ETH Zurich


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Management of COPD exacerbations: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline.

David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Gerard J Criner, Jørgen Vestbo, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Alberto Papi, Marc Miravitlles, Peter M A Calverley, Klaus F Rabe, John R Hurst, Antonio Anzueto, Richard K Albert, Jerry A Krishnan, Kevin C Wilson & Thomy Tonia
This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles. The evidence syntheses were discussed and recommendations formulated by a multidisciplinary Task Force of COPD experts.After considering the balance of desirable and...

A comparison of regret-based and utility-based discrete choice modelling – an empirical illustration with hospital bed choice

Hannu Valtonen, Pavitra Paul, Maud Maessen & Claudia Berlin
There is some concern that the unobserved preference heterogeneity in random utility maximization theory-based discrete choice experiment modelling is an important source of error variability. The randomness in utility is often interpreted as interpersonal preference heterogeneity but it can also be intrapersonal random variation in preferences. We compare utility maximization and regret minimization-based choice models’ sensitivity to individual heterogeneity, examine differences between two consecrated models and validate with empirical illustrations. We use frequency of category...

Issues with measuring hepatitis prevalence in resource-limited settings.

Ponsiano Ocama, Gilles Wandeler, Patrick A Coffie, Matthias Egger & Mark H Kuniholm

Living network meta-analysis compared with pairwise meta-analysis in comparative effectiveness research: empirical study.

Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Matthias Egger, George C M Siontis, Andrea Cipriani, Toshi A Furukawa, Sharon E Straus, Dimitris Mavridis, Andrea C Tricco & Georgia Salanti
OBJECTIVE To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. DESIGN Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. DATA SOURCES Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews...

Management of cervical premalignant lesions.

Sushma Mogri, Shang-Ying Hu, Katayoun Taghavi, Smita Joshi & Partha Basu
Treatment of cervical premalignant lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) of different grades is very effective, simple, and safe. The entire transformation zone of the cervix needs to be treated either by an ablative technique (cryotherapy or thermal ablation) or an excisional technique (large loop excision of transformation zone or cold knife conization); the choice of treatment depends on the size and location of the lesion and the type of the transformation zone. The cure rate...

The Impact of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction on Clinical Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Anna Franzone, Dik Heg, Lorenz Räber, George CM Siontis, Eva Roost, Stephan Windecker, Stefan Stortecky, Lukas Hunziker, Marco Valgimigli, Thomas Pilgrim, Jonas Lanz & Masahiko Asami
OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine the impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND LV hypertrophy in response to afterload increase promotes the development of LVDD and represents an early stage in the progression to valvular heart failure. METHODS In a consecutive cohort of 777 aortic stenosis patients undergoing TAVR, LVDD was categorized according to the latest guidelines. The primary endpoint was...

Systematic Evaluation of Diagnostic Delay in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Jessica Ezri, Christian Braegger, Gerhard Rogler, Nicolas Fournier, Alain M Schoepfer, Pierre Deltenre, Stephan Vavricka, Pascal Frei, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Alex Straumann, Christine Manser & Andreas Nydegger
We evaluated the diagnostic delay (time from first symptoms to diagnosis) in 100 pediatric patients with Crohn disease (CD) and 75 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Median (interquartile range) diagnostic delay in patients with CD was 4 (2-8) (range 0-82) months compared with 2 (1-7) (range 0-52) months in patients with UC (P = 0.003). The time interval from first physician visit to inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis was longer in patients with CD and UC when compared...

Semiparametric analysis of complex polygenic gene-environment interactions in case-control studies.

Yanyuan Ma, Alex Asher, Liang Liang, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Odile Stalder & Raymond J Carroll
Many methods have recently been proposed for efficient analysis of case-control studies of gene-environment interactions using a retrospective likelihood framework that exploits the natural assumption of gene-environment independence in the underlying population. However, for polygenic modelling of gene-environment interactions, which is a topic of increasing scientific interest, applications of retrospective methods have been limited due to a requirement in the literature for parametric modelling of the distribution of the genetic factors. We propose a general,...

Frequency and type of drug-related side effects necessitating treatment discontinuation in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

Ekaterina Safroneeva, Dieter Hahnloser, Karim Abdelrahman, Montserrat Fraga, Swiss IBD Cohort Study Group, Andreas Nydegger, Luc Biedermann, Bernhard Sauter, Stephan Vavricka, Alex Straumann, Gerhard Rogler, Pierre Michetti, Pascal Juillerat, Nicolas Fournier, Thomas Greuter, Alain M Schoepfer & Sébastien Godat
BACKGROUND AND AIM Systematic analyses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drug-related side effects necessitating treatment cessation in large cohorts of patients with IBD are scarce. We aimed to assess the frequency and type of drug-related side effects requiring drug cessation in patients included in the Swiss IBD Cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective review was performed of data from the Swiss IBD Cohort physician questionnaires documenting a treatment cessation for the following drug categories: aminosalicylates,...

Software-Defined Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Networking for Video Dissemination Services

Pedro Cumino, Mario Gerla, Arnaldo Souza, Denis Rosario, Torsten Braun, Eduardo Cerqueira & Zhongliang Zhao
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) empower people to reach endangered areas under emergency situations. By collaborating with each other, multiple UAVs forming a UAV networking (UAVNet) could work together to perform specific tasks in a more efficient and intelligent way than having a single UAV. UAVNets pose special characteristics of high dynamics, unstable aerial wireless links, and UAV collision probabilities. To address these challenges, we propose a Software-Defined UAV Networking (SD-UAVNet) architecture, which facilitates the management...

Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomised controlled trials.

