17,472 Works

Value Estimation and Comparison in Multi-Attribute Choice

Geoffrey W. Fisher
The following work explores the processes individuals utilize when making multi-attribute choices. With the exception of extremely simple or familiar choices, most decisions we face can be classified as multi-attribute choices. In order to evaluate and make choices in such an environment, we must be able to estimate and weight the particular attributes of an option. Hence, better understanding the mechanisms involved in this process is an important step for economists and psychologists. For example,...

DNA-Mediated Charge Transport Devices for Protein Detection

Ariel Lesa Furst
Detection of biologically relevant targets, including small molecules, proteins, DNA, and RNA, is vital for fundamental research as well as clinical diagnostics. Sensors with biological elements provide a natural foundation for such devices because of the inherent recognition capabilities of biomolecules. Electrochemical DNA platforms are simple, sensitive, and do not require complex target labeling or expensive instrumentation. Sensitivity and specificity are added to DNA electrochemical platforms when the physical properties of DNA are harnessed. The...

Strength, Deformation and Fracture in Metallic Nanostructures

Xun Wendy Gu
An understanding of the mechanics of nanoscale metals and semiconductors is necessary for the safe and prolonged operation of nanostructured devices from transistors to nanowire- based solar cells to miniaturized electrodes. This is a fascinating but challenging pursuit because mechanical properties that are size-invariant in conventional materials, such as strength, ductility and fracture behavior, can depend critically on sample size when materials are reduced to sub- micron dimensions. In this thesis, the effect of nanoscale...

Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

Ran Duan
A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property...

On the Link Floer Homology of L-space Link

Nakul Dawra
We will prove that, for a 2 or 3 component L-space link, HFL- is completely determined by the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of all the sub-links of L, as well as the pairwise linking numbers of all the components of L. We will also give some restrictions on the multi-variable Alexander polynomial of an L-space link. Finally, we use the methods in this paper to prove a conjecture of Yajing Liu classifying all 2-bridge L-space links.

Noise Cancellation for Gravitational Wave Detectors

Jennifer Clair Driggers
The LIGO gravitational wave detectors are on the brink of making the first direct detections of gravi- tational waves. Noise cancellation techniques are described, in order to simplify the commissioning of these detectors as well as significantly improve their sensitivity to astrophysical sources. Future upgrades to the ground based detectors will require further cancellation of Newtonian gravitational noise in order to make the transition from detectors striving to make the first direct detection of gravitational...

The Mechanical Genome in Regulation and Infection

Yi-Ju Chen
Biological information storage and retrieval is a dynamic process that requires the genome to undergo dramatic structural rearrangements. Recent advances in single-molecule techniques have allowed precise quantification of the nano-mechanical properties of DNA [1, 2], and direct in vivo observation of molecules in action [3]. In this work, we will examine elasticity in protein-mediated DNA looping, whose structural rearrangement is essential for transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We will look at hydrodynamics in...

Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopies for Applications of Remote Sensing, Chemical Kinetics and Detection of Radical Species

Thinh Quoc Bui
This thesis describes applications of cavity enhanced spectroscopy towards applications of remote sensing, chemical kinetics and detection of transient radical molecular species. Both direct absorption spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy are used in this work. Frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) was utilized for measurements of spectral lineshapes of O2 and CO2 for obtaining laboratory reference data in support of NASA’s OCO-2 mission. FS-CRDS is highly sensitive (> 10 km absorption path length) and precise (>...

Quantum Interference and Entanglement of Surface Plasmons

James Spencer Fakonas
Surface plasma waves arise from the collective oscillations of billions of electrons at the surface of a metal in unison. The simplest way to quantize these waves is by direct analogy to electromagnetic fields in free space, with the surface plasmon, the quantum of the surface plasma wave, playing the same role as the photon. It follows that surface plasmons should exhibit all of the same quantum phenomena that photons do, including quantum interference and...

