1,863,516 Works

Squall:Scalable Real-time Analytics using Efficient, Skew-resilient Join Operators

Aleksandar Vitorović
Squall is a scalable online query engine that runs complex analytics in a cluster using skew-resilient, adaptive operators. Online processing implies that results are incrementally built as the input arrives, and it is ubiquitous for many applications such as algorithmic trading, clickstream analysis and business intelligence (e.g., in order to reach a potential customer during the active session). This thesis presents the overview of Squall, including some novel join operators, as well as lessons learned...

More Medicines for Tuberculosis: Fuelling Drug Discovery against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Shi-Yan Caroline Foo
Tuberculosis (TB), whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), has plagued humanity since antiquity. Even with chemotherapy available today, TB is the leading cause of death due to an infectious disease. Modern day factors, such as the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistant TB strains, have redefined the complexities and challenges of tackling the TB pandemic. Current treatments for TB are lengthy, and poor adherence to such prolonged treatment further exacerbates the issue...

Scaling and Resilience in Numerical Algorithms for Exascale Computing

Allan Svejstrup Nielsen
The first Petascale supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner, went online in 2008. Ten years later, the community is now looking ahead to a new generation of Exascale machines. During the decade that has passed, several hundred Petascale capable machines have been installed worldwide, yet despite the abundance of machines, applications that scale to their full size remain rare. Large clusters now routinely have 50.000+ cores, some have several million. This extreme level of parallelism, that has...

Middle-down approaches for mass spectrometry-based protein identification and characterization

Kristina Srzentić
Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged over the last two decades as the analytical technique of choice in systems-level protein studies, known as proteomics. Two are the MS-based approaches generally applied to proteomics: bottom-up (BU), which relies on the proteolytic digestion of proteins into short (~10 amino acids) peptides, and top-down (TD), where proteolysis is omitted, intact proteins are detected and fragmented in gas phase. Both methods present advantages as well as drawbacks. Here, we sought...

Integral Mechanical Attachment for Timber Folded Plate Structures

Christopher Robeller
Timber folded plate Structures combine the advantages of timber as a construction material, such as its carbon-dioxide storage, low energy production and favorable weight-to-strength ratio, with the structural efficiency and elegance of folded surface structures. The construction of such surface-active structure systems with timber is a relatively new development, driven by an increasing awareness for sustainable building constructions, and enabled by new engineered wood products. However, these constructions require a large amount of edgewise joints...

Gold-free Growth of InAs Nanowires:Growth, Structural & Electrical Properties

Heidi Andrea Potts
Semiconductor nanowires are interesting building blocks for a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications, and they provide an excellent platformto probe fundamental physical effects. For the realization of nanowire based devices, a deep understanding of the growth mechanism and the nanowire properties is required. In this thesis we investigate gold-free growth of InAs(Sb) nanowires and their properties. Nanowires are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(111)B substrates. In the first part of this thesis we...

Ultra low cycle fatigue of welded steel joints under multiaxial loading

Albano António De Abreu E Presa De Castro E Sousa
Extreme loading scenarios such as earthquakes, exceptional wind gusts or tides are characterized by very high amplitude and multidirectional cyclic loads applied to a structure. Ultra Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) arises in such cases and can be summarily defined as the deterioration of material properties due to repetitive loading at large amplitudes. In the case of welded steel joints, failure is generally reached in just a few number of cycles - typically less than ten...

Low-rank tensor methods for large Markov chains and forward feature selection methods

Francisco Santos Paredes Quartin De Macedo
In the first part of this thesis, we present and compare several approaches for the determination of the steady-state of large-scale Markov chains with an underlying low-rank tensor structure. Such structure is, in our context of interest, associated with the existence of interacting processes. The state space grows exponentially with the number of processes. This type of problems arises, for instance, in queueing theory, in chemical reaction networks, or in telecommunications. As the number of...

The nature of the quasiparticles in two benchmark transition metal oxides:a spectroscopic study of anatase TiO₂ and tetragonal CuO

Simon Karl Moser
Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are emerging strong players in many domains, ranging from superconductivity, to microelectronics to spintronics to light harvesting for photovoltaics. Beyond their non-toxicity, low corrosiveness and low price, they exhibit a whole range of exciting electronic properties, which could be realistically exploited in new devices. Typically, TMOs are governed by strong correlation of its 3d electrons, often dressed by lattice or magnetic excitations and thus leading to complex electronic behavior. This work...

Hyper-specificity of perceptual learning

Lukasz Grzeczkowski
Perceptual learning is the ability to improve perception through practice. Perceptual learning is usually specific for the task and the stimulus features trained with. For example, training orientation discrimination with vertically oriented stimuli does not improve performance when the same stimuli are rotated by 90°. Often, perceptual learning is assumed to occur within the early sensory areas or when mapping sensory evidence onto decisions. Motor responses, involved in all perceptual learning experiments, are thought to...

Analyse multi-échelle de n-grammes sur 200 années d'archives de presse

Vincent Buntinx
The recent availability of large corpora of digitized texts over several centuries opens the way to new forms of studies on the evolution of languages. In this thesis, we study a corpus of 4 million press articles covering a period of 200 years. The thesis tries to measure the evolution of written French on this period at the level of words and expressions, but also in a more global way by attempting to define integrated...

