26 Works

Onkologija

Onkološki Inštitut Ljubljana
Ta knjiga je nastala v želji, da slovenskim študentom obeh medicinskih fakultet njihovi učitelji ponudijo celovit vpogled v področje onkologije od opredelitve obsega onkološke problematike in vzrokov za nastanek raka do zmožnosti moderne diagnostike in načel sodobnega zdravljenja posameznih vrst raka. Poglavja v učbeniku so zbrana v dveh sklopih: prvi – Splošna onkologija – ponuja vpogled v osnove onkologije in temeljne diagnostične in terapevtske načine; v drugem sklopu specialne onkologije so predstavljene posamezne vrste rakov...

Depresija

Dragan Terzič
This article shows the significance of depression with the emphasis on genetic and stress factors that influence its outburst. Severe chronic physical diseases like cancer are long-term stress factors that significantly contribute to the development of depression. Major depression is most efficiently treated with medications from the group of antidepressants that differ in the effect and are chosen based on the leading symptoms of depression. So, it is important that the antidepressant is chosen in...

Karcinom Merklovih celic

Janja Ocvirk
Karcinom Merklovih celic (KMC) je redek, agresiven nevroendokrini kožni rak s slabo prognozo, posebno, ko je v napredovalem stadiju. Incidenca na splošno narašča, čeprav podatki o incidenci kažejo na razlike med geografskimi področji. Med dejavnike tveganja štejemo starost, imunosupresijo in izpostavljenost ultravijoličnemu sevanju. Znana je povezava med MCC in okužbo s poliomavirusom, čeprav natančnega mehanizma, ki vodi v karcinogenezo, še ne razumemo v celoti. Pri lokalizirani bolezni je izbor zdravljenja kirurgija (ko je to mogoče),...

Psihoonkološka obravnava bolnika z rakom

Andreja Cirila Škufca Smrdel & Mirjam Rojec
With the increase of cancer incidence, prolonged survival, and a rising awareness about the importance of mental wellbeing, psycho-oncology care presents an important part of comprehensive cancer patient treatment. The Department of Psycho-Oncology at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana was established in 1984 to provide psycho-oncology care to patients and their relatives. Behavioural cognitive therapy and supportive therapy are the most common therapeutic modalities used in individual and group treatment of cancer patients. Nevertheless, timely...

Bolnik z rakom v procesu vračanja na delo

Olivera Masten Cuznar
Early diagnostics, new terapeutic methods and more successful treatment of cancer patients also enabeled them to return to work at least partly if not completly. For healthcare providers return to work means successful rehabilitation and for the patient and his close once better quality of live. The author of the article is representing a case of a breast cancer pacient who is on sick leave and is returning to work after the process of treatment...

Ocena delazmožnosti onkoloških bolnikov

Vesna Pekarović Džakulin
Cancer is among the most common diseases of our time. Each year, about 13.500 people get cancer in Slovenia. The risk of disease increases with age. There are about 100.000 cancer survivors living in Slovenia, meaning cancer can no longer be considered a mortal disease but rather a chronic illness. Population aging and the prolonging length of service put us before a dilemma whether work is harmful or beneficial to a cancer patient. Work is...

Stranski učinki ob zdravljenju rakavih bolezni z zaviralci tirozinskih kinaz

Marina Mencinger
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are multicentric drugs that inhibit different cellular processes and are effective in the treatment of many types of cancer. Although the side effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are generally tolerable, they may also be serious and cause numerous problems in patients receiving long-term medication. Dosage reductions or transient withdrawal are often required, but only rarely is the treatment permanently discontinued. Typical complications include skin toxicity, cardiovascular complications, problems in the gastrointestinal tract,...

Smernice za obravnavo bolnikov z malignimi limfomi

Barbara Jezeršek Novaković, Gordana Gašljevič, Monika Jagodic, Tanja Južnič Šetina, Jana Pahole Goličnik, Veronika Kloboves Prevodnik, Marija Skoblar Vidmar, Uroš Smrdel, Danijela Štrbac & Lorna Zadravec Zaletel
Onkologija, leto XXII, št. 1, junij 2018

Akutni stranski učinki obsevanja trebuha in medenice

Ana Jeromen Peressutti
In spite of the advances in radiation therapy in the last decades, radiation side effects still rIrradiation of the abdominal and pelvic cavities can result in acute side effects that are seen in the organs situated near the radiation target volume. The effect of radiotherapy is most potent against tissues with a high cell turnover – mucosa of the bladder and gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and skin. The acute symptoms are based on the radiation-induced...

