deciduous forest communities in Northern Germany

Judith Petzold, Sebastian Dittrich, Andreas Fichtner, Werner Härdtle, Birte Naumann & Goddert von Oheimb
Forest management is assumed to significantly affect herb layer species richness and community composition. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the effects of a reduction in forest management intensity on herb layer species assemblages in deciduous forests of Northern Germany. We selected forest stands which had been managed according to different management intensities (i.e., single-tree and group selection harvest) up to the year 1994, and which were subject to a low-impact...

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