ETH Zurich

Switzerland

1,652,623 Works

L’astuce dans l’escroquerie à l’assurance privée

Katia Villard
Le 19 juillet 2017, le Tribunal fédéral a confirmé la condamnation pour tentative d’escroquerie d’un assuré qui avait effectué, par téléphone, une fausse annonce de sinistre à son assurance casco. Ce faisant, notre Cour suprême admet qu’en matière d’escroquerie à l’assurance privée un simple mensonge oral peut déjà être constitutif de tromperie astucieuse au sens de l’art. 146 du code pénal suisse. La présente contribution a pour objectif de discuter du raisonnement du Tribunal fédéral...

Swiss glaciers: An eternal world of ice?

Fabian Schneider, Meda Hotea & Roman Walt

Schweizer Gletscher: Eine ewige Eiswelt?

Meda Hotea, Roman Walt & Fabian Schneider

Unsupervised Learning of Phase-Change-Based Neuromorphic Systems

Stanislaw Andrzej Wozniak
Neuromorphic systems provide brain-inspired methods of computing. In a neuromorphic architecture, inputs are processed by a network of neurons receiving operands through synaptic interconnections, tuned in the process of learning. Neurons act simultaneously as asynchronous computational and memory units, which leads to a high degree of parallelism. Furthermore, owing to developments in novel materials, memristive devices were proposed for area- and energy-efficient mixed digital-analog implementation of neurons and synapses. In this dissertation, we propose neuromorphic...

From 2D to 3D Characterization of Materials Subjected to Extreme Pressure and Temperature Conditions

Farhang Nabiei
Planetesimal were the first planetary objects to form in the solar system, which later grew to make the proto-planets. Most of these bodies were differentiated as a result of internal heating. Several differentiated bodies have, then, been accreted following the giant impacts to create the terrestrial planets. As a result of these impacts, the newly formed Earth was molten and completely differentiated. Subsequent crystallization has given rise to Earth's current structure. In order to bring...

Advances in Vanadium-Based Catalyst Research for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx by NH3

Adrian Marberger
The most efficient after-treatment technology for reducing harmful NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources of diesel exhaust is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3). Vanadium-based SCR catalysts reduce NOx selectively between ca. 200 and 500°C. Low temperature activity and high temperature stability are important for the automotive sector because of the large temperature fluctuations in the exhaust gas. Additionally, SCR catalysts need to be resistant to water vapor, sulfur and...

New ionization and tagging methods for mass spectrometry

Xiaoqin Zhong
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an essential detection tool in bioanalytical chemistry owing to its exceptional selectivity and sensitivity, paired with rapid analyte identification and quantification. In this thesis, two classical MS and a newly developed ionization method are employed, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS, electrospray ionization (ESI) MS and electrostatic spray ionization (ESTASI) MS. To meet the emerging challenges in bioanalytical chemistry, from disease diagnosis to drug development, new MS-based analytical methods ought to...

Analyse multi-échelle de n-grammes sur 200 années d'archives de presse

Vincent Buntinx
The recent availability of large corpora of digitized texts over several centuries opens the way to new forms of studies on the evolution of languages. In this thesis, we study a corpus of 4 million press articles covering a period of 200 years. The thesis tries to measure the evolution of written French on this period at the level of words and expressions, but also in a more global way by attempting to define integrated...

Scanning tunneling microscopy on large bio-molecular systems on surfaces

Sebastian Koslowski
The ever growing demand for the development of new technologies and materials has led to extensive studies inspired by biological functional complexes. Peptides with their outstanding ability to efficiently self-assemble can express a broad spectrum of intriguing functionalities. A key question in mimicking their assembly and function is the precise understanding of the specific interactions between the contained amino acids on the level of a sub-molecular length scale. An excellent tool to probe samples at...

Automobility Beyond Car: Introducing a New Coordinate System for Transforming Urban Mobility

Farzaneh Bahrami
How is the future of automobility imagined today? What has structured such imaginary? And what levers can steer its evolution towards a Post-Car World? These very three questions form the foundational motivations of this thesis. First, through a historical overview, I explore and analyze a selected corpus of verbal and visual discourses that have contributed to how we think of car, how we think of a transition from it, and interrelatedly how it is placed...

Quantifying Electronic Phenomena in Organic Chromophores

Antonio Prlj
Challenging ground and excited state problems in the chemistry of common organic chromophores are investigated with state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods. We present a comprehensive excited state molecular dynamics analysis of (a) fundamental building blocks in organic electronics (thiophene and its derivatives), (b) aggregation-induced emission systems (tetraphenylethylene), and (c) organic fluorophores used for imaging and sensing applications (BODIPY and its derivatives). We identify the efficient excited state deactivation pathways which are essential to understanding the photochemical...

Advanced optical components for mid-infrared applications

Grégoire Maxime Smolik
The mid-infrared wavelength range, defined from 2.5 um to 25 um is of a high scientific and technological interest. One of its main application field is in spectroscopy, since these wavelengths coincidewith the fundamental rotational-vibrational modes of many molecules. While the typical optical sensing setup is composed of active elements - detectors and radiation sources- it also requires critical passive components such as lenses, filters and an interface with the medium to be probed. To...