Occurrence of claustrophobia in patients undergoing radiotherapy that require an immobilization mask

Nena Galunič, Barbara Petrovič, Andreja Cirila Škufca Smrdel & Valerija Žager Marciuš
Introduction: Radiotherapy is one of the more efficient methods of treating cancer. During preparation for radiation therapy, certain patients are fitted with an immobilization mask. This can cause feelings of anxiety or claustrophobia. Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the portion of radiographers that had met with claustrophobia in patients due to the use of an immobilization mask, as well as to investigate measures for reducing said claustrophobia. Methods: In a cross-sectional...

Tekočinska biopsija pri raku

Tanja Jesenko, Cvetka Grašič Kuhar & Maja Čemažar
V zadnjih letih smo v onkologiji priča hitremu napredku na področju biopsije telesnih tekočin oz. tekočinske biopsije. Tekočinska biopsija predstavlja analizo vzorca odvzete telesne tekočine (v onkologiji je to običajno kri), v katerem iščemo znake navzočnosti raka. V krvi lahko analiziramo cirkulirajočo prosto/cirkulirajočo tumorsko DNA (cf/ctDNA) iz tumorskih celic, eksosome, ki jih v kri sproščajo tumorske celice, in tudi cirkulirajoče tumorske celice (CTC). V pregledu predstavljamo najnovejša dognanja in raziskave na področju tekočinske biopsije pri...

Radioterapija s protonskimi žarki

Božidar Casar & Primož Strojan
Onkologija, leto XXII, št. 1, junij 2018

Vrednotenje zadovoljstva bolnikov z radioterapevtskimi storitvami na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana

Valerija Žager Marciuš
Uvod: Bolniku prijazne zdravstvene organizacije razumejo zadovoljstvo svojih bolnikov kot ključno pri načrtovanju in izvajanju zdravstvenih storitev. Analize o zadovoljstvu bolnikov so zdravstvenemu osebju v pomoč pri odkrivanju pomanjkljivosti pri zdravstveni oskrbi bolnika, ugotavljanju izobraževalnih potreb ter nagrajevanju in krepitvi delovne motivacije osebja. Namen raziskave je ugotoviti zadovoljstvo bolnikov na teleradioterapevtskem oddelku na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana z ocenjevanjem različnih poklicnih profilov (medicinske sestre, radiološki inženirji, zdravniki radioterapevti onkologi) in celotne zdravstvene oskrbe. Metode: Empirični del...

Priporočila za obravnavo bolnikov s kožnim melanomom

Marko Hočevar, Primož Strojan, Janja Ocvirk, Martina Reberšek, Marko Boc, Barbara Perić, Boštjan Luzar, Jože Pižem, Olga Blatnik, Katarina Karner, Tomi Bremec & Tanja Ručigaj Planinšek
ni abstrakta

Maligni melanom

Vesna Pekarović Džakulin & Janja Ocvirk
Malignant melanoma in Slovenia continues to increase rapidly in incidence over the last decades. Knowledge and risk factors amongst the population is still questionable and poorly investigated. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the leading risk factor for melanoma development, therefore physical protection and use of sunscreens with sun protection factors is crucial. The study aimed to investigate awareness of melanoma, risk factors and related behavior towards them among students of four faculties of University of...

Akutni stranski učinki obsevanja glave in vratu ter prsnega koša

Marko Kokalj & Primož Strojan
In spite of the advances in radiation therapy in the last decades, radiation side effects still remain an important and unavoidable issue, with a great impact on cancer patients' quality of life. Acute side effects develop up to 90 days from the beginning of therapy. In patients receiving treatment in the head, neck and thoracic region, radiodermatitis and radiomucositis are the most common acute side effects, followed by lack of saliva (xerostomia), altered taste (dysgeusia)...