Dimitris Mavridis, Bernadette Coles, Peter Jüni, Stephan Windecker, John P Greenwood, George CM Siontis, Adriani Nikolakopoulou & Georgia Salanti
OBJECTIVE To evaluate differences in downstream testing, coronary revascularisation, and clinical outcomes following non-invasive diagnostic modalities used to detect coronary artery disease. DESIGN Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Medline, Medline in process, Embase, Cochrane Library for clinical trials, PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES Diagnostic randomised controlled trials comparing non-invasive diagnostic modalities in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of low risk...

Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep.

Walter T McNicholas, Jan Hedner, Johan Verbraecken, Lars Hagmeyer, Dirk Pevernagie, Stefan Andreas, Bart Vrijsen, Winfried Randerath, Danny Joel Eckert, Bernd Sanner, Peter Wijkstra, Bertien Buyse, Carla Miltz, Michael Arzt, Thomas Brack, Matthew Naughton, Patrick Levy, Ludger Grote, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Poul Jennum, Konrad E Bloch, Thomy Tonia, Dries Testelmans, Wilfried De Backer, Josep Montserrat … & Jean-Louis Pepin
The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerge under positive airway pressure treatment or opioid use, or at high altitude. As yet, there is insufficient knowledge on the clinical features, pathophysiological background and consecutive algorithms for stepped-care treatment. Most recently, it has been...

Magnetic resonance angiography in giant cell arteritis: results of a randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab in giant cell arteritis

Peter M Villiger, Michael Seitz, Stephan Reichenbach, Jennifer L Cullmann, Stefan Kuchen, Sabine Adler, Lukas Bütikofer & Harald Bonel
Objective. To analyse magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) vessel wall signals from a randomized controlled trial of tocilizumab (TCZ) to treat GCA. Methods. Participants were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either TCZ + glucocorticoids (GCs) or placebo +GC infusions at 4-week intervals for 52 weeks. GCs were started at 1 mg/kg/day, then tapered to 0.1 mg/kg/day at week 12 and thereafter down to zero. Patients with initial positive MRA findings underwent control MRA at...

Systematic review of interventions for treating or preventing antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia.

Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dawn-Marie Walker, Clive E Adams, Karla Soares-Weiser & Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND Antipsychotic medication can cause tardive dyskinesia (TD) - late-onset, involuntary, repetitive movements, often involving the face and tongue. TD occurs in > 20% of adults taking antipsychotic medication (first-generation antipsychotics for > 3 months), with this proportion increasing by 5% per year among those who continue to use these drugs. The incidence of TD among those taking newer antipsychotics is not different from the rate in people who have used older-generation drugs in moderate doses. Studies...

Single index methods for evaluation of marker-guided treatment rules based on multivariate marker panels.

Veronika Skrivankova & Patrick J Heagerty
Clinical practice may be enhanced by use of person-level information that could guide treatment choice and lead to better outcomes for both treated individuals and for the population. The scientific challenge is to identify and validate those factors that can reliably be used to target treatment, and to accurately quantify the expected treatment benefit as a function of candidate markers. Our proposal is to explicitly focus on smooth non-parametric evaluation of a canonical single index...

Research Evidence and Impact Evaluations at Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC)

Laura Metzger, Isabel Guenther, Roquet Hervé, Adina Rom & Bartlomiej Kudrzycki
Policy Brief

Community dynamics and transmission within the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex

Sophie Stroheker
Just about all plants are colonized by fungal endophytes. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are a diverse group of ascomycetes colonizing roots of a vast number of plants in many different ecosystems. Considering the Northern hemisphere, the majority of DSE belong to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC), consisting of at least 21 morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species (CSP), to seven of which species rank was formally assigned. CSP are reproductively isolated and...

The Economics of Renewable Energy Support

Sebastian Rausch, Clemens Streitberger & Jan Abrell
Economics Working Paper Series, 18/286

Opportunities and challenges for electric mobility: an interdisciplinary assessment of passenger vehicles: Final report of the THELMA project in co-operation with the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research “Efficient technologies and systems for mobility”

Johannes Hofer, Thomas Heck, Marina González Vayá, Andrew Simons, Alexander Stahel, Boris Jäggi, Andreas Froemelt, Dominik Saner, Thilo Krause, Stefan Hirschberg, Gil Georges, Francesco Ciari, Brian Cox, Hans-Jörg Althaus, Andrea Del Duce, Rashid A. Waraich, Christian Bauer & Warren Schenler

Detailed precision and accuracy analysis of swarm parameters from a pulsed Townsend experiment

Christian M. Franck & Pascal Haefliger
Review of Scientific Instruments, 89 (2)

Asymptotic Inference in Sparse High-dimensional Models

Jana Janková
High-dimensional data with a sparse structure occur in many areas of science, industry and entertainment. Diverse applications motivated the need to devise efficient statistical methods for analyzing high-dimensional datasets. While methodology for point estimation is elaborate and generally well understood, in many applications it is essential to quantify statistical uncertainty by providing a confidence interval, a p-value or a test. In this thesis, we concentrate on developing efficient methods and theory for uncertainty estimation in...

Towards Globally Consistent Visual-Inertial Collaborative SLAM

Marco Karrer & Margarita Chli
Motivated by the need for globally consistent tracking and mapping before autonomous robot navigation becomes realistically feasible, this paper presents a novel back-end to monocular-inertial odometry. As some of the most challenging platforms for vision-based perception, we evaluate the performance of our system using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Our experimental validation demonstrates that the proposed approach achieves drift correction and metric scale estimation from a single UAV on benchmarking datasets. Furthermore, the generality of our...

Multi-day activity models: An extension of the Multi-Agent Transport Simulation (MATSim)

Sergio A. Ordóñez Medina
Arbeitsberichte Verkehrs- und Raumplanung, 1211

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