Design and implementation of an optimizing type-centric compiler for a high-level language

Dmytro Petrashko
Production compilers for programming languages face multiple requirements. They should be correct, as we rely on them to produce code. They should be fast, in order to provide a good developer experience. They should also be easy to maintain and evolve. This thesis shows how an expressive high level type system can be used to simplify the development of a compiler and demonstrates this on a compiler for Scala. First, it shows how expressive types...

Sediment Pulses in a Gravel-Bed Flume with Alternate Bars

Blaise Etienne Marceau Dhont
The proper understanding of gravel-bed river dynamics is a crucial issue for the effective protection against related natural hazards, design of hydraulic structures, and preservation of their high ecological value in mountain regions. However, despite more than one century of research in the field, most available models fail to accurately predict bedload transport rates in such alluvial rivers because of the complex relationships between the flow, channel morphology, and sediment transport. It is now recognized...

Optimal solution and asymptotic properties of a stochastic control problem arising in sailboat trajectory optimization

Carlo Ciccarella
We study the optimal strategy for a sailboat to reach an upwind island under the hypothesis that the wind direction fluctuates according to a Brownian motion and the wind speed is constant. The work is motivated by a concrete problem which typically arises during sailing regattas, namely finding the best tacking strategy to reach the upwind buoy as quickly as possible. We assume that there is no loss of time when tacking. We first guess...

Integrated Daylighting and Artificial Lighting Control based on High Dynamic Range Vision Sensors

Ali Motamed
One fifth of the electricity consumption of Swiss buildings is due to electric lighting. Integrated control of sun shading and artificial lighting can mitigate this demand while maintaining user comfort. However, the drawback of existing building control approaches is that they do not consider one of the main aspects of human-centric lighting: visual comfort. The goal of this doctoral thesis is to develop an integrated energy efficient sun shading and electric lighting control system that...

Nanoionics Phenomena and Devices with Oxide Thin Films

Mahmoud Hadad
The number of studies on solid state ionic thin films (Nanoionics) has increased dramatically over last decades due to their high potential in micro and nanoscale technologies. Micro solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFC), and resistive switching memories (ReRAMs) are the most promising topics in this field, having impacts on portable energy sources, and future non-volatile memories. One can also add the new discovery of giant electrostriction (GES) in Gd-doped ceria (CGO), proposing ion conducting thin...

Coherent Imaging of Cellular Dynamics

Miguel Sison
Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the processes of fusion, fission, and transport that aid mitochondria in accomplishing their many roles; including ATP production, oxygen sensing, and homeostasis. Due to their involvement in numerous essential cellular activity, dysfunctional mitochondria have been implicated in a wide range of human diseases. Confocal microscopy using fluorophores for molecular specificity remains the gold standard of intracellular imaging. However, fluorescent labels can be toxic to the cell upon prolonged exposure and still...

Polynomial models in finance

Damien Edouard Ackerer
This thesis presents new flexible dynamic stochastic models for the evolution of market prices and new methods for the valuation of derivatives. These models and methods build on the recently characterized class of polynomial jump-diffusion processes for which the conditional moments are analytic. The first half of this thesis is concerned with modelling the fluctuations in the volatility of stock prices, and with the valuation of options on the stock. A new stochastic volatility model...

From retinotopic processing to nonretinotopic representation

Marc Michael Lauffs
Encoding of visual information in the brain is retinotopic: Neighboring points in the visual field are mapped onto neighboring photoreceptors in the retina, and these neighborhood relations are maintained in the early stages of cortical processing. However, perception is nonretinotopic. First, vision is stable and continuous although the retinal image is in constant flux and frequently interrupted by eye blinks. Second, object parts are perceived relative to the object, rather than in retinal coordinates. For...

Multi Level Monte Carlo Methods for Uncertainty Quantification and Robust Design Optimization in Aerodynamics

Michele Pisaroni
The vast majority of problems that arise in aircraft production and operation require decisions to be made in the presence of uncertainty. An effective and accurate quantification and control of the level of uncertainty introduced in the design phase and during the manufacturing and operation of aircraft vehicles is imperative in order to design robust and risk tolerant systems. Indeed, the geometrical and operational parameters, that characterize aerodynamic systems, are naturally affected by aleatory uncertainties...

On some algebraic and extremal problems in discrete geometry

Seyed Hossein Nassajianmojarrad
In the present thesis, we delve into different extremal and algebraic problems arising from combinatorial geometry. Specifically, we consider the following problems. For any integer $n\ge 3$, we define $e(n)$ to be the minimum positive integer such that any set of $e(n)$ points in general position in the plane contains $n$ points in convex position. In 1935, Erd\H{o}s and Szekeres proved that $e(n) \le {2n-4 \choose n-2}+1$ and later in 1961, they obtained the lower...

Fighting preterm birth with novel surgical tools and biomaterials engineering

Yannick Robert Devaud
With advances in fetal diagnosis and therapy, fetoscopy has become a good option to treat a series of life threatening diseases like twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome or severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The efficacy of fetoscopy for those types of disorders is not debatable; however, it comes with a daunting limitation: iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of the fetal membrane (iPPROM). The injury created by the instruments to access the amniotic cavity is the reason for fetal membrane...

Design and applications of a clamp for Green Fluorescent Protein with picomolar affinity

Patrick Ernst, Andreas Plückthun, Alexander Koch, Jakob C Stüber, Daniel Bojar, Simon Hansen & Alexander Batyuk

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