US

### Combined county-level drought incidence, damage, and census data

Volodymyr V. Mihunov, Nina S. N. Lam & Lei Zou
The threat of droughts and their associated impacts on the landscape and human communities have long been recognized in the United States, especially in high risk areas such as the southcentral region. This project examines whether existing drought indices can predict the occurrence of drought events and their actual damages, how the adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) varies across space, and what public outreach and engagement effort would be most effective for mitigation of risk and...

### Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain Polygonal Tundra Geomorphology Map

Mark J. Lara
We mosaicked twelve LandSat-8 OLI satellite images taken during the summer of 2014, which were used in an object based image analysis (OBIA) to classify the landscape. We mapped seventeen of the most dominant geomorphic land cover classes on the Alaskan Coastal Plain (ACP): **value** | **class name** 1 | Coastal saline waters 2 | Large lakes 3 | Medium lakes 4 | Small lakes 5 | Ponds 6 | Rivers 7 | Nonpatterned Drained...

### Assessing the State of Water Resource Knowledge and Tools for Future Planning in the Rio Grande-Rio Bravo Basin

Jose Pablo Ortiz, Samuel Sandoval Solis & Romina Diaz Gomez
This project inventories and reviews available water resource models used to meet multiple (and often competing) water resource management objectives. Water resource modeling tools have been developed for many different regions and sub-basins of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB). Each of these tools have specific objectives, whether it is to explore drought mitigation alternatives, conflict resolution, climate change evaluation, tradeoff and economic synergies, water allocation, reservoir operations, or collaborative planning. We specifically evaluate the applicability of...

### The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center Five-Year Science Agenda, 2018–2022

A. David Helweg, Dan A. Polhemus & Bonnie J. Myers
The Department of the Interior Pacific Islands Climate Science Center (PI-CSC) supports adaptation in Hawai‘i and the US Affiliated Pacific Islands by producing new knowledge and tools through research, working with resource managers and community planners to incorporate environmental knowledge in adaptation decision making, and providing education and training to build capacity in resource managers and scientists. In the Pacific Islands region, over 500 endangered and other vulnerable species exist in a complex set of...

### Drought in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands: A Multi-level Assessment

Dan A. Polhemus
Although tropical Pacific islands are generally perceived as having wet climates, they are vulnerable to periodic episodes of drought. This literature review strives to establish a base of information relating to such drought events in the U. S.- affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), a vast expanse of the oceanic Pacific larger than the North American continent, spanning five time zones and the International Date Line roughly between the southern Tropic of Capricorn across the equator to...

### Monthly Pan Evaporation Data across the Continental United States between 1950-2001

Michael T. Hobbins, Joseph J. Barsugli, Candida F. Dewes & Imtiaz Rangwala
Pan evaporation is a measure of atmospheric evaporative demand (E0) for which long term and spatially distributed observations are available from the NOAA Cooperative Observer (COOP) Network. However, this data requires extensive quality control and homogenization due to documented and undocumented station moves and other factors including human errors in recording or digitization. Station-based Pan Evaporation measurements (in mm) from 247 stations across the continental United States were compiled and quality controlled for the analysis...

### County-level drought indices The Palmer Drought Severity Index(PDSI)and Palmer Hydrological Drought Index(PHDI)

Nazla Bushra & Robert V. Rohli
Drought is a natural hazard that inflicts costly damage to the environment and human communities. Although ample literature exists on the climatological aspects of drought, little is known on whether existing drought indices can predict the damages and how different human communities respond and adapt to the hazard. This project examines (1) whether existing drought indices can predict the occurrence of drought events and their actual damages; (2) how the adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) varies...

### Drought Indicators of the South Central Plains (1981-2014)

Mark Shafer & Steven Quiring
The South Central U.S. is one of the main agricultural regions in North America: annual agricultural production is valued at more than $44 billion dollars. However, as climate conditions change, the region is experiencing more frequent and severe droughts, with significant impacts on agriculture and broader consequences for land management. For example, in 2011 drought caused an estimated$7.6 billion in agricultural losses in Texas and an additional \$1.6 billion in Oklahoma. Although there are...

### The Effects of Climate Change on Wetlands in the Main Hawaiian Islands: An Initial Assessment

Dan A. Polhemus
The Hawaiian Islands are an intraplate hotspot chain lying in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and consist of a mix of generally steep-sided, rocky high islands in the southeast and low-lying coral atolls in the northwest. Due to their topography, these islands harbor a relatively limited number of wetland ecosystems, although the features that are present are diverse, ranging from a hypersaline lake on Laysan, to acidic upland bogs such as Pepeopae on Molokai, to large...

### Applications of Climate Downscaling in the Main Hawaiian Islands: Balancing Climate Modelers’ Products and Impact Modelers’ Expectations

David Helweg & Victoria Keener
High-resolution projections of future terrestrial climate conditions for the high Hawaiian islands (Hawaiʻi Island, Maui Nui, Oʻahu, and Kauaʻi) have been developed using statistical and dynamical downscaling methods. A “Workshop on Climate Downscaling and its Application in the High Hawaiian Islands” (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20161102) was held in 2015 to address questions from natural resource managers about how to integrate climate-related projections into their resource management decisions. Since the 2015 workshop, additional climate modeling has been done. New...

### Hydrologic sensitivity to climate change and aspen mortality in Upper Sheep Creek, Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (21st century scenarios)

Hourly hydrometeorological data was collected over the 30-year period from 1984-2014 in Upper Sheep Creek, within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA. These data were used to calibrate the one-dimensional Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model. These data and the SHAW calibration have previously been described in multiple publications, particularly Chauvin et al 2011 and Flerchinger et al 2016. In the dataset presented here, climate scenarios have been constructed, applied to the historic record,...

### Fire Risk Frequency Analysis- South Central Plains

Mark Shafer, Amy Hays, Brian Hays & John Weir
Fire is a natural and necessary component of the South Central Plains ecosystem. However, fire suppression and more frequent droughts in the region have resulted in a build-up of dry fuels loads such as dead wood, resulting in fires that burn hotter and impact the landscape more severely. Uncontrolled wildfires have cost the region several billion dollars in the past five years. Further, fire suppression has resulted in substantial losses in native plant biodiversity and...

### Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain NDVI trend (1999-2014) Map

Mark J. Lara
Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trend map was computed for the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain between 1999 and 2014. The decadal trend of each pixel was computed using 40-110 individual Landsat (TM, ETM+, OLI) satellite images acquired during July or August.

• 2017
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• Dataset
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• Other
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