Design, Modelling and Sensing Possibilities of Magneto-Rheological Based Devices

Daniel Grivon
This thesis has been put in place during the development of an innovative medical device which consists in an intelligent footwear for foot plantar pressure redistribution in diabetic patients. In fact, despite the several sophisticated techniques developed in the last twenty years, diabetes remains one of the first causes of non-traumatic lower limb amputation worldwide. This is mainly due to the combination of peripheral neuropathy, which determines the loss of pain sensation in the lower...

Gaze Analysis methods for Learning Analytics

Kshitij Sharma
Eye-tracking had been shown to be predictive of expertise, task-based success, task-difficulty, and the strategies involved in problem solving, both in the individual and collaborative settings. In learning analytics, eye-tracking could be used as a powerful tool, not only to differentiate between the levels of expertise and task-outcome, but also to give constructive feedback to the users. In this dissertation, we show how eye-tracking could prove to be useful to understand the cognitive processes underlying...

Machine-learning methods for weak lensing analysis of the ESA Euclid sky survey

Thibault Adrien Kuntzer
A clear picture has emerged from the last three decades of research: our Universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. The cause of this expansion remains elusive, but in essence acts as a repulsive force. This so-called dark energy represents about 69% of the energy content in the Universe. A further 26% of the energy is contained in dark matter, a form of matter that is invisible electromagnetically. Understanding the nature of these two major...

Guidance, Navigation and Control for Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking of Nano-Satellites

Camille Sébastien Pirat
Is it possible to dock CubeSats in Low Earth Orbit? Challenges are associated with the level of miniaturisation: the docking accuracy is driven by the docking mechanism dimensions. The achievable docking performance with the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) subsystem is constrained by the use of small sensors and actuators. A docking mechanism prototype, tailored for CubeSats was designed, built and tested in the laboratory using a simple experimental setup. Results showed that a lateral...

In Silico Brain Imaging Physically-plausible Methods for Visualizing Neocortical Microcircuitry

Marwan Abdellah
The recent years have witnessed growing interest in the power of scientific visualization for simulation-based neuroscience. The research presented in this thesis develops methods to generate physically-realistic visualizations of neocortical models reconstructed by the Blue Brain Project, a pioneering endeavor that uses a simulation-based approach to build large-scale, biologically-detailed digital reconstructions of neocortical microcircuitry. The project has established a domain-specific framework to visualize hybrid representations of these neocortical models, which it uses to evaluate their...

Fabrication and Characterization of Functional ALD Metal Oxide Thin Films for Solar Applications

Ludmilla Steier
Motivated to revolutionize our today's fossil fuels based energy production, my work concentrated on the investigation of promising low-cost materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production and photovoltaic electricity generation. Hydrogen presents a fully scalable energy storage solution while photovoltaics have the biggest potential for clean electricity generation. Both are combined in the hydrogen-based economy that will be introduced in Chapter 1. A clear way to achieve this revolutionary technological and societal goal is through fundamental understanding...

Computational Analysis of Urban Places Using Mobile Crowdsensing

Darshan Santani
In cities, urban places provide a socio-cultural habitat for people to counterbalance the daily grind of urban life, an environment away from home and work. Places provide an environment for people to communicate, share perspectives, and in the process form new social connections. Due to the active role of places to the social fabric of city life, it is important to understand how people perceive and experience places. One fundamental construct that relates place and...

Frequency-Domain Control Design in Power Systems

Christoph Manuel Kammer
The scope of this thesis encompasses two main subjects: fixed-structure data-driven control design on one side, and control design in power systems on the other. The overall goal is to identify challenging and relevant problems in power systems, to express them as rigorous specifications from the viewpoint of control systems, and to solve them by developing and applying advanced methods in robust control. This work aims to combine expertise from both fields to open up...

Functional Characterization of Nucleoid Associated Proteins Acting as Global Transcription Factors in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Nina Theres Odermatt
The fatal lung disease tuberculosis is caused by the airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a versatile pathogen adapted to rapidly changing environments. Instead of being eradicated by phagocytic cells of its human host, bacilli tune macrophages to support their own growth and even mask their presence from the immune system for several decades. Rapid adjustment of gene expression is critical for bacterial survival and heavily relies on nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs). NAPs contribute to active DNA management by...

A 24 GHz Phased-Array Doppler Radar Sensor and Transceiver Front-End for Smart Streetlights

Ban Wang
Recently, European Union advocates the smart Solid-State Lighting (SSL). The key factors are a smart-control scheme and an interaction with other networks, such as communication networks and traffic monitoring sensor networks. Public lighting represents a significant share of city total electricity costs, accounting for up to 60% of the budget. The adoption and deployment of new technologies, such as SSL that is based on Light-Emitting Diodes (LED), offer great opportunities to improve efficiencies and reduce...

Coatings with tailored electronic and optical properties for advanced glazing

Olivia Valérie Charlotte Bouvard
Modern envelope glazing relies on nanoscale coatings to meet a range of specific needs. Low emissivity coatings can improve the thermal performance of glazing thanks to a thin metallic film. However, the conductive nature of this layer leads to an attenuation of the microwaves used in telecommunications. Electrochromic coatings on the other hand can modulate the solar heat gains of a building while preserving the view toward the exterior. Yet, the switching speed and contrast...

Compilation and Code Optimization for Data Analytics

Amir Shaikhha
The trade-offs between the use of modern high-level and low-level programming languages in constructing complex software artifacts are well known. High-level languages allow for greater programmer productivity: abstraction and genericity allow for the same functionality to be implemented with significantly less code compared to low-level languages. Modularity, object-orientation, functional programming, and powerful type systems allow programmers not only to create clean abstractions and protect them from leaking, but also to define code units that are...

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