Binding Studies of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Expressing Unnatural Amino Acids

Ximena Da Silva Tavares
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels mediating fast synaptic transmission throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. They have been implicated in various processes related to cognitive functions, learning and memory, arousal, reward, motor control and analgesia. Therefore, these receptors present alluring potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of pain, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression and nicotine addiction. The work detailed in this thesis focuses on binding studies...

Macroscopically Dissipative Systems with Underlying Microscopic Dynamics : Properties and Limits of Measurement

Aristotelis Asimakopoulos
While some of the deepest results in nature are those that give explicit bounds between important physical quantities, some of the most intriguing and celebrated of such bounds come from fields where there is still a great deal of disagreement and confusion regarding even the most fundamental aspects of the theories. For example, in quantum mechanics, there is still no complete consensus as to whether the limitations associated with Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle derive from an...

Development and Application of Embedding Methods for the Simulation of Large Chemical Systems

Taylor Arnold Barnes
The high computational cost of correlated wavefunction theory (WFT) calculations has motivated the development of numerous methods to partition the description of large chemical systems into smaller subsystem calculations. For example, WFT-in-DFT embedding methods facilitate the partitioning of a system into two subsystems: a subsystem A that is treated using an accurate WFT method, and a subsystem B that is treated using a more efficient Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) method. Representation of the interactions...

Three Essays on Economics and Information Shocks

Kyle Ian Carlson
A person living in an industrialized society has almost no choice but to receive information daily with negative implications for himself or others. His attention will often be drawn to the ups and downs of economic indicators or the alleged misdeeds of leaders and organizations. Reacting to new information is central to economics, but economics typically ignores the affective aspect of the response, for example, of stress or anger. These essays present the results of...

Development of Metalloenzyme Dioxygen Reduction Cathodes

Peter Chukwudi Ifeanychukwu Agbo
The prime thrust of this dissertation is to advance the development of fuel cell dioxygen reduction cathodes that employ some variant of multicopper oxidase enzymes as the catalyst. The low earth-abundance of platinum metal and its correspondingly high market cost has prompted a general search amongst chemists and materials scientists for reasonable alternatives to this metal for facilitating catalytic dioxygen reduction chemistry. The multicopper oxidases (MCOs), which constitute a class of enzyme that naturally catalyze...

Fiber-Optic Integration and Efficient Detection Schemes for Optomechanical Resonators

Justin Daniel Cohen
With the advent of the laser in the year 1960, the field of optics experienced a renaissance from what was considered to be a dull, solved subject to an active area of development, with applications and discoveries which are yet to be exhausted 55 years later. Light is now nearly ubiquitous not only in cutting-edge research in physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in modern technology and infrastructure. One quality of light, that of the...

On Ultrafast Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy in the Condensed Phase: Linear Spectroscopic Measurements of Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Astrochemical Ice Analogs and Nonlinear TeraHertz Kerr Effect Measurements of Vibrational Quantum Beats

Marco Alberto Allodi
Much of the chemistry that affects life on planet Earth occurs in the condensed phase. The TeraHertz (THz) or far-infrared (far-IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 0.1 THz to 10 THz, 3 cm-1 to 300 cm-1, or 3000 μm to 30 μm) has been shown to provide unique possibilities in the study of condensed-phase processes. The goal of this work is to expand the possibilities available in the THz region and undertake new investigations...

Structural Characterization of Pro-inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Immunoglobulin G Fc Proteins

Alysia Ashley Ahmed
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is central in mediating host defense due to its ability to target and eliminate invading pathogens. The fragment antigen binding (Fab) regions are responsible for antigen recognition; however the effector responses are encoded on the Fc region of IgG. IgG Fc displays considerable glycan heterogeneity, accounting for its complex effector functions of inflammation, modulation and immune suppression. Intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) is pooled serum IgG from multiple donors and is used to...

Effect of Microstructural Interfaces on the Mechanical Response of Crystalline Metallic Materials

Zachary Howard Aitken
Advances in nano-scale mechanical testing have brought about progress in the understanding of physical phenomena in materials and a measure of control in the fabrication of novel materials. In contrast to bulk materials that display size-invariant mechanical properties, sub-micron metallic samples show a critical dependence on sample size. The strength of nano-scale single crystalline metals is well-described by a power-law function, σαD-n, where D is a critical sample size and n is a experimentally-fit positive...

