17,171 Works

Completions of ε-Dense Partial Latin Squares

Padraic James Bartlett
A classical question in combinatorics is the following: given a partial Latin square $P$, when can we complete $P$ to a Latin square $L$? In this paper, we investigate the class of textbf{$epsilon$-dense partial Latin squares}: partial Latin squares in which each symbol, row, and column contains no more than $epsilon n$-many nonblank cells. Based on a conjecture of Nash-Williams, Daykin and H"aggkvist conjectured that all $frac{1}{4}$-dense partial Latin squares are completable. In this paper,...

Synthesis and Biological Activity of Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate Glycopolymers

Young In Oh
Heparin has been used as an anticoagulant drug for more than 70 years. The global distribution of contaminated heparin in 2007, which resulted in adverse clinical effects and over 100 deaths, emphasizes the necessity for safer alternatives to animal-sourced heparin. The structural complexity and heterogeneity of animal-sourced heparin not only impedes safe access to these biologically active molecules, but also hinders investigations on the significance of structural constituents at a molecular level. Efficient methods for...

Control of Wettability of Carbon Nanotube Array by Reversible Dry Oxidation for Superhydrophobic Coating and Supercapacitor Applications

Adrianus Indrat Aria
In this thesis, dry chemical modification methods involving UV/ozone, oxygen plasma, and vacuum annealing treatments are explored to precisely control the wettability of CNT arrays. By varying the exposure time of these treatments the surface concentration of oxygenated groups adsorbed on the CNT arrays can be controlled. CNT arrays with very low amount of oxygenated groups exhibit a superhydrophobic behavior. In addition to their extremely high static contact angle, they cannot be dispersed in DI...

Search for Heavy Neutral Resonances in the Dielectron Channel with the CMS Detector at the LHC

Vladlen Timciuc
A search for dielectron decays of heavy neutral resonances has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2011. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb−1. The dielectron mass distribution is consistent with Standard Model (SM) predictions. An upper limit on the ratio of the cross section times branching fraction of new bosons,...

On-Chip Integrated Label-Free Optical Biosensing

Jacob Benjamin Sendowski
This thesis investigates the design and implementation of a label-free optical biosensing system utilizing a robust on-chip integrated platform. The goal has been to transition optical micro-resonator based label-free biosensing from a laborious and delicate laboratory demonstration to a tool for the analytical life scientist. This has been pursued along four avenues: (1) the design and fabrication of high-$Q$ integrated planar microdisk optical resonators in silicon nitride on silica, (2) the demonstration of a high...

Studying Conscious and Unconscious Vision with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging : the BOLD Promise

Julien Christian Roger Dubois
Waking up from a dreamless sleep, I open my eyes, recognize my wife’s face and am filled with joy. In this thesis, I used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in this seemingly simple daily occurrence, which poses at least three great challenges to neuroscience: how does conscious experience arise from the activity of the brain? How does the brain process visual input to the point of recognizing individual...

Electronic Structure and Phonon Thermodynamics of Iron Alloys

Jorge Alberto Muñoz
Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and nuclear-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) were used to measure phonon spectra of FeV as a B2- ordered compound and as a bcc solid solution. Contrary to the behavior of ordering alloys studied to date, the phonons in the B2-ordered phase are softer than in the solid solution. Ordering increases the vibrational entropy, which stabilizes the ordered phase to higher temperatures. Ab initio calculations show that the number of electronic states...

Relative Mirror Symmetry and Ramifications of a Formula for Gromov-Witten Invariants

Michel van Garrel
For a toric Del Pezzo surface S, a new instance of mirror symmetry, said relative, is introduced and developed. On the A-model, this relative mirror symmetry conjecture concerns genus 0 relative Gromov-Witten of maximal tangency of S. These correspond, on the B-model, to relative periods of the mirror to S. Furthermore, for S not necessarily toric, two conjectures for BPS state counts are related. It is proven that the integrality of BPS state counts of...

