96 Works

3.4.1. Definition von Qualität

Hans-Joachim Hannich & Katharina Piontek
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Treatment of Dupuytren's disease

David Warwick
Chapter of Living Textbooks of Handsurgery

Urinary tract infection in spina bifida

Yazan F. Rawashdeh & Gitte M. Hvistendahl
The urological consequences of spina bifida in children remain challenging for the paediatric urologist and nephrologist. And as the majority of these patients are born with normal urinary tracts and renal function the mainstay of modern management has been to preserve renal function by countering the effects of high bladder pressures, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and urinary tract infection (UTI) by clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), combined with administering anticholinergics and at times prophylactic antibiotics. Solid evidence...

Compression neuropathies of the radial nerve

Anthony Barabas & Mark Pickford
The commonest cause of radial nerve dysfunction is from extrinsic compressions of the radial nerve, such as against the shaft of the humerus in “Saturday night palsy”. However, this chapter focuses on the less common intrinsic compression neuropathies of the radial nerve. Intrinsic radial nerve compression neuropathies occur much less frequently than those of the median or ulnar nerves. The combined annual incidence of compressive neuropathies of the posterior interosseous nerve and the superficial radial...

Quality of life and relationships in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: models of self-regulation and psychosocial risk factors

Dean Tripp, Alison Crawford & J. Curtis Nickel
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a condition marked by persistent pain in the perineum, pelvic area, and/or genitalia. The etiology of CP/CPPS remains unknown, making it a difficult to diagnose and to treat. CP/CPPS should not be viewed solely as a physical phenomenon, as psychological and social factors impact the patient’s experience of the disease. Instead, examining CP/CPPS from a biopsychosocial perspective lets us understand illness as a dynamic process that integrates biological,...

Treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome – UPOINT

Aaron C. Shoskes, Dominic Tran-Nguyen & Daniel Shoskes
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common condition, however many common therapies used in practice fail to show benefit when subjected to large randomized controlled trials. This discrepancy may be because CP/CPPS is a heterogeneous syndrome rather than one specific disease, which can explain the prior failure of any one therapy for all patients. In order to direct appropriate therapy, a six-point clinical phenotyping system was developed to evaluate patients with CP/CPPS. The...

2.3.1. Die Betrachtung wichtiger Eigenschaften

Margraf-Stiksrud Jutta
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis

Gianpaolo Perletti, Florian M. E. Wagenlehner, Visnja Skerk & Vittorio Magri
Bacterial infection of the prostate can be demonstrated by the Meares and Stamey 4-glass or the pre and post prostate massage (PPM) 2-glass test in only about 10% of men with symptoms of chronic prostatitis. NIH-category II chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is mainly caused by Gram-negative uropathogens, whereas the role of certain Gram-positive and sexually-transmitted pathogens is still discussed. For treatment, fluoroquinolones are considered the drugs of choice because of their favorable pharmacokinetic properties and...

Invasive therapy for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC)

Claus Riedl
This chapter summarizes our present experience with invasive regimen in BPS/IC therapy. A broad spectrum of interventions including simple endoscopic procedures as well as extensive surgery are performed in this indication. Hydrodistension, fulguration of Hunner’s lesions, sacral neuromodulation and cystectomy may all give significant symptom relief to BPS/IC patients, however, the efficacy is not perfectly predictable. Thus, patient selection is crucial, and our algorithms for precise selection of patients for each procedure still are improvable.

3.4. Qualitätssicherung

Hans-Joachim Hannich & Olaf von dem Knesebeck
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Male circumcision: Impact on human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections

John N. Krieger & Brian Morris
High-quality data show that male circumcision reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection by approximately 70% during heterosexual intercourse. Three major lines of evidence support this conclusion: biological data suggesting that this concept is plausible, data from observational studies supported by high-quality meta-analysis, and three randomized controlled trials involving more than 11,000 participants, also supported by high quality meta-analyses. The evidence from these biological studies, observational studies, randomized controlled clinical trials,...

2.5.1. Einführung in die sozialpsychologischen Grundlagen

Thomas von Lengerke, Siegfried Geyer & Stefanie Sperlich
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

2.5.2. Die Perspektive der Umwelt: Soziale Normen und Rollen

Stefanie Sperlich & Siegfried Geyer
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

3. Ärzte und Patienten im Gesundheitssystem

Olaf von dem Knesebeck & Renate Deinzer
Kapitel des Online Lehrbuch der Medizinischen Psychologie und Medizinischen Soziologie

Medical treatment for urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB)

Christian Wejse
Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) should in general be treated as pulmonary TB with a four-drug regimen of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide for a total of 6 months, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide only the first two months. Some patients may need longer treatment (cavitary disease, kidney abscess/malfunction, HIV co-infection). Treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires use of long-term intravenous treatment with aminoglycosides and other drugs with considerable toxicity for 18–24 months. Complications such as urinary tract...

Genital infections during pregnancy

José Tirán Saucedo
Genital infections during pregnancy are a major health problem in many parts of the world, with the particularity of being responsible for complications to the mother and infant, on top of being a burden to the health system. This chapter will be a discussion of the main genital infections during pregnancy: candidiasis, trichomoniasis, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis and human papillomavirus. Many of their complications are pregnancy-related for which a prompt diagnosis, effective...

MRSA in urology

Satoshi Takahashi
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the main pathogen in healthcare-associated infections (HAI) worldwide, especially in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In the field of urology, however, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on MRSA infections. Therefore, urological infections caused by MRSA need to be examined more carefully in clinical trials, because urinary tract infections (UTI) and surgical site infections (SSI) caused by MRSA are both important HAI. Treatment of MRSA infection is usually empirical,...

Bladder pain syndrome: differences in diagnostic strategies around the world

Philip Hanno
Nomenclature for the syndrome commonly referred to as bladder pain syndrome is in flux. In the United States the disorder is interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome reflecting one entity. This reflects the need to keep the term interstitial cystitis for health insurance purposes. In Europe bladder pain syndrome is now the well-accepted nomenclature. In Asia, the situation in more complex. The terms frequency/urgency syndrome, hypersensitive bladder syndrome, painful bladder syndrome, and interstitial cystitis all carry different...

Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy – Is it still necessary to screen and treat?

Caroline Schneeberger & Brenda Kazemier
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy occurs in 2–10% of pregnant women although higher frequencies have also been reported, up to 40%. Pregnant women are more prone to develop urinary tract infections (UTI) because of dilatation of the renal system and decreased peristalsis of the ureters and bladder facilitating bacterial colonisation and ascending infection in pregnancy. Enterobacteriaceae comprise approximately the majority of urine isolates, of which Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen. A urine culture...

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