Febrilna nevtropenija in nevtropenija višje stopnje ob adjuvantnem zdravljenju nedrobnoceličnega raka pljuč v vsakodnevni praksi

Marta Globočnik Kukovica, Nežka Hribernik, Ana Herzog & Tanja Čufer
Purpose: Based on clinical trial data, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (Cht) is an intermediate risk factor for febrile neutropenia in patients with operable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to assess the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) and high-grade neutropenia (G 3/4 N) in a group of patients treated in everyday clinical practice, and to determine the groups of patients that are at high risk of developing FN and G 3/4 N. Methods: This observational...

Klinične raziskave v onkologiji

Erika Matos
Clinical trials or clinical studies refer to research that is done in people. Their results are the backbone of daily clinical practice, namely evidence- based medicine. Clinical trials involve several phases. The main purpose of a phase I trial is to determine the safety of treatment, a phase II trial aims to determine if the new treatment is effective in treating a certain cancer, and a phase III trial compares the new treatment to the...

Učinkovitost kanabinoidov pri zdravljenju raka – mit ali resnica?

Blaž Grošelj, Miha Oražem & Viljem Kovač
Uporaba derivatov konoplje (kanabinoidov) je v onkologiji občasno indicirana pri simptomatski terapiji slabosti in bruhanja, bolečini ter nevropsiholoških motnjah. V zadnjih letih je opaziti tudi čedalje pogostejše zastavljanje vprašanj v povezavi z morebitnimi zdravilnimi učinki konoplje pri zdravljenju malignih neoplazem. Po naših izkušnjah mnogo bolnikov uživa eno izmed oblik kanabinoidov, tudi z namenom protitumorskega delovanja. Kljub številnim prepričljivim podatkom o protitumorskem učinku kanabinoidov v laboratorijskih poskusih na celičnih kulturah in živalskih modelih pa ta v...

Imunoterapija

Tanja Ovčariček
Over the past years, immunotherapy has become an important systemic treatment strategy for cancer patients. We have seen multiple different strategies, and checkpoint blockade is one them. Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are antibodies against checkpoint inhibitors that can increase immune activity against cancer, thus making the immune system stronger against cancer cells. However, the increasing use of these agents has exposed a discrete group of...

Priporočila za obravnavo bolnic z rakom materničnega telesa

Barbara Šegedin, Sebastjan Merlo, Špela Smrkolj, Sonja Bebar, Ana Blatnik, Olga Cerar, Branko Cvjetičanin, Barbara Gazić, Andreja Gornjec, Borut Kobal, Mateja Krajc , Ksenija Strojnik, Manja Šešek, Erik Škof, Iztok Takač , Aleš Vakselj, Vesna Zadnik & Helena Barbara Zobec Logar
Onkologija, leto XXII, št. 1, junij 2018

Razvoj in implementacija orodja za določanje individualne ogroženosti za rakom dojk v slovenski populaciji

Vesna Zadnik & Mateja Krajc
Danes poznamo različne matematične modele za izračunavanje individualne ogroženosti za raka dojk. Trenutno je kot najbolj dosleden model razpoznan Tyrer-Cuzickov algoritem vključen v program IBIS. V Sloveniji smo v okviru Ciljnega raziskovalnega projekta Razvoj in implementacija orodja za določanje individualne ogroženosti za rakom dojk v slovenski populaciji, ki ga izvajamo na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana, razvili program S-IBIS, ki je namenjen izračunavanju individualne ogroženosti za raka dojk slovenskih žensk. Gre za prilagoditev programa IBIS, kjer je...

DNA vakcine za zdravljenje raka

Špela Kos & Gregor Serša
DNA vakcine predstavljajo obetaven pristop imunoterapije raka, predvsem zaradi njihove enostavnosti, stabilnosti in varnosti. DNA vakcine temeljijo na vnosu plazmidne DNA z zapisom za enega ali več tumorskih antigenov, udeleženih v nastanku, napredovanju ali zasevanju rakavih celic. Z vnosom DNA vakcine spodbudimo imunski odziv usmerjen proti tumorskemu antigenu, kar potencialno vodi do uničenja rakavih celic. Kljub številnim prednostim DNA vakcin pred klasičnimi vakcinami njihovo uporabo v humani kliniki omejuje prešibak antigen-specifični imunski odziv. Za izboljšanje...

Zbornik predavanj

Urška Ivanuš

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