On Erasure Coding for Distributed Storage and Streaming Communications

Derek Leong
The work presented in this thesis revolves around erasure correction coding, as applied to distributed data storage and real-time streaming communications. First, we examine the problem of allocating a given storage budget over a set of nodes for maximum reliability. The objective is to find an allocation of the budget that maximizes the probability of successful recovery by a data collector accessing a random subset of the nodes. This optimization problem is challenging in general...

Diagonal Forms, Linear Algebraic Methods and Ramsey-Type Problems

Wing Hong Tony Wong
This thesis focuses mainly on linear algebraic aspects of combinatorics. Let N_t(H) be an incidence matrix with edges versus all subhypergraphs of a complete hypergraph that are isomorphic to H. Richard M. Wilson and the author find the general formula for the Smith normal form or diagonal form of N_t(H) for all simple graphs H and for a very general class of t-uniform hypergraphs H. As a continuation, the author determines the formula for diagonal...

High-Coherence Hybrid Si/III-V Semiconductor Lasers

Christos Theodoros Santis
The relentlessly increasing demand for network bandwidth, driven primarily by Internet-based services such as mobile computing, cloud storage and video-on-demand, calls for more efficient utilization of the available communication spectrum, as that afforded by the resurging DSP-powered coherent optical communications. Encoding information in the phase of the optical carrier, using multilevel phase modulationformats, and employing coherent detection at the receiver allows for enhanced spectral efficiency and thus enables increased network capacity. The distributed feedback semiconductor...

Nonlinear Optics in Planar Silica-on-Silicon Disk Resonators

Jiang Li
Optical frequency combs (OFCs) provide direct phase-coherent link between optical and RF frequencies, and enable precision measurement of optical frequencies. In recent years, a new class of frequency combs (microcombs) have emerged based on parametric frequency conversions in dielectric microresonators. Micocombs have large line spacing from 10's to 100's GHz, allowing easy access to individual comb lines for arbitrary waveform synthesis. They also provide broadband parametric gain bandwidth, not limited by specific atomic or molecular...

Convex Analysis for Minimizing and Learning Submodular Set Functions

Peter Stobbe
The connections between convexity and submodularity are explored, for purposes of minimizing and learning submodular set functions. First, we develop a novel method for minimizing a particular class of submodular functions, which can be expressed as a sum of concave functions composed with modular functions. The basic algorithm uses an accelerated first order method applied to a smoothed version of its convex extension. The smoothing algorithm is particularly novel as it allows us to treat...

Quantum Optomechanics with Silicon Nanostructures

Amir Hossein Safavi-Naeini
Mechanical resonators are the most basic and ubiquitous physical systems known. In on-chip form, they are used to process high frequency signals in every cell phone, television, and laptop. They have also been in the last few decades in different shapes and forms, a critical part of progress in quantum information sciences with kilogram-scale mirrors for gravitational wave detection measuring motion at its quantum limits, and the motion of single ions being used to link...

Nonlinear Optics and Wavelength Translation Via Cavity-Optomechanics

Jeffrey Thomas Hill
The field of cavity-optomechanics explores the interaction of light with sound in an ever increasing array of devices. This interaction allows the mechanical system to be both sensed and controlled by the optical system, opening up a wide variety of experiments including the cooling of the mechanical resonator to its quantum mechanical ground state and the squeezing of the optical field upon interaction with the mechanical resonator, to name two. In this work we explore...

Essays on Economics Networks

Cristian Emerson Melo Sanchez
This thesis belongs to the growing field of economic networks. In particular, we develop three essays in which we study the problem of bargaining, discrete choice representation, and pricing in the context of networked markets. Despite analyzing very different problems, the three essays share the common feature of making use of a network representation to describe the market of interest. In Chapter 1 we present an analysis of bargaining in networked markets. We make two...

Coding for Information Storage

Zhiying Wang
Storage systems are widely used and have played a crucial rule in both consumer and industrial products, for example, personal computers, data centers, and embedded systems. However, such system suffers from issues of cost, restricted-lifetime, and reliability with the emergence of new systems and devices, such as distributed storage and flash memory, respectively. Information theory, on the other hand, provides fundamental bounds and solutions to fully utilize resources such as data density, information I/O and...