Quantitative, Time-Resolved Proteomic Analysis Using Bio-Orthogonal Non-Canonical Amino Acid Tagging

John David Bagert
Bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) is an analytical method that allows the selective analysis of the subset of newly synthesized cellular proteins produced in response to a biological stimulus. In BONCAT, cells are treated with the non-canonical amino acid L-azidohomoalanine (Aha), which is utilized in protein synthesis in place of methionine by wild-type translational machinery. Nascent, Aha-labeled proteins are selectively ligated to affinity tags for enrichment and subsequently identified via mass spectrometry. The work...

Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance at the Superionic Phase Transitions of Mixed Ion-Electron Conducting Materials

David Ross Brown
The quality of a thermoelectric material is judged by the size of its temperature de- pendent thermoeletric-figure-of-merit (zT ). Superionic materials, particularly Zn4Sb3 and Cu2Se, are of current interest for the high zT and low thermal conductivity of their disordered, superionic phase. In this work it is reported that the super-ionic materials Ag2Se, Cu2Se and Cu1.97Ag0.03Se show enhanced zT in their ordered, normal ion-conducting phases. The zT of Ag2Se is increased by 30% in its...

General-Domain Compressible Navier-Stokes Solvers Exhibiting QuasiUnconditional Stability and High Order Accuracy in Space and Time

Max Anton Cubillos-Moraga
This thesis presents a new class of solvers for the subsonic compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. The proposed methodology incorporates: 1) A novel linear-cost implicit solver based on use of higher-order backward differentiation formulae (BDF) and the alternating direction implicit approach (ADI); 2) A fast explicit solver; 3) Dispersionless spectral spatial discretizations; and 4) A domain decomposition strategy that negotiates the interactions between the implicit and explicit domains. In particular,...

Everybody Farts: Celebrating the Body and Refuting Medical Paternalism in Joyce's Ulysses

Phoebe Ann
James Joyce’s Ulysses celebrates all facets of daily life in its refusal to censor raw human emotions and emissions. He adopts a critically medical perspective to portray this honest, unfiltered narrative. In doing so, he reveals the ineffectiveness of the physician-patient relationship due to doctors’ paternalistic attitudes that hinder nonjudgmental, open listening of this unfiltered narrative. His exploration of the doctor’s moral scrutiny, cultural prejudices, and authoritative estrangement from the patient underscore the importance in...

Investigations of DNA-Mediated Protein Oxidation

Anna Ruth Arnold
DNA charge transport (CT) involves the efficient transfer of electrons or electron holes through the DNA π-stack over long molecular distances of at least 100 base-pairs. Despite this shallow distance dependence, DNA CT is sensitive to mismatches or lesions that disrupt π-stacking and is critically dependent on proper electronic coupling of the donor and acceptor moieties into the base stack. Favorable DNA CT is very rapid, occurring on the picosecond timescale. Because of this speed,...

A Model For Residential Adoption of Photovoltaic Systems

Anish Agarwal
The rapid rise in the residential photo voltaic (PV) adoptions in the past half decade has created a need in the electricity industry for a widely-accessible model that estimates PV adoption based on a combination of different business and policy decisions. This work analyzes historical adoption patterns and finds fiscal savings to be the single most important factor in PV adoption, with significantly greater predictive power compared to all other socioeconomic factors including income and...

A Fully-nonlocal Energy-based Formulation and High-performance Realization of the Quasicontinuum Method

Jeffrey Scott Amelang
The quasicontinuum (QC) method was introduced to coarse-grain crystalline atomic ensembles in order to bridge the scales from individual atoms to the micro- and mesoscales. Though many QC formulations have been proposed with varying characteristics and capabilities, a crucial cornerstone of all QC techniques is the concept of summation rules, which attempt to efficiently approximate the total Hamiltonian of a crystalline atomic ensemble by a weighted sum over a small subset of atoms. In this...

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