Distributed Optimization in Power Networks and General Multi-agent Systems

Na (Nina) Li
The dissertation studies the general area of complex networked systems that consist of interconnected and active heterogeneous components and usually operate in uncertain environments and with incomplete information. Problems associated with those systems are typically large-scale and computationally intractable, yet they are also very well-structured and have features that can be exploited by appropriate modeling and computational methods. The goal of this thesis is to develop foundational theories and tools to exploit those structures that...

Investigations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Laboratory Chambers

Christine Lauren Loza
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is produced in the atmosphere by oxidation of volatile organic compounds. Laboratory chambers are used understand the formation mechanisms and evolution of SOA formed under controlled conditions. This thesis presents studies of SOA formed from anthropogenic and biogenic precursors and discusses the effects of chamber walls on suspended vapors and particles. During a chamber experiment, suspended vapors and particles can interact with the chamber walls. Particle wall loss is relatively well-understood,...

Design, Specification, and Synthesis of Aircraft Electric Power Systems Control Logic

Huan Xu
Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, networking, and physical processes. Substantial research challenges exist in the design and verification of such large-scale, distributed sensing, ac- tuation, and control systems. Rapidly improving technology and recent advances in control theory, networked systems, and computer science give us the opportunity to drastically improve our approach to integrated flow of information and cooperative behavior. Current systems rely on text-based spec- ifications and manual design. Using new technology advances, we can create...

Characterizing a Resonator Bolometer Array

Rebecca Ann Wernis
High-background applications such as climate monitoring, biology and security applications demand a large dynamic range. Under such conditions ultra-high sensitivity is not required. The resonator bolometer is a novel detector which is well-suited for these conditions. This device takes advantage of the high-density frequency multiplexing capabilities of superconducting microresonators while allowing for the use of high-Tc superconductors in fabrication, which enables a modest (1-4 K) operating temperature and larger dynamic range than is possible with...

Fracture of Materials Undergoing Solid-Solid Phase Transformation

Bharat Prasad Penmecha
A large number of technologically important materials undergo solid-solid phase transformations. Examples range from ferroelectrics (transducers and memory devices), zirconia (Thermal Barrier Coatings) to nickel superalloys and (lithium) iron phosphate (Li-ion batteries). These transformations involve a change in the crystal structure either through diffusion of species or local rearrangement of atoms. This change of crystal structure leads to a macroscopic change of shape or volume or both and results in internal stresses during the transformation....

The Relationship Between the Radio and Gamma-Ray Emission of Blazars

Walter Kennerth Max-Moerbeck Astudillo
Blazars are active galaxies with a jet closely oriented to our line of sight. They are powerful, variable emitters from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. Although the general picture of synchrotron emission at low energies and inverse Compton at high energies is well established, important aspects of blazars are not well understood. In particular, the location of the gamma-ray emission region is not clearly established, with some theories favoring a location close to the central engine,...

Grain Growth in Protoplanetary Disks

Laura María Pérez Muñoz
The majority of young, low-mass stars are surrounded by optically thick accretion disks. These circumstellar disks provide large reservoirs of gas and dust that will eventually be transformed into planetary systems. Theory and observations suggest that the earliest stage toward planet formation in a protoplanetary disk is the growth of particles, from sub-micron-sized grains to centimeter- sized pebbles. Theory indicates that small interstellar grains are well coupled into the gas and are incorporated to the...

Directed Evolution of Terpene Synthases for Non-Natural Substrates

Karolina Zbigniew Kalbarczyk
Terpenes represent about half of known natural products, with terpene synthases catalyzing reactions to increase the complexity of substrates and generate cyclizations of the linear diphosphate substrates, therefore forming rings and stereocenters. With their diverse functionality, terpene synthases may be highly evolvable, with the ability to accept a wide range of non-natural compounds and with high product selectivity. Our hypothesis is that directed evolution of terpene synthases can be used to increase selectivity of the...

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